Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Armillaria tabescens
(armillaria root rot)

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Datasheet

Armillaria tabescens (armillaria root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Armillaria tabescens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • armillaria root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Armillaria tabescens (Scop.) Dennis, P.D. Orton & Hora

Preferred Common Name

  • armillaria root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Agaricus gymnopodius Bull.
  • Agaricus socialis DC.
  • Agaricus tabescens Scop.
  • Armillaria mellea var. tabescens (Scop.) Rea & Ramsb.
  • Armillaria socialis (DC.) Herink
  • Clitocybe monadelpha Morgan
  • Clitocybe tabescens (Scop.) Bres.

International Common Names

  • English: honey root rot
  • Spanish: hongo miel; pudricion blanca de las raices
  • French: armillaire; pourridie-agaric
  • Russian: opienok oseniy
  • Chinese: mi huan jun

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: honningsvampe
  • Germany: hallimasch; wurzelfäule
  • Italy: marciume bianco radicale
  • Poland: opienka miodowa

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Agaricales
  •                             Family: Marasmiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Armillaria
  •                                     Species: Armillaria tabescens

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-HebeiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
JapanWidespreadTerashita and Chuman, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-HonshuPresentMunda Jurc, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-KyushuWidespreadTerashita and Chuman, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2009
Korea, Republic ofPresentHarrington & Winfield, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2009; Lee and Seo, 2016
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

Africa

MadagascarPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
ZimbabwePresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

North America

MexicoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009; Kim et al., 2010
USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-ArkansasWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-District of ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-FloridaWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-GeorgiaWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-IllinoisWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-IndianaWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-KansasPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-LouisianaPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-MarylandPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-MichiganPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-MississippiWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-MissouriWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-MontanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-New YorkPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-OhioPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-OklahomaWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-South CarolinaWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-TexasWidespreadRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-West VirginiaPresentRhoads, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

PanamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

South America

BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
FranceWidespreadBulliard, 1809; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-CorsicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-France (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
GreecePresentTsopelas, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-Greece (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
ItalyWidespreadScopoli, 1772; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-Italy (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
MontenegroPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
PortugalPresentDos, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2009
SerbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
SloveniaPresentMunda Jurc, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2009
SpainPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-Spain (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
UKPresentGuillaumin et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-England and WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

Oceania

FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Roots / fungal growth on surface
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal red necrosis
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Abomo-Ndongo S; Guillaumin JJ, 1997. Somatic incompatibility among African Armillaria isolates. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(4):201-206; 16 ref.

Abomo-Ndongo S; Mohammed C; Guillaumin JJ, 1997. Sexual behaviour of Armillaria heimii and A. mellea isolates from Africa. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(4):207-224; 30 ref.

Adaskaveg JE; F÷rster H; Wade L; Thompson DF; Connell JH, 1999. Efficacy of sodium tetrathiocarbonate and propiconazole in managing Armillaria root rot of almond on peach rootstock. Plant Disease, 83(3):240-246; 26 ref.

Agustian A; Mohammed C; Guillaumin JJ; Botton B, 1994. Discrimination of African Armillaria species based on isoenzyme electrophoresis analysis. New Phytologist, 128:135-143.

Anderson JB, 1982. Bifactorial heterothallism and vegetative diploidy in Clitocybe tabescens. Mycologia, 74:911-916.

Anderson JB, 1986. Biological species of Armillaria in North America: redesignation of groups IV and VIII and enumeration of voucher strains for other groups. Mycologia, 78(5):837-839

Anderson JB; Bailey SS; Pukkila PJ, 1989. Variation in ribosomal DNA among biological species of Armillaria, a genus of root-infecting fungi. Evolution, 43(8):1652-1662

Anderson JB; Korhonen K; Ullrich RC, 1980. Relationships between European and North American biological species of Armillaria mellea. Experimental Mycology, 4(1):87-95

Anderson JB; Stasovski E, 1992. Molecular phylogeny of northern hemisphere species of Armillaria. Mycologia, 84(4):505-516

Anderson JB; Ullrich RC, 1979. Biological species of Armillaria mellea in North America. Mycologia, 71(2):402-414

Anderson JB; Ullrich RC, 1982a. Diploids of Armillaria mellea: synthesis, stability and mating behaviour. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60:432-439.

