Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Armillaria mellea
(armillaria root rot)

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Datasheet

Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Armillaria mellea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • armillaria root rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fruiting bodies of A. mellea (central France). Although most Armillaria basidiomata appear late in the infection process, often on dead trees or on stumps, A. mellea may be observed in the autumn at the bases of infected trees which are still alive.
TitleFruiting bodies
CaptionFruiting bodies of A. mellea (central France). Although most Armillaria basidiomata appear late in the infection process, often on dead trees or on stumps, A. mellea may be observed in the autumn at the bases of infected trees which are still alive.
CopyrightJ.J. Guillaumin
Fruiting bodies of A. mellea (central France). Although most Armillaria basidiomata appear late in the infection process, often on dead trees or on stumps, A. mellea may be observed in the autumn at the bases of infected trees which are still alive.
Fruiting bodiesFruiting bodies of A. mellea (central France). Although most Armillaria basidiomata appear late in the infection process, often on dead trees or on stumps, A. mellea may be observed in the autumn at the bases of infected trees which are still alive.J.J. Guillaumin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm.

Preferred Common Name

  • armillaria root rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Agaricus melleus Vahl
  • Armillaria mellea species D Korhonen
  • Armillariella mellea (Vahl) P. Karst.
  • Clitocybe mellea (Vahl) Ricken

International Common Names

  • English: collar crack; honey agaric; honey root rot; oak root fungus
  • Spanish: hongo miel; pudricion blanca de las raices
  • French: armillaire; pourridie-agaric
  • Russian: opienok oseniy
  • Chinese: mi huan jun

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: honningsvampe
  • Germany: hallimasch; wurzelfäule
  • Italy: marciume bianco radicale
  • Poland: opienka miodowa

EPPO code

  • ARMIME (Armillariella mellea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Agaricales
  •                             Family: Marasmiaceae
  •                                 Genus: Armillaria
  •                                     Species: Armillaria mellea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentBuyckx (1962); CABI and EPPO (1997)
KenyaPresentPegler (1977); CABI and EPPO (1997)
MoroccoPresentBakry and Abourouh (1996)
NigeriaPresentCABI (Undated b)
RéunionPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); CABI (Undated)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentMohammed et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997)
South AfricaPresentCABI (Undated b)
TanzaniaPresentMohammed et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997)
TunisiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
UgandaPresentPegler (1977)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-GuangxiPresentWu et al. (2009)
-ShandongPresentCABI (Undated b)
-ShanxiPresentGuo WenJuan et al. (2007)
-YunnanPresentFeng YunLi et al. (2009)
GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-West BengalPresentCABI (Undated b)
IranPresentDalili et al. (2010)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (1997)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (1997); CABI (Undated)
-HonshuPresent, WidespreadOta et al. (1998)
-KyushuPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (1997); CABI (Undated)
-ShikokuPresentOta et al. (1998)
South KoreaPresentCABI (Undated b)
SyriaPresentGuillaumin (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997)
TurkeyPresentKomık et al. (2007); Isİldak et al. (2004); Baysal-Gurel and Cİnar (2014)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentLushaj et al. (2003)
AustriaPresentLiesebach et al. (2008)
BelarusPresentCABI (Undated b)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tre?tic et al. (2003)
BulgariaPresentRossnev and Petkov (2000)
CroatiaPresentLiović and Županić (2005)
CzechiaPresentAntonin (1988); CABI and EPPO (1997)
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated b)
DenmarkPresentMarxmüller and Printz (1982); CABI and EPPO (1997)
FrancePresent, WidespreadRomagnesi (1973); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-CorsicaPresent, WidespreadGuillaumin (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997)
GermanyPresentMarxmüller et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997)
GreecePresent, WidespreadTsopelas (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (1997)
IrelandPresentCABI and EPPO (1997)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadIntini and Gabucci (1987); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-SicilyPresentGrasso et al. (2007)
LithuaniaPresentJuodvalkis and Vasiliauskas (2002)
LuxembourgPresent, WidespreadGuillaumin et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997)
NetherlandsPresentTermorshuizen and Arnolds (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997)
North MacedoniaPresentOuzouni et al. (2009)
PolandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zolciak (1999)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadGuillaumin (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-AzoresPresentCABI (Undated b)
RomaniaPresentGrudnicki (2009)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1997)
-Russia (Europe)PresentCABI and EPPO (1997); CABI (Undated)
SerbiaPresentTabakovic-Toic and Markovic (2004)
SloveniaPresentMunda (1990); CABI and EPPO (1997)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (1997)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadGuillaumin et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (1997)
UkrainePresentDunaev and Afanasenkova (2009)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadRishbeth (1982); CABI and EPPO (1997)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-AlbertaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-OntarioPresentCABI (Undated b)
-QuebecPresentCABI (Undated b)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated b)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (1997)
-ArkansasPresentNativeKelley et al. (2009)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadJacobs et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-ConnecticutPresentAnderson and Ullrich (1979); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-HawaiiPresentGardner (2003)
-IdahoPresentCABI (Undated b)
-MarylandPresentMotta and Korhonen (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-MassachusettsPresentAnderson and Ullrich (1979); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-MichiganPresentAnderson and Ullrich (1979); Banik et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-MinnesotaPresentBanik et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-MontanaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-New YorkPresentAnderson and Ullrich (1979); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-PennsylvaniaPresentMarçais and Wargo (2000)
-UtahPresentCABI (Undated b)
-VirginiaPresentMotta and Korhonen (1986); CABI and EPPO (1997)
-WisconsinPresentBanik et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (1997)

