Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Arion hortensis
(garden slug)

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Datasheet

Arion hortensis (garden slug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arion hortensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • garden slug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Gastropoda
  •         Subclass: Pulmonata

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Egg mass of A. hortensis in soil.
TitleOva
CaptionEgg mass of A. hortensis in soil.
CopyrightB. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland
Egg mass of A. hortensis in soil.
OvaEgg mass of A. hortensis in soil.B. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland
Adult A. hortensis photographed in an unnatural posture to show body and sole colour simultaneously. (Foot slime of this species is also orange).
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult A. hortensis photographed in an unnatural posture to show body and sole colour simultaneously. (Foot slime of this species is also orange).
CopyrightB. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland
Adult A. hortensis photographed in an unnatural posture to show body and sole colour simultaneously. (Foot slime of this species is also orange).
AdultAdult A. hortensis photographed in an unnatural posture to show body and sole colour simultaneously. (Foot slime of this species is also orange).B. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland
Growth deformation of green asparagus, caused by minute feeding on the growing tips by A. hortensis.
TitleCrop damage
CaptionGrowth deformation of green asparagus, caused by minute feeding on the growing tips by A. hortensis.
CopyrightB. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland
Growth deformation of green asparagus, caused by minute feeding on the growing tips by A. hortensis.
Crop damageGrowth deformation of green asparagus, caused by minute feeding on the growing tips by A. hortensis.B. Speiser/FiBL Switzerland

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arion hortensis A.Ferussac 1819

Preferred Common Name

  • garden slug

Other Scientific Names

  • Arion distinctus Mabille 1868
  • Arion owenii Davies 1979
  • Arion vejdovkyi Babor et Kostal
  • Kobeltia hortensis

International Common Names

  • English: yellow-soled slug
  • Spanish: arion de las huertas; babosa de las huertas; limacido de las huertas
  • French: limace des jardins; limace horticole; limace noire

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: nøgen havesnegel; sort havesnegel
  • Germany: Garten-Wegschnecke
  • Italy: limaccia degli orti
  • Netherlands: donkere wegslak; naakte tuinslak; tuinwegslak; zwarte wegslak
  • Norway: hagesnile
  • Sweden: mörk trädgardssnigel

EPPO code

  • ARIODI (Arion distinctus)
  • ARIOHO (Arion hortensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Gastropoda
  •                 Subclass: Pulmonata
  •                     Order: Stylommatophora
  •                         Suborder: Sigmurethra
  •                             Unknown: Arionoidea
  •                                 Family: Arionidae
  •                                     Genus: Arion
  •                                         Species: Arion hortensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / frass visible
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Roots / internal feeding
Seeds / frass visible
Stems / distortion
Vegetative organs / internal feeding
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Abax parallelepipedus Predator
Cosmocercoides dukae Parasite
Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita Parasite Adults
Pterostichus madidus Predator

References

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Barker GM, 1989. Slug problems in New Zealand pastoral agriculture. Monograph - British Crop Protection Council, No. 41:59-68; [In Slugs and Snails in World Agriculture, Guildford, 10-12 April 1989].

Baronio P, 1973. Insect enemies of Mollusca Gasteropoda. Bollettino dell'Istituto de Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 32:169-187.

Byrne J; Jones P, 1996. Responses to glucosinolate content in oilseed rape varieties by crop pest (Deroceras reticulatum) and non-pest slug species (Limax pseudoflavus). Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, 17:78-79.

Castillejo J, 1996. Las babosas come plaga en la agricultura. Claves de identification y mapas de distribucion. Revista Real Academia Galega de Ciencias, 15:93-142.

Chabert A; Guinot J; Tisseur M, 1997. Suivi des populations de limaces au champ. Phytoma, 497:16-20.

Ester A; Nijënstein J, 1996. Molluscicidal seed treatment of barley, wheat and perennial ryegrass to control the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum). Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 44:241-248.

Fechter R; Falkner G, 1990. Weichtiere. München, Germany: Mosaik Verlag.

