peste des petits ruminants virus
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- peste des petits ruminants virus
International Common Names
- English: pest of small ruminants virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Paramyxoviridae
- Genus: Morbillivirus
- Species: peste des petits ruminants virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
The virus is considered to have a typical paramyxovirus structure, with an envelope derived from the host-cell plasma membrane, containing two transmembrane glyocproteins surrounding a nucleocapsid. The presence of the envelope renders virions sensitive to heat, lipid solvents or detergents, non-ionic detergents, formaldehyde and oxidizing agents. The half-life of virus at 37°C was estimated at 2 h, and at 50°C infectivity was destroyed in 30 minutes (Lefevre, 1982). The virus is also sensitive to low pH, being destroyed after death by the low pH which accompanies rigor mortis, but can survive in lymph nodes for 8 days at 4°C. The typical structure of paramyxoviruses has been described (ICTV, 1995).
The transmembrane glycoproteins are important to the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the virus, with separate proteins having fusion (F) and attachment (haemagglutinin/neuraminidase - HN) functions. Haemagglutinin activity of the HN protein of PPRV has been detected, whereas in the closely related rinderpest virus only neuraminidase activity has been detected in this protein (Seth and Shaila, 2001). The haemagglutinin/neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. After attachment to cell receptors, virus entry is achieved by fusion of the virus envelope with the cell-surface membrane. Both the F and HN proteins are involved in this process, which leads to syncitia of cells after fusion, with an interaction of the two glycoproteins rather than independent, concerted action (Das et al., 2000). The transmembrane proteins form spike-like projections of 8 nm from the envelope, and one or two non-glycosylated membrane proteins are associated with the inner face of the envelope.
The viral nucleocapsid consists of a single strand of viral RNA and associated proteins, and has helical symmetry. The genome is of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA, and believed to be similar to genome size of other paramyxoviruses, of between 15 and 16 kb in length. Although PPRV and RP share antigenic determinants, comparison of nucleotide sequences indicates that PPRV and RP are no more related than to non-ruminant morbilliviruses (Das et al., 2000). The high degree of sequence conservation between the F proteins of different morbilliviruses probably accounts for the extensive cross-protection observed between different viruses of this genus; for example, the RPV vaccine can be used to vaccinate against PPRV. The H proteins have more antigenic divergence, and also vary in haemagglutination properties, and may play a role in host-cell specificity.
Replication of virus occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, with the genome transcribed by virion-associated enzymes from the 3’ end into viral complementary mRNA molecules, which are then translated into viral proteins. The P, C and V mRNAs are thought to be synthesized by site-specific stuttering on the template, with a resultant frame-shift which enables more than ORF [open-reading frame] to be transcribed, and therefore more than one form of the protein to be translated from the coding sequence. Comparison of gene sequences has indicated significant genetic variation between PPRV isolates, with four distinct phylogenetic groups among 19 isolates from the Indian subcontinent, Middle East and Africa (Shaila et al., 1996). Additional isolates have been compared and results published on the morbillivirus pages of the website of the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK (www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk).
Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
Host AnimalsTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Das SC; Baron MD; Barrett T, 2000. Recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous F and H proteins are required for virus viability. Journal of Virology, 74(19):9039-9047; 50 ref.
ICTV, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Wien, Austria: Springer-Verlag.
Lefevre PC, 1982. Peste des petitis ruminants et infection bovipestique des ovins et caprins. Maisons-Alfort, France: Institut d'Elevage et de Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE, 2004. Peste des petits ruminants in Côte d’Ivoire in July 2004. Disease Information, 17(40).
Seth S; Shaila MS, 2001. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Virus Research, 75(2):169-177.
Shaila MS; Shamaki D; Forsyth MA; Diallo A; Goatley L; Kitching RP; Barrett T, 1996. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants viruses. Virus Research, 43(2):149-153; 25 ref.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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