South America

ColombiaPresentCABI (Undated b)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Roots / fungal growth on surface
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal red necrosis
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Phlebia gigantea Pathogen
Pleurotus ostreatus Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Abomo-Ndongo S, Guillaumin JJ, 1997. Somatic incompatibility among African Armillaria isolates. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(4):201-206; 16 ref

Abomo-Ndongo S, Mohammed C, Guillaumin JJ, 1997. Sexual behaviour of Armillaria heimii and A. mellea isolates from Africa. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(4):207-224; 30 ref

Adaskaveg JE, F÷rster H, Wade L, Thompson DF, Connell JH, 1999. Efficacy of sodium tetrathiocarbonate and propiconazole in managing Armillaria root rot of almond on peach rootstock. Plant Disease, 83(3):240-246; 26 ref

Aderungboye FO, 1977. Diseases of the oil palm. PANS, 23(3):305-326

Agustian A, Mohammed C, Guillaumin JJ, Botton B, 1994. Discrimination of African Armillaria species based on isoenzyme electrophoresis analysis. New Phytologist, 128:135-143

Anderson JB, 1982. Bifactorial heterothallism and vegetative diploidy in Clitocybe tabescens. Mycologia, 74:911-916

Anderson JB, 1986. Biological species of Armillaria in North America: redesignation of groups IV and VIII and enumeration of voucher strains for other groups. Mycologia, 78(5):837-839

Anderson JB, Bailey SS, Pukkila PJ, 1989. Variation in ribosomal DNA among biological species of Armillaria, a genus of root-infecting fungi. Evolution, 43(8):1652-1662

Anderson JB, Korhonen K, Ullrich RC, 1980. Relationships between European and North American biological species of Armillaria mellea. Experimental Mycology, 4(1):87-95

Anderson JB, Stasovski E, 1992. Molecular phylogeny of northern hemisphere species of Armillaria. Mycologia, 84(4):505-516

Anderson JB, Ullrich RC, 1979. Biological species of Armillaria mellea in North America. Mycologia, 71(2):402-414

Anderson JB, Ullrich RC, 1982a. Diploids of Armillaria mellea: synthesis, stability and mating behaviour. Canadian Journal of Botany, 60:432-439

Anderson JB, Ullrich RC, 1982b. Translocation in rhizomorphs of Armillaria mellea. Experimental Mycology, 6:31-40

Antonin V, 1988. Studies in annulate species of the genus Armillaria - II Ecology and geographic distriibution of Armillaria mellea (Vahl) Kummer in Czechoslovakia. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae Naturales, Brno, 73:115-121