Fischer W; Reischütz PL, 1998. GrundsStzliche Bemerkungen zum Schneckenproblem. Die Bodenkultur, 49:281-292.

Giamoustaris A; Mithen R, 1995. The effect of modifying the glucosinolate content of leaves of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera) on its interaction with specialist and generalist pests. Annals of Applied Biology, 126(2):347-363.

Glen DM; Cuerden R; Butler RC, 1991. Impact of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum on establishment of ryegrass and white clover in mixed swards. Annals of Applied Biology, 119(1):155-162.

Glen DM; Jones H; Fieldsend JK, 1990. Damage to oilseed rape seedlings by the field slug Deroceras reticulatum in relation to glucosinolate concentration. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(1):197-207.

Glen DM; Milsom NF; Wiltshire CW, 1989. Effects of seed-bed conditions on slug numbers and damage to winter wheat in a clay soil. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(1):177-190.

Glen DM; Milsom NF; Wiltshire CW, 1990. Effect of seed depth on slug damage to winter wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(3):693-701.

Glen DM; Wilson MJ; Hughes L; Cargeeg P; Hajjar A, 1996. Exploring and exploiting the potential of the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita as a biocontrol agent for slugs. Slug & snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996., 271-280.

Godan D, 1979. Harmful snails and their control. Schadschnecken und ihre Bekampfung., 467 pp.; [12 pl. (unpaged)].

Hammond RB, 1996. Conservation tillage and slugs in the U.S. corn belt. In: Henderson IF, ed. Slug & Snail Pests in Agriculture. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 31-38.

Hommay G, 1995. The slugs injurious to crops. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 27(5):267-286; [44 fig. (many col.)].

Hommay G; Briard P, 1988. Apport du piegage dans le suivi des peuplements de limaces en grande culture. Haliotis, 18:55-74.

Iglesias J; Castillejo J; Castro R, 2001. Mini-plot field experiments on slug control using biological and chemical control agents. Annals of Applied Biology, 139(3):285-292.

JSckel B, 1999. Methoden des biologischen Pflanzenschutzes als Beitrag zum integrierten Pflanzenschutz in der Grossstadt. Gesunde Pflanzen, 51:167-175.

Kerney MP; Cameron RAD; Jungbluth JH, 1979. Die Landschnecken Nord- und Mitteleuropas. Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey.

Kienlen J; Gertz C; Briard P; Hommay G; Chaufaux J, 1996. Recherche de la toxicité de diverses souches de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner vis-à-vis de trois espFces de limaces. Agronomie, 16:347-353.

Ludwig A; Reise H; Hutchinson JMC, 2015. The slug fauna of gardens in the town of Görlitz (Saxony, Germany). (Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland).) Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23:43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen

Mead AR, 1979. Biological control. In: Frette V, Peake J, eds. Pulmonates. London, UK: Academic Press.

Port CM; Port G, 1986. The biology and behaviour of slugs in relation to crop damage and control. Agricultural Zoology Reviews, 1:255-299.

Port GR, 1989. Natural and cultural regulation of slug populations. Aspects of Applied Biology, 22:297-306.

Sakovich NJ, 1996. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach to the control of the brown garden snail, (Helix aspersa) in California citrus orchards. In: Henderson IF, ed. Slug & Snail Pests in Agriculture. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 283-287.

South A, 1992. Terrestrial slugs. Biology, ecology and control. Terrestrial slugs. Biology, ecology and control., x + 428 pp.

Spaull AM; Eldon S, 1990. Is is possible to limit slug damage using choice of winter wheat cultivars?. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases. Volume 2., 703-708.

Speiser B; Andermatt M, 1996. Field trials with Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita in Switzerland. In: Henderson IF, ed. Slug & Snail Pests in Agriculture. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council.

Stephenson JW; Knutson LV, 1966. A résumé of recent studies of invertebrates associated with slugs. Journal of Economic Entomology, 59:356-360.