Anderson JB; Ullrich RC, 1982b. Translocation in rhizomorphs of Armillaria mellea. Experimental Mycology, 6:31-40.

Antonin V, 1988. Studies in annulate species of the genus Armillaria - II Ecology and geographic distriibution of Armillaria mellea (Vahl) Kummer in Czechoslovakia. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, Brno, 73:115-121.

Aytoun RSC, 1953. The genus Trichoderma: its relationship with Arrmillaria mellea and Phaeolus schweinitzii, together with preliminary observations on its ecology in woodland soils. Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 36:99-114.

Azevedo NF dos S, 1976. Significance of rhizomorph formation of Armillaria mellea (Fr.) Kum. on Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don in the Azores. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 15(2/3):73-77

Bakry M; Abourouh M, 1996. Nouvelles donnTes sur le dTpTrissement du chOne liFge (Quercus suber L). au Maroc. Annales de la Recherche ForestiFre au Maroc, 29:24-39.

Banik MT; Burdsall HHJr, 1998. Assessment of compatibility among Armillaria cepistipes, A. sinapina, and North American biological species X and XI, using culture morphology and molecular biology. Mycologia, 90(5):798-805; 19 ref.

Banik MT; Paul JA; Burdsall HHJr, 1995. Identification of Armillaria species from Wisconsin and adjacent areas. Mycologia, 87(5):707-712; 22 ref.

Banik MT; Volk TJ; Burdsall HHJr, 1996. Armillaria species of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, including confirmation of North American biological species XI. Mycologia, 88(3):492-496; 16 ref.

Barnard EL; Blakeslee GM; English JT; Oak SW; Anderson RL, 1985. Pathogenic fungi associated with sand pine root disease in Florida. Plant Disease, 69(3):196-199

Barnard EL; Blakeslee GM; English JT; Oak SW; Anderson RL, 1985. Pathogenic fungi associated with sand pine root disease in Florida. Plant Disease, 69(3):196-199

Beckman TG, 1998. Developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for peach. Acta Horticulturae, No. 465:219-224; 3 ref.

Berube JA; Dessureault M, 1988. Morphological characterization of Armillaria ostoyp and Armillaria sinapina sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 66(10):2027-2034

Berube JA; Dessureault M, 1989. Morphological studies on the Armillaria mellea complex: two new species, A. gemina and A. calvescens. Mycologia, 81(2):216-225

Bérubé JA; Dessureault M; Berthelay S; Guillaumin JJ, 1994. Interfertility between Armillaria cepistipes and A. sinapina. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, eds. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Wik, Sweden and Haiko, Finland, 9-16 August 1993. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Science, 489-497.

Blaha G, 1978. Clitocybe (Armillariella) elegans Heim, a serious rot of arabica coffee in Cameroon. Cafe Cacao The, 22(3):203-216

Bliss DE, 1951. The destruction of Armillaria mellea in Citrus soils. Phytopathology, 41: 665-683.

Bragaloni M; Anselmi N; Cellerino GP, 1997. Identification of European Armillaria species by analysis of isozyme profiles. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(3):147-157; 30 ref.

Bresadola G, 1900. Fungi tridentini novi, vel nundum delineatidescripti et iconibus illustrati. Tridenti.

Bulliard, 1809. Histoire des champignons de la France. Paris, France: Leblanc.

Burrill EA; Worrall JJ; Wargo PM; Stehman SV, 1999. Effects of defoliation and cutting in eastern oak forests on Armillaria spp. and a competitor, Megacollybia platyphylla. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29(3):347-355; 41 ref.

Byler EJ, 1978. The pest damage inventory in California. In: Scharpf RF, Parmeter JR, eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dwarf Mistletoe Control through Forest Management. Berkeley, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 162-171.

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Armillaria tabescens. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1048 (Edition 1).