Aytoun RSC, 1953. The genus Trichoderma: its relationship with Arrmillaria mellea and Phaeolus schweinitzii, together with preliminary observations on its ecology in woodland soils. Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 36:99-114

Azevedo NF dos S, 1976. Significance of rhizomorph formation of Armillaria mellea (Fr.) Kum. on Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don in the Azores. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 15(2/3):73-77

Bakry M, Abourouh M, 1996. Nouvelles donnTes sur le dTpTrissement du chOne liFge (Quercus suber L). au Maroc. Annales de la Recherche ForestiFre au Maroc, 29:24-39

Banik MT, Burdsall HHJr, 1998. Assessment of compatibility among Armillaria cepistipes, A. sinapina, and North American biological species X and XI, using culture morphology and molecular biology. Mycologia, 90(5):798-805; 19 ref

Banik MT, Paul JA, Burdsall HHJr, 1995. Identification of Armillaria species from Wisconsin and adjacent areas. Mycologia, 87(5):707-712; 22 ref

Banik MT, Volk TJ, Burdsall HHJr, 1996. Armillaria species of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, including confirmation of North American biological species XI. Mycologia, 88(3):492-496; 16 ref

Barnard EL, Blakeslee GM, English JT, Oak SW, Anderson RL, 1985. Pathogenic fungi associated with sand pine root disease in Florida. Plant Disease, 69(3):196-199

Barnard EL, Blakeslee GM, English JT, Oak SW, Anderson RL, 1985. Pathogenic fungi associated with sand pine root disease in Florida. Plant Disease, 69(3):196-199

Baysal-Gurel F, Cinar A, 2014. First report of Armillaria root rot caused by Armillaria mellea infecting Carrizo citrange and sour orange rootstocks in Turkey. Plant Disease, 98(10):1439. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Beckman TG, 1998. Developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for peach. Acta Horticulturae, No. 465:219-224; 3 ref

Berube JA, Dessureault M, 1988. Morphological characterization of Armillaria ostoyp and Armillaria sinapina sp. nov. Canadian Journal of Botany, 66(10):2027-2034

Berube JA, Dessureault M, 1989. Morphological studies on the Armillaria mellea complex: two new species, A. gemina and A. calvescens. Mycologia, 81(2):216-225

Bérubé JA, Dessureault M, Berthelay S, Guillaumin JJ, 1994. Interfertility between Armillaria cepistipes and A. sinapina. In: Johansson M, Stenlid J, eds. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, IUFRO Working Party, Wik, Sweden and Haiko, Finland, 9-16 August 1993. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Science, 489-497

Blaha G, 1978. Clitocybe (Armillariella) elegans Heim, a serious rot of arabica coffee in Cameroon. Cafe Cacao The, 22(3):203-216

Bliss DE, 1951. The destruction of Armillaria mellea in Citrus soils. Phytopathology, 41: 665-683

Bragaloni M, Anselmi N, Cellerino GP, 1997. Identification of European Armillaria species by analysis of isozyme profiles. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27(3):147-157; 30 ref

Bragança H, Tenreiro R, Santos N, 2004. Identification of Portuguese Armillaria isolates by classic mating-tests and RFLP-PCR analysis of the ITS1 region of ribosomal DNA. Silva Lusitana, 12(1):67-75

Bresadola G, 1900. Fungi tridentini novi, vel nundum delineatidescripti et iconibus illustrati. Tridenti

Bulliard, 1809. Histoire des champignons de la France. Paris, France: Leblanc

Burgan RE, Nelson RE, 1972. Decline of Ohia Lehua forests in Hawaii. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. PSW-3

Burrill EA, Worrall JJ, Wargo PM, Stehman SV, 1999. Effects of defoliation and cutting in eastern oak forests on Armillaria spp. and a competitor, Megacollybia platyphylla. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29(3):347-355; 41 ref