Symondson WOC; Liddell JE, 1993. The detection of predation by Abax parallelepipedus and Pterostichus madidus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on Mollusca using a quantitative ELISA. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 83(4):641-647; 34 ref.

Turner H; Kuiper JGJ; Thew N; Bernasconi R; Ruetschi J; Wuthrich M; Gosteli M, 1998. Atlas of the Mollusca of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Atlas der Mollusken der Schweiz und Liechtensteins., 527 pp.

Walker AJ; Glen DM; Shewry PR, 1998. Purification and characterization of a digestive cysteine proteinase from the field slug (Deroceras reticulatum): a potential target for slug control. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(7):2873-2881.

Wilson MJ; Glen DM; George SK, 1993. The rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita as a potential biological control agent for slugs. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(4):503-511.

Wilson MJ; Glen DM; George SK; Hughes LA, 1995. Biocontrol of slugs in protected lettuce using the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(2):233-242.

Wilson MJ; Glen DM; George SK; Pearce JD; Wiltshire CW, 1994. Biological control of slugs in winter wheat using the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Annals of Applied Biology, 125(2):377-390.

Wilson MJ; Glen DM; Hughes LA; Pearce JD; Rodgers PB, 1994. Laboratory tests of the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of field slugs (Deroceras reticulatum). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 64(3):182-187.

Wilson MJ; Glen DM; Wiltshire CW; George SK, 1994. Mini-plot field experiments using the rhabditid nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita for biocontrol of slugs. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 4(1):103-113.

Young AG, 1990. Assessment of slug activity using bran-baited traps. Crop Protection, 9(5):355-358.

Young AG; Port GR, 1991. The influence of soil moisture on the activity of Deroceras reticulatum (Müller). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 57(1):138-140.

Young AG; Port GR; Green DB, 1993. Development of a forecast of slug activity: validation of models to predict slug activity from meteorological conditions. Crop Protection, 12(3):232-236.

Young AG; Port GR; Green DI, 1991. Development of a forecast of slug activity: models to relate slug activity to meteorological conditions. Crop Protection, 10(5):413-415.

Young C, 1996. Metal chelates as stomach poison molluscicides for introduced pests, Helix aspera, Theba pisana, Cernuella virgata and Deroceras reticulatum in Australia. Slug & snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996., 237-243.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chabert A, Guinot J, Tisseur M, 1997. Monitoring of slug populations. Towards a risk-forecasting system. (Suivi des populations de limaces au champ. Vers la mise au point d'un système de prévision des risques.). Phytoma. 50 (497), 16-20.

Fechter R, Falkner G, 1990. [English title not available]. (Weichtiere). Weichtiere.

Fischer W, Reischütz PL, 1998. (Grundsätzliche Bemerkungen zum Schneckenproblem). In: Die Bodenkultur, 49 281-292.

Godan D, 1979. Schadschnecken und ihre Bekampfung. Stuttgart, GFR, Verlag Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. 467 pp.

Hommay G, 1995. The slugs injurious to crops. (Les limaces nuisibles aux cultures.). Revue Suisse d'Agriculture. 27 (5), 267-286.

Iglesias J, Castillejo J, Castro R, 2001. Mini-plot field experiments on slug control using biological and chemical control agents. Annals of Applied Biology. 139 (3), 285-292. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2001.tb00141.x

Kerney MP, Cameron RAD, Jungbluth JH, 1979. (Die Landschnecken Nord- und Mitteleuropas)., Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey.

Ludwig A, Reise H, Hutchinson J M C, 2015. The slug fauna of gardens in the town of Görlitz (Saxony, Germany). (Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland).). Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz. 43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen

Turner H, Kuiper J G J, Thew N, Bernasconi R, Ruetschi J, Wuthrich M, Gosteli M, 1998. Atlas of the Mollusca of Switzerland and Liechtenstein. (Atlas der Mollusken der Schweiz und Liechtensteins.). In: Atlas der Mollusken der Schweiz und Liechtensteins. Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Centre Suisse de Cartographie de la Faune (CSCF). 527 pp.

Distribution Maps

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