Campbell AH, 1934. Zone lines in plant tissues. II - The black lines formed by Armillaria mellea. Annals of Applied Biology, 21:1-22.

Cha JooYoung; Igarashi T, 1995. A note on Armillaria mellea subsp. nipponica subsp. nov. in Japan. Mycoscience, 36(2):143-146; 24 ref.

Cha JY; Igarashi T, 1995. Armillaria species associated with Gastrodia elata in Japan. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 25(6/7):319-326; 35 ref.

Cha JY; Sung JM; Igarashi T, 1992. Biological species and morphological characteristics of Armillaria mellea complex in Hokkaido: A. ostoyae and A. bulbosa. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University, 49(2):185-194. [SOURCE: CAB ABSTRACTS]

Cha JY; Sung JM; Igarashi T, 1994. Biological species and morphological characteristics of Armillaria mellea complex in Hokkaido: A. sinapina and two new species, A. jezoensis and A. singula. Mycoscience, 35(1):39-47

Chandra A; Watling R, 1982. Studies in Indian Armillaria (Fries per Fries) Staude (Basidiomycotina). Kavaka, 10:63-84

Chillali M; Idder-Ighili H; Guillaumin JJ; Mohammed C; Escarmant BL; Botton B, 1998. Variation in the ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA among the biological species of European Armillaria. Mycological Research, 102(5):533-540; 46 ref.

Chira D; Chira F, 1996. Armillaria obscura in the Brasov mountains. Revista de Silvicultura^breve~, No. 2:32-34; 6 ref.

Cochran PH, 1998. Examples of mortality and reduced annual increments of white fir induced by drought, insects, and disease at different stand densities. Research Note - Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. PNW-RN-525:19 pp.; 21 ref.

Coetzee MPA; Wingfield BD; Wingfield MJ; Coutinho TA, 1998. Identification of the causal agent of Armillaria root rot in South African forest plantations. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 49-61; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 39 ref.

Dadant MR, 1963. Contribution à l'étude du pourridié du caféier causé par le Clitocybe elegans Heim à Madagascar. Ses relations avec le Trichoderma viride Pers. Revue de Mycologie, 28:94-168.

Dade HA, 1927. Collar crack of Cacao (Armillaria mellea). Gold Coast Department of Agriculture Bulletin, 7-21.

Dai YC; Qin GF; Xu MQ, 2000. (The forest pathogens of root and butt rot in northeast China). Forest Research, Beijing, 13(1):15-22.

Darley EF; Wilbur WD, 1954. Some relationships of carbon disulphide and Trichoderma viride in the control of Armillaria mellea. Phytopathology, 44:485.

Day WR, 1927. The parasitism of Armillaria mellea in relation to conifers. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 21:9-21.

Delatour C; Guillaumin JJ, 1985. Importance of root and butt rots in temperate regions. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):258-263

Delatour C; Guillaumin JJ, 1995. Role of Armillaria in the decline of Silver Fir. In: Landmann G, Bonneau M, eds. Forest Decline and Atmospheric Deposition Effects in the French Mountains. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 353-360.

Desray P; Jay-Allemand C; Fady B; Guillaumin JJ, 1998. Susceptibility to Armillaria mellea of different progenies of Juglans spp. selected for timber. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 287-300; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 19 ref.

Donnelly DMX; Hutchinson RM; Coveney D; Yonemitsu M, 1990. Sesquiterpene aryl esters from Armillaria mellea. Phytochemistry, 29(8):2569-2572

Dos Santos de Azevedo N, 1976. Ecologie des souches de l'Armillaria du Quercus suber. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 39(49):485-493.

Dubos B; Guillaumin JJ; Schubert M, 1978. Effect of Trichoderma viride Pers., applied with different organic substrates, on the initiation of growth of rhizomorphs of Armillariella mellea (Vahl.) Karst in two types of soil. Annales de Phytopathologie, 10(2):187-196

Dubos B; Roudet J; Lung B; Touzan M; Guillaumin JJ, 1998. Enfin une possibilitT de dTsinfection du sol contre le pourridiT de la vigne (Armillaria mellea). Revue des Oenologues, 87:21-23.