Buyckx EJE, 1962. PrTcis des maladies et des insectes nuisibles recontrTs sur les plantes cultivTes au Congo, au Rwanda et au Burundi. Brussels, Belgium: Institut National pour l'Etude Agronomique du Congo (INEAC)

Byler EJ, 1978. The pest damage inventory in California. In: Scharpf RF, Parmeter JR, eds. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dwarf Mistletoe Control through Forest Management. Berkeley, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 162-171

CABI, EPPO, 1997. Armillaria mellea. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, December (Edition 5). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 143

Campbell AH, 1934. Zone lines in plant tissues. II - The black lines formed by Armillaria mellea. Annals of Applied Biology, 21:1-22

Cha JooYoung, Igarashi T, 1995. A note on Armillaria mellea subsp. nipponica subsp. nov. in Japan. Mycoscience, 36(2):143-146; 24 ref

Cha JY, Igarashi T, 1995. Armillaria species associated with Gastrodia elata in Japan. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 25(6/7):319-326; 35 ref

Cha JY, Sung JM, Igarashi T, 1992. Biological species and morphological characteristics of Armillaria mellea complex in Hokkaido: A. ostoyae and A. bulbosa. Research Bulletins of the College Experiment Forests, Hokkaido University, 49(2):185-194. [SOURCE: CAB ABSTRACTS]

Cha JY, Sung JM, Igarashi T, 1994. Biological species and morphological characteristics of Armillaria mellea complex in Hokkaido: A. sinapina and two new species, A. jezoensis and A. singula. Mycoscience, 35(1):39-47

Chandra A, Watling R, 1982. Studies in Indian Armillaria (Fries per Fries) Staude (Basidiomycotina). Kavaka, 10:63-84

Chillali M, Idder-Ighili H, Guillaumin JJ, Mohammed C, Escarmant BL, Botton B, 1998. Variation in the ITS and IGS regions of ribosomal DNA among the biological species of European Armillaria. Mycological Research, 102(5):533-540; 46 ref

Chira D, Chira F, 1996. Armillaria obscura in the Brasov mountains. Revista de Silvicultura^breve~, No. 2:32-34; 6 ref

Cochran PH, 1998. Examples of mortality and reduced annual increments of white fir induced by drought, insects, and disease at different stand densities. Research Note - Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. PNW-RN-525:19 pp.; 21 ref

Coetzee MPA, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Coutinho TA, 1998. Identification of the causal agent of Armillaria root rot in South African forest plantations. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 49-61; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 39 ref

Dadant MR, 1963. Contribution à l'étude du pourridié du caféier causé par le Clitocybe elegans Heim à Madagascar. Ses relations avec le Trichoderma viride Pers. Revue de Mycologie, 28:94-168

Dade HA, 1927. Collar crack of Cacao (Armillaria mellea). Gold Coast Department of Agriculture Bulletin, 7-21

Dai YC, Qin GF, Xu MQ, 2000. (The forest pathogens of root and butt rot in northeast China). Forest Research, Beijing, 13(1):15-22

Dalili SAR, Alavi SV, Nanagulyan SG, Razavi M, 2010. Introduction of new hosts for Armillaria mellea and Armillaria gallica from north forests of Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 8(2):217-223. http://www.idosi.org/wasj/wasj8(2)10/13.pdf

Darley EF, Wilbur WD, 1954. Some relationships of carbon disulphide and Trichoderma viride in the control of Armillaria mellea. Phytopathology, 44:485

Darvas JM, 1992. Armillaria rot of litchi trees (Litchi chinensis) in South Africa. Yearbook - South African Litchi Growers' Association, 4:2-4

Day WR, 1927. The parasitism of Armillaria mellea in relation to conifers. Quarterly Journal of Forestry, 21:9-21

Delatour C, Guillaumin JJ, 1985. Importance of root and butt rots in temperate regions. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):258-263

Delatour C, Guillaumin JJ, 1995. Role of Armillaria in the decline of Silver Fir. In: Landmann G, Bonneau M, eds. Forest Decline and Atmospheric Deposition Effects in the French Mountains. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 353-360

