Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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peste des petits ruminants virus

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Datasheet

peste des petits ruminants virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • peste des petits ruminants virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Paramyxoviridae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • peste des petits ruminants virus

International Common Names

  • English: pest of small ruminants virus

English acronym

  • PSRV

French acronym

  • PPRV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Paramyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Morbillivirus
  •                         Species: peste des petits ruminants virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentJan-Jun-2020
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninPresentJan-Jun-2019
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BurundiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosPresentJul-Dec-2020
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiPresentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptPresentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauPresentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresentJan-Jun-2020
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigerPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeonePresentJul-Dec-2020
SomaliaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanPresentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2020
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshPresentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitPresentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesPresentJul-Dec-2020
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresentJan-Jun-2020
PalestinePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkeyPresentJul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenPresentJan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaPresentJul-Dec-2020
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae within the order Mononegavirales. The virus species name was changed in 2016 to Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRM). However, it is still commonly known as PPRV by people working in the field (OIE, 2020). The virus exists as a single serotype but, by means of nucleic acid sequencing, it can be differentiated into four lineages (1-4). It is antigenically similar to Rinderpest virus, Measles virus and Canine distemper virus (OIE, 2020).

The virus is considered to have a typical paramyxovirus structure, with an envelope derived from the host-cell plasma membrane, containing two transmembrane glycoproteins surrounding a nucleocapsid. The presence of the envelope renders virions sensitive to heat, lipid solvents or detergents, non-ionic detergents, formaldehyde and oxidizing agents. The half-life of virus at 37°C was estimated at 2 h, and at 50°C infectivity was destroyed in 30 minutes (Lefevre, 1982). The virus is also sensitive to low pH, being destroyed after death by the low pH which accompanies rigor mortis, but can survive in lymph nodes for 8 days at 4°C. The typical structure of paramyxoviruses has been described (ICTV, 1995).

The transmembrane glycoproteins are important to the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the virus, with separate proteins having fusion (F) and attachment (haemagglutinin/neuraminidase - HN) functions. Haemagglutinin activity of the HN protein of PPRV has been detected, whereas in the closely related Rinderpest virus (RPV) only neuraminidase activity has been detected in this protein (Seth and Shaila, 2001). The haemagglutinin/neuraminidase protein of PPRV is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. After attachment to cell receptors, virus entry is achieved by fusion of the virus envelope with the cell-surface membrane. Both the F and HN proteins are involved in this process, which leads to syncitia of cells after fusion, with an interaction of the two glycoproteins rather than independent, concerted action (Das et al., 2000). The transmembrane proteins form spike-like projections of 8 nm from the envelope, and one or two non-glycosylated membrane proteins are associated with the inner face of the envelope.

The viral nucleocapsid consists of a single strand of viral RNA and associated proteins, and has helical symmetry. The genome is of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA, and believed to be similar to genome size of other paramyxoviruses, of between 15 and 16 kb in length. Although PPRV and RPV share antigenic determinants, comparison of nucleotide sequences indicates that PPRV and RPV are no more related than to non-ruminant morbilliviruses (Das et al., 2000). The high degree of sequence conservation between the F proteins of different morbilliviruses probably accounts for the extensive cross-protection observed between different viruses of this genus; for example, the RPV vaccine was previously used to vaccinate against PPRV. The H proteins have more antigenic divergence, and also vary in haemagglutination properties, and may play a role in host-cell specificity.

Replication of virus occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, with the genome transcribed by virion-associated enzymes from the 3’ end into viral complementary mRNA molecules, which are then translated into viral proteins. The P, C and V mRNAs are thought to be synthesized by site-specific stuttering on the template, with a resultant frame-shift which enables more than ORF [open-reading frame] to be transcribed, and therefore more than one form of the protein to be translated from the coding sequence. Comparison of gene sequences has indicated significant genetic variation between PPRV isolates, with four distinct phylogenetic groups among 19 isolates from the Indian subcontinent, Middle East and Africa (Shaila et al., 1996).

PPRV causes pest des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats and sheep. The disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface.

PPR represents one of the most economically important animal diseases in areas that rely on small ruminants as a way of making a living. It has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by OIE and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). For more information, see the OIE Peste des Petits Ruminants Portal.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host

References

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Das SC, Baron MD, Barrett T, 2000. Recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous F and H proteins are required for virus viability. Journal of Virology, 74(19):9039-9047; 50 ref

ICTV, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Wien, Austria: Springer-Verlag

Lefevre PC, 1982. Peste des petitis ruminants et infection bovipestique des ovins et caprins. Maisons-Alfort, France: Institut d'Elevage et de Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2004. Peste des petits ruminants in Côte d’Ivoire in July 2004. Disease Information, 17(40)

OIE, 2020. Peste des petits ruminants (updated January 2020). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/PESTE_DES_PETITS_RUMINANTS.pdf

Seth S, Shaila MS, 2001. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Virus Research, 75(2):169-177

Shaila MS, Shamaki D, Forsyth MA, Diallo A, Goatley L, Kitching RP, Barrett T, 1996. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants viruses. Virus Research, 43(2):149-153; 25 ref

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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