Dumas MT, 1988. Biological species of Armillaria in the mixedwood forest of northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18(7):872-874

Durrieu G; Beneteau A; Niocel S, 1985. Armillaria obscura in the forest ecosystem of Cerdagne. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):350-355

Edgar JG; Kile GA; Almond CA, 1976. Tree decline and mortality in selectively logged eucalypt forests in central Victoria. Australian Forestry, 39:288-303.

Elkins RB; Rizzo DM; Whiting EC, 1998. Biology and management of Armillaria root disease in pear in California. Acta Horticulturae, No. 475:453-458; 4 ref.

Falk SP; Parbery DG, 1995. Armillaria luteobubalina population structure in horticultural plantings in Victoria, Australia. Mycological Research, 99(2):216-220

Filip G; MacDonald G; Sapozhnikov A; Harberger V, 1993. First report of Armillaria ostoyae on Pinus koraiensis in the Russian Far East. Plant Disease, 77(1):101

Filip GM, 1977. An Armillaria epiphytotic on the Winema National Forest, Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):708-711

Filip GM; Roth LF, 1977. Stump injections with soil fumigants to eradicate Armillariella mellea from young-growth ponderosa pine killed by root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 7(2):226-231

Filip GM; Yang-Erve L, 1997. Effects of prescribed burning on the viability of Armillaria ostoyae in mixed-conifer forest soils in the blue mountains of Oregon. Northwest Science, 71(2):137-144; 23 ref.

Gallet JP; Lung-Escarmant B; Bracciano P; Taris B, 1994. Biological control of Armillaria root rot (Armillaria ostoyae) in pine forests in the South-West of France. Screening in vitro of wood-decay fungi. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, eds. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland, 9-16 August 1993. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Science, 696-711.

Garraway MO; Hüttermann A; Wargo PM, 1991. Ontogeny and Physiology. In: Shaw CG, Kile GA, eds. Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, USA: USDA, Forest Service, 21-47.

Garrett SD, 1956. Biology of Root Infecting Fungi. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Gibson IAS, 1960. Armillaria root rot in Kenya pine plantations. Empire Forestry Review, 39:94-99.

Gibson IAS; Goodchild NA, 1960. Armillaria mellea in Kenya forests. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 26:142-143.

Greig BJW; Strouts RG, 1983. Honey fungus. Arboricultural Leaflet, Department of the Environment, UK, No.2:16 pp.

Grillo R; Korhonen K; Hantula J; Hietala AM, 2000. Genetic evidence for somatic haploidization in developing fruit bodies of Armillaria tabescens. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30(2):135-145; 24 ref.

Gross M; Metzler B; Schumacher P, 1996. Honey-fungus attack on windthrown wood stored under water sprinklers. AFZ/Der Wald, Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift fur Waldwirtschaft und Umweltvorsorge, 51(6):329-332; 15 ref.

Guillaumin JJ, 1973. Etude du cycle caryologique de deux espFces appartenant au genre Armillaria. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(3):317.

Guillaumin JJ, 1977. Apricot root rot, Armillariella mellea (Vahl.) Karst. EPPO Bulletin, 7(1):125-135

Guillaumin JJ, 1986. Contribution à l'étude des armillaires phytopathogFnes, en particulier du groupe mellea: cycle caryologique, notion d'espFce, rôle biologique des espFces, Thesis. Lyon, France: University Lyon I.

Guillaumin JJ; Anderson JB; Korhonen K, 1991a. Life cycle, Interfertility and Biological Species. In: Shaw CG, Kile GA, eds. Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, USA: USDA, Forest Service, 10-20.

Guillaumin JJ; Anderson JB; Legrand P; Ghahari S; Berthelay S, 1996. A comparison of different methods for the identification of genets of Armillaria spp. New Phytologist, 133(2):333-343; 36 ref.

Guillaumin JJ; Berthelay S, 1981. Détermination spécifique des armillaires par la méthode des groupes de compatibilité sexuelle. Spécialisation écologique des espFces frantaises. Agronomie, 1(10):8997-908.