Desray P, Jay-Allemand C, Fady B, Guillaumin JJ, 1998. Susceptibility to Armillaria mellea of different progenies of Juglans spp. selected for timber. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 287-300; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 19 ref

Donnelly DMX, Hutchinson RM, Coveney D, Yonemitsu M, 1990. Sesquiterpene aryl esters from Armillaria mellea. Phytochemistry, 29(8):2569-2572

Dos Santos de Azevedo N, 1976. Ecologie des souches de l'Armillaria du Quercus suber. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 39(49):485-493

Dubos B, Guillaumin JJ, Schubert M, 1978. Effect of Trichoderma viride Pers., applied with different organic substrates, on the initiation of growth of rhizomorphs of Armillariella mellea (Vahl.) Karst in two types of soil. Annales de Phytopathologie, 10(2):187-196

Dubos B, Roudet J, Lung B, Touzan M, Guillaumin JJ, 1998. Enfin une possibilitT de dTsinfection du sol contre le pourridiT de la vigne (Armillaria mellea). Revue des Oenologues, 87:21-23

Dumas MT, 1988. Biological species of Armillaria in the mixedwood forest of northern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18(7):872-874

Dunaev AV, Afanasenkova OV, 2009. Macromycetes infecting English oak in forest-steppe oak groves. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.2:51. http://www.z-i-k-r.ru

Durrieu G, Beneteau A, Niocel S, 1985. Armillaria obscura in the forest ecosystem of Cerdagne. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 15(5/6):350-355

Edgar JG, Kile GA, Almond CA, 1976. Tree decline and mortality in selectively logged eucalypt forests in central Victoria. Australian Forestry, 39:288-303

Elkins RB, Rizzo DM, Whiting EC, 1998. Biology and management of Armillaria root disease in pear in California. Acta Horticulturae, No. 475:453-458; 4 ref

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Feng YunLi, Cheng LiJun, Chen Yuhui, He WenJing, Peng ShuMin, 2009. Screen of efficient Armillaria mellea strains symbiotic with Gastrodia elata in Zhaotong Prefecture. Journal of Southwest Forestry University, 29(2):37-39

Filip G, MacDonald G, Sapozhnikov A, Harberger V, 1993. First report of Armillaria ostoyae on Pinus koraiensis in the Russian Far East. Plant Disease, 77(1):101

Filip GM, 1977. An Armillaria epiphytotic on the Winema National Forest, Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):708-711

Filip GM, Roth LF, 1977. Stump injections with soil fumigants to eradicate Armillariella mellea from young-growth ponderosa pine killed by root rot. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 7(2):226-231

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Gonthier P, 2010. Controlling root and butt rot diseases in Alpine European forests. In: Management of fungal plant pathogens [ed. by Arya, A.\Perelló, A. E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 345-361. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=472

Grasso FM, Pane A, Cacciola SO, 2007. First report of Armillaria butt rot caused by Armillaria mellea on Phoenix canariensis in Italy. Plant Disease, 91(11):1517. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Greig BJW, Strouts RG, 1983. Honey fungus. Arboricultural Leaflet, Department of the Environment, UK, No.2:16 pp

Grillo R, Korhonen K, Hantula J, Hietala AM, 2000. Genetic evidence for somatic haploidization in developing fruit bodies of Armillaria tabescens. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30(2):135-145; 24 ref

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Guillaumin JJ, 1973. Etude du cycle caryologique de deux espFces appartenant au genre Armillaria. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(3):317

Guillaumin JJ, 1977. Apricot root rot, Armillariella mellea (Vahl.) Karst. EPPO Bulletin, 7(1):125-135

Guillaumin JJ, 1986. Contribution à l'étude des armillaires phytopathogFnes, en particulier du groupe mellea: cycle caryologique, notion d'espFce, rôle biologique des espFces, Thesis. Lyon, France: University Lyon I

Guillaumin JJ, Anderson JB, Korhonen K, 1991a. Life cycle, Interfertility and Biological Species. In: Shaw CG, Kile GA, eds. Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, USA: USDA, Forest Service, 10-20

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