Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

peste des petits ruminants virus

Toolbox

Datasheet

peste des petits ruminants virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • peste des petits ruminants virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Paramyxoviridae
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • peste des petits ruminants virus

International Common Names

  • English: pest of small ruminants virus

English acronym

  • PSRV

French acronym

  • PPRV

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Paramyxoviridae
  •                     Genus: Morbillivirus
  •                         Species: peste des petits ruminants virus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BeninPresent
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaPresent
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
Guinea-BissauPresent
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaliPresent
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaPresent
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalPresent
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoPresent
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
NepalPresent
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresent
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesPresent
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)
YemenPresent

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

Top of page

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae within the order Mononegavirales. The virus species name was changed in 2016 to Small ruminant morbillivirus (SRM). However, it is still commonly known as PPRV by people working in the field (OIE, 2020). The virus exists as a single serotype but, by means of nucleic acid sequencing, it can be differentiated into four lineages (1-4). It is antigenically similar to Rinderpest virus, Measles virus and Canine distemper virus (OIE, 2020).

The virus is considered to have a typical paramyxovirus structure, with an envelope derived from the host-cell plasma membrane, containing two transmembrane glycoproteins surrounding a nucleocapsid. The presence of the envelope renders virions sensitive to heat, lipid solvents or detergents, non-ionic detergents, formaldehyde and oxidizing agents. The half-life of virus at 37°C was estimated at 2 h, and at 50°C infectivity was destroyed in 30 minutes (Lefevre, 1982). The virus is also sensitive to low pH, being destroyed after death by the low pH which accompanies rigor mortis, but can survive in lymph nodes for 8 days at 4°C. The typical structure of paramyxoviruses has been described (ICTV, 1995).

The transmembrane glycoproteins are important to the pathogenicity and antigenicity of the virus, with separate proteins having fusion (F) and attachment (haemagglutinin/neuraminidase - HN) functions. Haemagglutinin activity of the HN protein of PPRV has been detected, whereas in the closely related Rinderpest virus (RPV) only neuraminidase activity has been detected in this protein (Seth and Shaila, 2001). The haemagglutinin/neuraminidase protein of PPRV is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. After attachment to cell receptors, virus entry is achieved by fusion of the virus envelope with the cell-surface membrane. Both the F and HN proteins are involved in this process, which leads to syncitia of cells after fusion, with an interaction of the two glycoproteins rather than independent, concerted action (Das et al., 2000). The transmembrane proteins form spike-like projections of 8 nm from the envelope, and one or two non-glycosylated membrane proteins are associated with the inner face of the envelope.

The viral nucleocapsid consists of a single strand of viral RNA and associated proteins, and has helical symmetry. The genome is of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA, and believed to be similar to genome size of other paramyxoviruses, of between 15 and 16 kb in length. Although PPRV and RPV share antigenic determinants, comparison of nucleotide sequences indicates that PPRV and RPV are no more related than to non-ruminant morbilliviruses (Das et al., 2000). The high degree of sequence conservation between the F proteins of different morbilliviruses probably accounts for the extensive cross-protection observed between different viruses of this genus; for example, the RPV vaccine was previously used to vaccinate against PPRV. The H proteins have more antigenic divergence, and also vary in haemagglutination properties, and may play a role in host-cell specificity.

Replication of virus occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell, with the genome transcribed by virion-associated enzymes from the 3’ end into viral complementary mRNA molecules, which are then translated into viral proteins. The P, C and V mRNAs are thought to be synthesized by site-specific stuttering on the template, with a resultant frame-shift which enables more than ORF [open-reading frame] to be transcribed, and therefore more than one form of the protein to be translated from the coding sequence. Comparison of gene sequences has indicated significant genetic variation between PPRV isolates, with four distinct phylogenetic groups among 19 isolates from the Indian subcontinent, Middle East and Africa (Shaila et al., 1996).

PPRV causes pest des petits ruminants (PPR) in goats and sheep. The disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. For recent, detailed information on the occurrence of this disease worldwide, see the OIE World Animal Health Information Database (WAHIS) Interface.

PPR represents one of the most economically important animal diseases in areas that rely on small ruminants as a way of making a living. It has been targeted for eradication by 2030 by OIE and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). For more information, see the OIE Peste des Petits Ruminants Portal.

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host

References

Top of page

Das SC, Baron MD, Barrett T, 2000. Recovery and characterization of a chimeric rinderpest virus with the glycoproteins of peste-des-petits-ruminants virus: homologous F and H proteins are required for virus viability. Journal of Virology, 74(19):9039-9047; 50 ref

ICTV, 1995. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. In: Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Sixth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Wien, Austria: Springer-Verlag

Lefevre PC, 1982. Peste des petitis ruminants et infection bovipestique des ovins et caprins. Maisons-Alfort, France: Institut d'Elevage et de Medicine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2004. Peste des petits ruminants in Côte d’Ivoire in July 2004. Disease Information, 17(40)

OIE, 2020. Peste des petits ruminants (updated January 2020). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/PESTE_DES_PETITS_RUMINANTS.pdf

Seth S, Shaila MS, 2001. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of peste des petits ruminants virus is biologically active when transiently expressed in mammalian cells. Virus Research, 75(2):169-177

Shaila MS, Shamaki D, Forsyth MA, Diallo A, Goatley L, Kitching RP, Barrett T, 1996. Geographic distribution and epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants viruses. Virus Research, 43(2):149-153; 25 ref

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: