Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Arabis mosaic virus
(hop bare-bine)

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Datasheet

Arabis mosaic virus (hop bare-bine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arabis mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hop bare-bine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Picornavirales
  •         Family: Secoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Arabis mosaic nepovirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionArabis mosaic nepovirus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR/Rothamsted
Arabis mosaic nepovirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesArabis mosaic nepovirus particles. Reproduced with permission from IACR Rothamsted: http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/IACR/Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arabis mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • hop bare-bine

Other Scientific Names

  • Arabis mosaic nepovirus
  • ash ring and line pattern virus
  • forsythia yellow net virus
  • hop nettlehead virus
  • jasmine yellow blotch virus
  • raspberry yellow dwarf virus
  • Rhabarber-Mosaik-Virus (rhubarb mosaic virus)
  • rhubarb mosaic virus

International Common Names

  • English: forsythia yellow net; hop split leaf blotch virus; strawberry mosaic virus

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattrollfleckenvirus: Hopfen; Mosaikvirus: Erdbeere; Verzwergungsvirus: Himbeere

English acronym

  • ARMV

EPPO code

  • ARMV00 (Arabis mosaic nepovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Picornavirales
  •                 Family: Secoviridae
  •                     Subfamily: Comovirinae
  •                         Genus: Nepovirus
  •                             Species: Arabis mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, intercepted onlyCABI/EPPO, 2015
IndiaPresentKulshrestha et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Himachal PradeshPresentKulshrestha et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2015
IranPresentMassumi et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
IsraelAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2015
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
KazakhstanPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
LebanonPresentFadel et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SyriaPresentMslmanieh et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2015
TurkeyRestricted distribution1991EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

Africa

EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
South AfricaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Nova ScotiaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-OntarioPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-QuebecPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
USAPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ConnecticutAbsent, reported but not confirmedCABI/EPPO, 2015
-FloridaAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2015
-MichiganPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MinnesotaPresentLockhart, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-MissouriPresentMilkus, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-NebraskaPresentLockhart, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-New YorkPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-OhioPresentFisher, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2015

South America

ChilePresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

Europe

AustriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
BelarusPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
BelgiumPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
BulgariaPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
CroatiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
CyprusAbsent, formerly presentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
Czech RepublicWidespread****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
DenmarkRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
FinlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
FranceRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-France (mainland)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2015
GermanyWidespread****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
HungaryRestricted distribution****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
IrelandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
ItalyRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Italy (mainland)Restricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2015
LatviaPresentDzirkale et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2015
LithuaniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
LuxembourgPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
NetherlandsWidespreadNPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015Present, in all parts of the area.
NorwayRestricted distribution****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
PolandWidespread****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
RomaniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
Russian FederationPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Central RussiaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Russian Far EastPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SlovakiaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SloveniaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SpainPresent, few occurrencesAbelleira et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2015
SwedenPresent, few occurrences****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
UKPresent, few occurrences****EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-England and WalesPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-Northern IrelandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-ScotlandPresent, few occurrencesEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
UkrainePresentEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-TasmaniaEradicatedEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
-VictoriaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015
New ZealandRestricted distributionHay et al., 1992; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Whole plant / dwarfing

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Xiphinema diversicaudatumValdez et al., 1974. Nematode

References

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Abelleira A; Mansilla JP; Padilla V; Hita I; Cabaleiro C; Bertolini E; Olmos A; Legorburu FJ, 2010. First report of Arabis mosaic virus on grapevine in Spain. Plant Disease, 94(5):635. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ahmed AH; Bailiss KW, 1975. Virus infection of delphinium in Britain. Journal of Horticultural Science, 50(1):47-54

Asjes CJ, 1976. Arabis mosaic virus in tulips. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(5):187-189

Asjes CJ; Segers LC, 1983. Incidence and control of necrotic leaf mosaic caused by Arabis mosaic virus in Lilium tigrinum splendens in the Netherlands. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 106(2):115-126

Barnett OW; Reddick BB; Burrows PM; Baxter LW Jr, 1989. Characterization of dogwood mosaic nepovirus from Cornus florida. Phytopathology, 79(9):951-958

Basso MF; Fajardo TVM; Eiras M; Ayub RA; Nickel O, 2010. Molecular detection and identification of virus associated with symptomatic and symptomless grapevines. (Detecção e identificação molecular de vírus associados a videiras sintomáticas e assintomáticas.) Ciência Rural, 40(11):2249-2255. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/cr/v40n11/a782cr4041.pdf

Bellardi MG; Bertaccini A; Betti L, 1994. Survey of viruses infecting Alstroemeria in Italy. Acta Horticulturae, 377:73-80

Bellardi MG; Pisi A, 1985. Survey of gladiolus viruses in Italy. Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura Italiana, 69(2):133-144

Bertioli DJ; Harris RD; Edwards ML; Cooper JI; Hawes WS, 1991. Transgenic plants and insect cells expressing the coat protein of arabis mosaic virus produce empty virus-like particles. Journal of General Virology, 72(8):1801-1809

Bock KR, 1966. Arabis mosaic and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses in hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Annals of Applied Biology, 57:131-140.

Brandt S; Himmler G, 1995. Detection of nepoviruses in ligneous grapevine material by using IC/PCR. Vitis, 34(2):127-128

Brown DJF; Faria A; Lamberti F; Halbrendt JM; Agostinelli A; Jones AT, 1992. A description of Xiphinema madierense sp. n. and the occurrence and virus vector potential of X. diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Santana, Maderia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 20(2):251-259; 23 ref.

Brown DJF; Trudgill DL, 1983. Differential transmissibility of arabis mosaic and strains of strawberry latent ringspot viruses by three populations of Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Nematoda: Dorylaimida) from Scotland, Italy and France. Revue de Nematologie, 6(2):229-238

Brown DJF; Trudgill DL; Robertson WM, 1996. Nepoviruses: transmission by nematodes. In: Harrison BD, Murant AF, eds. The Plant Viruses. Polyhedral Virions and Bipartite Genomes. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 187-209.

Brunt AA, 1966. The occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus and four nematode-transmitted viruses in British narcissus crops. Plant Pathology, 15:157-160.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2015. Arabis mosaic virus. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 731 (Edition 3).

Cadman CH, 1960. Studies on the relationship between soil-borne viruses of the ringspot type occurring in Britain and continental Europe. Virology, 11:653-664.

Cadman CH; Dias HF; Harrison BD, 1960. Sap-transmissible viruses associated with diseases of grapevine in Europe and North America. Nature, London, 187:577-579.

Clark MF, 1976. Electrophoretic heterogeneity of the sedimenting components of arabis mosaic virus. Journal of General Virology, 32(2):331-335

Cooper JI; Sweet JB, 1976. The detection of viruses with nematode vectors in six woody hosts. Forestry, 49(1):73-78

Cropley R, 1961. Viruses causing rasp-leaf and similar diseases of sweet cherry. Annals of Applied Biology, 49:530-534.

Davis DL; Clark MF, 1983. A satellitelike mucleic acid of arabis mosaic virus associated with hop nettlehead disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(3):439-448

Denmark; Research Centre for Plant Protection, 1984. Plant diseases and pests in Denmark 1983. 100th Annual report. Lyngby, Denmark; Danish Research Service for Plant and Soil Science, 126 pp.

Dzirkale L; Ikaunietse L; Putnaerglis E; Ignash Ya, 1990. Agents causing cucumber virus diseases in Latvia. Virusy rastenii i nasekomykh Elgava, Latvia; Latviiskaya Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Akademiya, 3-11

Eppler A, 1989. Ecology of hop viruses and their vectors. Habilitationsschrift, Fachbereich Agrarwissenschaften der Justus-Liebig-UniversitSt, Gießen.

Eppler A, 1992. Studies on the transmission of hop viruses by dodder, Cuscuta spp. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(2a):341-349

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fadel C; Digiaro M; Choueiri E; El-Beaino T; Saponari M; Savino V; Martelli GP, 2005. On the presence and distribution of olive viruses in Lebanon. Bulletin OEPP, 35(1):33-36.

Fisher JR, 2013. First report of Arabis mosaic virus infecting Vinca minor in Ohio. Plant Health Progress, No.September:PHP-2013-0901-02-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=10688

Forster RLS; Milne KS, 1975. Survey of viruses infecting daphne in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(4):391-398

Fritzsche R, 1964. Untersuchungen über die Virusubertragung durch Nematoden. Wissenschaftliche Zeitscrift der Universitat Rostock, 13:343-347.

Goldbach R; Martelli GP; Milne RG, 1995. Comoviridae. In Murphy FA, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Ghabrial SA, Jarvis AW, Martelli GP, Mayo MA, Summers MD, eds. Virus Taxonomy - Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Vienna, Austria: Springer-Verlag. Archives of Virology, Supplement 10:341-347.

Graichen K, 1975. Allium species as natural hosts of nematode transmissible viruses. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 11(6):399-403

Gugerli P; Ramel ME, 1996. Barley yellows: a new virus disease associated with a strain of arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) Thorne. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 28(6):329-335; 17 ref.

Hakkaart FA; Hoof HA van; Maat DZ, 1972. A case of arabis mosaic virus in carnations. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 78(1):15-18

Harrison BD; Cadman CH, 1959. Role of a dagger nematode (Xiphinema sp.) in outbreaks of plant diseases caused by arabis mosaic virus. Nature, London, 184:1624-1626.

Harrison BD; Murant AF, 1996. Nepoviruses: ecology and control. In: Harrison BD, Murant AF, eds. The Plant Viruses. Polyhedral Virions and Bipartite Genomes. New York, USA: Plenum Press, 211-228.

Harrison BD; Nixon HL, 1960. Purification and electron microscopy of three soil-borne plant viruses, Virology, 12:104-117.

Harrison BD; Winslow RD, 1961. Laboratory and field studies on the relation of arabis mosaic virus to its nematode vector, Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky). Annals of Applied Biology, 49:621-633.

Hay FS; Close RC; Fletcher JD; Ashby JW, 1992. Incidence and spread of viruses in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 20(3):319-327

Hewitt WB; Martelli GP; Dias HF; Taylor RH, 1970. Grapevine fanleaf virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. 28. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biology, 4 pp.

Huss B; Walter B; Fuchs M, 1989. Cross-protection between arabis mosaic virus and grapevine fanleaf virus isolates in Chenopodium quinoa. Annals of Applied Biology, 114(1):45-60

Ipach U; Altmayer B; Eichhorn KW, 1992. Detection of arabis mosaic virus using the polymerase chain reaction. Vitis, 31(4):213-219

Iwaki M; Komuro Y, 1974. Viruses isolated from narcissus (Narcissus spp.) in Japan. V. Arabis mosaic virus. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 40(4):344-353

Janeckova M; Svobodova L, 1995. Determination of five viruses in plants of black, red and white currant by ELISA. Zahradnictvi, 22(2):47-51

Jelkmann W; Maiss E; Breyel ME; Casper R, 1988. Production and use of cDNA clones from arabis mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 113(3):483-491

Jenser G; Gyorgy K; Seljahudin A, 1984. The transmission of Arabis mosaic virus to peach (Persica vulgaris Mill.) and apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam.) seedlings by using the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky) Thorne. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 19(3/4):291-293

Jha A; Posnette AF, 1959. Transmission of a virus to strawberry plants by a nematode (Xiphinema sp.). Nature, London, 184:962-963.

Jones AT; McGavin WJ, 1996. A damaging outbreak of arabis mosaic nepovirus in black currant, the occurrence of other nepoviruses in Ribes species, and the demonstration that alfalfa mosaic virus is the cause of interveinal white mosaic in black currant. Annals of Applied Biology, 129(1):47-55; 37 ref.

Jones AT; Mitchell MJ; Brown DJF, 1989. Infectibility of some new raspberry cultivars with arabis mosaic and raspberry ringspot viruses and further evidence for variation in British isolates of these two nepoviruses. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(1):57-69

Kaper JM; Tousignant ME; Steger G, 1988. Nucleotide sequence predicts circularity and self-cleavage of 300-ribonucleotide satellite of arabis mosaic virus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 154(1):318-325

Kulshrestha S; Hallan V; Raikhy G; Adekunle OK; Verma N; Haq QMR; Zaidi AA, 2005. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Arabis mosaic virus and Strawberry latent ringspot virus in vector nematodes. Current Science, 89(10):1759-1762. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci

Lewis GC; Thomas BJ, 1991. Incidence and severity of pest and disease damage to white clover foliage at 16 sites in England and Wales. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(1):1-8.

Lisovskaya AV, 1989. Variegation of petals in varieties of Phlox paniculata in the dendrarium of the Mari Polytechnic Institute. Byulleten' Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada, 153:74-76

Lister RM; Murant AF, 1967. Seed-transmission of nematode-borne viruses. Annals of Applied Biology, 59:49-62.

Liu YY; Cooper JI; Edwards ML; Hellen CUT, 1991. A satellite RNA of arabis mosaic nepovirus and its pathological impact. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(3):577-587

Liu YY; Hellen CUT; Cooper JI; Bertioli DJ; Coates D; Bauer G, 1990. The nucleotide sequence of a satellite RNA associated with arabis mosaic nepovirus. Journal of General Virology, 71(6):1259-1263

Lockhart BEL, 2006. Occurrence of Arabis mosaic virus in Hostas in the United States. Plant Disease, 90(6):834.

López-Fabuel I; Olmos A; Bassler A; Dupuis-Maguiraga L; Torres LB; Bertolini E; Wetzel T, 2013. Molecular analysis of the genomic RNAs 1 and 2 of the first Arabis mosaic virus isolate detected in Spanish grapevines. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 11(1):199-203. http://revistas.inia.es/index.php/sjar/article/view/3069

Margis R; Ritzenthaler C; Reinbolt J; Pinck M; Pinck L, 1993. Genome organization of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus RNA2 deduced from the 122 K polyprotein P2 in vitro cleavage products. Journal of General Virology, 74(9):1919-1926

Massumi H; Shaabanian M; Pour AH; Heydarnejad J; Rahimian H, 2009. Incidence of viruses infecting tomato and their natural hosts in the southeast and central regions of Iran. Plant Disease, 93(1):67-72. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Mayo MA; Barker H; Harrison BD, 1982. Specificity and properties of the genome-linked proteins of nepoviruses. Journal of General Virology, 59(1):149-162

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Milkus BN, 2001. Incidence of four nepoviruses in Missouri vineyards. American Journal of Etiology and Viticulture, 52(1):56-57.

Mslmanieh T; Digiaro M; Elbeaino T; Boscia D; Martelli GP, 2006. Viruses of grapevine in Syria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 36(3):523-528. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=epp

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Murant AF, 1983. Seed and pollen transmission of nematode-borne viruses. Seed Science and Technology, 11:973-987.

Murant AF, 1987. Raspberry yellow dwarf and associated diseases of Rubus caused by arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot viruses. In: Converse RH, ed. Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. USDA Handbook 631. Washington DC, USA: US Government Office Printing Office, 204-211.

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Murant AF; Lister RM, 1967. Seed-transmission in the ecology of nematode-borne viruses. Annals of Applied Biology, 59:63-76.

Murant AF; Lister; RM, 1987. European nepoviruses in strawberry. In: Converse RH, ed. Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. USDA Handbook 631. Washington DC, USA: US Government Printing Office, 46-51.

Murant AF; Taylor M; Duncan GH; Raschke JH, 1981. Improved estimates of molecular weight of plant virus RNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy after denaturation with glyoxal. Journal of General Virology, 53(2):321-332

Novak JB; Lanzova J, 1982. Arabis mosaic virus on rhubarb, cucumber and horseradish in Czechoslovakia. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 18(3):177-180

Oertel C, 1977. On the viruse diseases of carnation and methods of disease protection. Archiv fur Gartenbau, 25(1):11-25

Pitcher RS, 1975. Chemical and cultural control of nettlehead and related virus diseases of hops. In: Lamberti F, Taylor CE, Seinhorst JW, eds. Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. London, UK & New York, USA: Plenum Press, 447-448

Robertson WM; Henry CE, 1986. An association of carbohydrates with particles of arabis mosaic virus retained within Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Annals of Applied Biology, 109(2):299-305

Saric A; Velagic Z, 1980. Viruses and virus-like diseases of maraska sour cherry (Cerasus acida ssp. Maraska). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 15:367-369

Savino V; Barba M; Galitelli G; Martelli GP, 1979. Two nepoviruses isolated from olive in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 18:135-142

Schimanski H-H; Schmelzer K; Albrecht H-J, 1976. Problems of virus control in ornamental woody plants. Archiv fur Gartenbau, 24(4):285-300

Schmidt HE, 1974. Studies on heat treatment of cuttings and shoot tips of virus-infected hops. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, II, 129(3/4):259-270

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Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Smith KM; Markham R, 1944. Two new viruses affecting tobacco and other plants. Phytopathology, 34:324-329.

Smrcka L, 1993. The occurrence of arabis mosaic, tomato black ring and strawberry latent ringspot nepoviruses and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) near Prague. Ochrana Rostlin, 29(2):87-92

Steinkellner H; Himmler G; Laimer M; Mattanovich D; Bisztray G; Katinger H, 1989. Construction of cDNA of arabis mosaic virus and its use for diagnosis. Mitteilungen Klosterneuburg, Rebe und Wein, Obstbau und Fruchteverwertung, 39(6):242-246

Stellmach G, 1973. Notes on a modification in the technique for inactivating nepo-viruses in grapes by heat treatment. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 9:165-171.

Stone OM, 1973. The elimination of viruses from Narcissus tazetta cv. Grand Soleil d'Or, and rapid multiplication of virus-free clones. Annals of Applied Biology, 73(1):45-52

Sweet JB; Constantine DR; Sparks TR, 1979. The elimination of three viruses from Daphne spp. by thermotherapy and meristem excision. Journal of Horticultural Science, 54(4):323-326

Taylor CE; Robertson WM, 1970. Sites of virus retention in the alimentary tract of the nematode vectors, Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micol.) and X. index (Thorne & Allen). Annals of Applied Biology, 66:375-380.

Thomas BJ, 1981. Studies on rose mosaic disease in field-grown roses produced in the United Kingdom. Annals of Applied Biology, 98(3):419-429

Thomas BJ, 1984. Epidemiology of three viruses infecting the rose in the United Kingdom. Annals of Applied Biology, 105(2):213-222

Thomas W; Procter CH, 1977. Further studies on arabis mosaic virus in Cyphomandra betacea Sendt. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(4):543-546

Thresh JM; Pitcher RS; McNamara DG; Ormerod PJ, 1972. The spread and control of nettlehead and related diseases of hop. Report of the East Malling Research Station for 1971, 155-162.

Tirry L; Welvaert W, 1989. Differentiation of the hop strain from other arabis mosaic virus isolates by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. In: Eppler A, ed, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Hop Virus Diseases, Rauischholzhausen 1988, Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 55-60.

Tomlinson JA; Walkey DGA, 1967. The isolation and identification of rhubarb viruses in Britain. Annals of Applied Biology, 59:415-427.

Trudgill DL; Brown DJF; McNamara DG, 1983. Methods and criteria for assessing the transmission of plant viruses by longidorid nematodes. Revue de Nematologie, 6(1):133-141

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Vuittenez A; Kuszala J, 1971. Arabis mosaic virus associated with an enation disease of kirsch cherry (Prunus avium L.) varieties in the Vosges. Annales de Phytopathologie, 3:485-491.

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