Guillaumin JJ; Berthelay S; Savin V, 1983. Etude de la polarité sexuelle des armillaires du groupe mellea. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 4:301-319.

Guillaumin JJ; Lung-Escarmant B, 1985. Etude de la spécialisation d'Armillaria mellea et Armillaria obscura en phase saprophytique et en phase parasitaire. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15:342-349.

Guillaumin JJ; Mercier S; Dubos B, 1982. Root rots due to Armillariella and Rosellinia in France on grapevine, fruit trees and flower crops. I. aetiology and symptoms. Agronomie, 2(1):71-80

Guillaumin JJ; Mohammed C; Abomo-Ndongo S, 1994. Vegetative incompatibility and sexual systems of Armillaria isolates from tropical Africa. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, eds. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Wik, Sweden and Haikko, Finland, 9-16 August 1993. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Science, 349-354.

Guillaumin JJ; Mohammed C; Anselmi N; Courtecuisse R; Gregory SC; Holdenrieder O; Intini M; Lung B; Marxmuller H; Morrison D; Rishbeth J; Termorshuizen AJ; Tirro A; Dam Bvan, 1993. Geographical distribution and ecology of the Armillaria species in western Europe. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 23(6-7):321-341

Guillaumin JJ; Mohammed C; Berthelay S, 1989. Armillaria species in the northern temperate hemisphere. In: Morrison DJ ed. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Vernon and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 9-16 August 1988. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Pacific Forest Research Centre, Canadian Forestry Service, 27-43.

Guillaumin JJ; Pierson J, 1976. Inoculation de deux clones de Prunus mahaleb par l'armillaire. Influence du greffage et des blessures. Annales de Phytopathologie, 11(1):131-132.

Guillaumin JJ; Pierson J; Grassely C, 1991. The susceptibility to Armillaria mellea of different Prunus species used as stone fruit rootstocks. Scientia Horticulturae, 46(1-2):43-54

Guillaumin JJ; Rykowski K, 1980. Studium infekcji orzecha wloskiego (Juglans regia) przez openke miodowa (Armillaria mellea) w warunkach doswiadczenia modelowego (Study of infection of walnut by honey fungus in model experiments). Folia Forestalia Polonica A, 24:191-213.

Guyon D; Riom J; Taris B, 1985. Study of the behaviour and spread of Armillaria obscura on maritime pine in the forest of the Landes, based on large-scale aerial photographs: methods and preliminary results. Colloques de l'INRA, No. 32:73-86

Guyot J, 1997. Armillaria spp., pourridiT de l'hTvTa en Afrique centrale. Le cas du Gabon. Plantations, Recherche, DTveloppement, 4(6):408-415.

Hagle SK; Shaw CG, 1991. Avoiding and reducing losses from Armillaria root disease. In: Shaw CG, Kile GA, eds. Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, USA: USDA, Forest Service, 157-173

Harrington TC; Wingfield BD, 1995. A PCR-based identification method for species of Armillaria. Mycologia, 87(2):280-288

Harrington TC; Worall JJ; Rizzo DM, 1989. Root and butt rots and other disturbance agents in montane spruce-fir forests of New Hampshire. In: Morrison DJ, ed. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Vernon and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 9-16 August 1988. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Pacific Forest Research Centre, Canadian forestry Service, 257-266.

He Wei; Qin GuoFu; Shen RuiXiang, 1996. Biological species of Armillaria mellea in the Greater Xingan Mountains and the Changbai Mountains in China. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 15(1):9-16; 22 ref.

Heim R, 1963. L'Armillaria elegans Heim. Revue de Mycologie, 28:89-94.

Hintikka V, 1973. A note on the polarity of Armillariella mellea. Karstenia, No. 13:32-39

Hintikka V, 1974. Notes on the ecology of Armillariella mellea in Finland. Karstenia, No.14:12-31

Hongo T, 1976. Agarics from Papua-New Guinea - III. Report of the Tottori Mycological Institute, 14:95-104.

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