Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hedya nubiferana
(bud moth)

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Datasheet

Hedya nubiferana (bud moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hedya nubiferana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bud moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult H. nubiferana caught on sticky trap. Wingspan 15-21 mm.
TitleAdult moth
CaptionAdult H. nubiferana caught on sticky trap. Wingspan 15-21 mm.
CopyrightHorticulture Research International/East Malling
Adult H. nubiferana caught on sticky trap. Wingspan 15-21 mm.
Adult mothAdult H. nubiferana caught on sticky trap. Wingspan 15-21 mm.Horticulture Research International/East Malling

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hedya nubiferana Haworth

Preferred Common Name

  • bud moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Argyroploce nubiferana
  • Argyroploce variegana (Hübner)
  • Grapholita variegana (Hübner)
  • Grapholitha variegana
  • Hedia nubiferana
  • Hedia variegana
  • Hedya dimidioalba Retzius
  • Hedya variegana (Hübner)
  • Olethreutes nubiferana
  • Olethreutes variegana (Hübner)
  • Penthina variegana Barrett (1905)
  • Tortrix nubiferana Haworth
  • Tortrix variegana

International Common Names

  • English: cone pitch moth; fruit tree tortrix moth; green budworm; marble orchard tortrix
  • Spanish: torcedora del capullo; tortrix verde de las yemas
  • French: pique-bouton bigarré; pique-bouton bigarre (m); tordeuse verte des arbres fruitiers; tordeuse verte des bourgeons

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gra knopvikler; knopvikler, gra
  • Finland: versokaeaeriaeinen
  • Germany: Spatzendreckchen; Wickler, Grauer Knospen-
  • Italy: tortrice degli alberi di frutto; tortrice delle gemme
  • Netherlands: Bladroller, groene
  • Norway: knopvikler, gra
  • Sweden: knoppvecklare, stoerre
  • Turkey: yesil tomurcuk tirtili

EPPO code

  • ARGPVA (Argyroploce variegana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Hedya
  •                                 Species: Hedya nubiferana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

TurkeyPresentBulut (1990); Kilinçer et al. (1992); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentKapidani and Duraj (1991)
BulgariaPresentKolev and Balevski (1978); Balevski and Ivanov (1979)
CzechoslovakiaPresentKomarek (1987)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentCiglar and Schmidt (1983)
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Grausland et al. (1993)
FinlandPresentPeltotalo and Tuovinen (1986)
FrancePresentAudemard and Daures (1992)
GermanyPresentDickler and Zimmermann (1972); Mletzko and Zech (1972); Naton (1972); Gottwald (1976); Burghardt and Knauf (1981); Krause (1985); Gottwald et al. (1986); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentReichart et al. (1973); Reichart et al. (1973a); Reichart et al. (1974); Reichart et al. (1975); Reichart et al. (1976)
ItalyPresentPollini and Bariselli (1997)
LithuaniaPresentIvinskis and Pakal'nishkis (1983)
NetherlandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Evenhuis & Vlug, 1979
PolandPresentKoslinska (1973); Krakowiak (1974); Niemczyk et al. (1975); Niemczyk (1980); Koślińska et al. (1990); CABI (Undated);
RomaniaPresentSusea (1986)
RussiaPresentBatasheva (1981); Zurabova et al. (1986); Myttus et al. (1987); Naumova (1988); Dem'yanenko and Tret'yakov (1990)
United KingdomPresentWardlow et al. (1978); Cross (1996)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentChapman and Lienk (1971)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-OhioPresentRings (1992)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles xanthostigma Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite
Copidosoma Parasite Eggs
Dolichogenidea longicauda Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus pallipes Parasite Larvae
Meteorus ictericus Parasite Larvae
Pristomerus vulnerator Parasite Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma telengai Parasite
Trichogramma turkeiensis Parasite Eggs

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Adler CRL, 1991. Identification of pupae on apple in eastern north America. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 51-64.

Arn H, 1991. Sex pheromones. In: Helle W, Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. World Crop Pests. Volume: Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.

Audemard H, Daures V, 1992. Trapping survey of populations of lepidopteran pests in 2 apple orchards for an integrated control programme. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4):51-57

Balachowsky AS, 1966. Entomologie appliquée à l' agriculture. Tome II. LépidoptFres, 1er Volume. Masson et Cie, Paris.

Balevski A, Ivanov S, 1979. Control of leafrollers - damagers of fruit in apple orchards. Rastitelna Zashchita, 27(4):32-35

Barrett CG, 1904-05. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands., UK 425-469.

Barrett CG, 1905-07. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands. London, UK 470-504.

Batasheva ZN, 1981. Leafrollers on raspberry. Zashchita Rastenii, 6:41.

Beeke H, De Jong DJ, 1991. Identification of larvae and pupae. In: Van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 65-76.

Bradley JD, Tremewan WG, Smith A, 1979. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. British tortricoid moths. Tortricidae: Olethreutinae. London, UK: The Ray Society, 336.

Bulut H, 1990. Investigations on the distribution and natural effectiveness of Trichogramma embryophagum (Hartig) in the eggs of Hedya nubiferana and Spilonota ocellana F. Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control. Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi, 25-35

Bulut H, Kilincer N, 1989. Investigations on species of Trichogramma spp. (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of important lepidopterous pests of fruit trees and their distribution in Ankara. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 29(1-2):19-46

Burghardt G, Knauf W, 1981. The use of pheromone traps as part of a forecasting process for harmful Lepidoptera. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 2(3/5):269-278

Bykhovets AI, Sumaroka AF, Zolotar' RM, 1981. The testing of synthetic sex pheromone traps for surveillance of the codling moth. Khemoretseptsiya Nasekomykh, 6:121-126

Chapman PJ, Lienk SE, 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York. Special Publications, Agricultural Experimental Station, Cornell University, Geneva, New York State, 46-48.

Charles PJ, 1968-71. Contribution à l'é tude d'un complexe de Tordeuses des bourgeons et rameaux de Pommier. Proc. 13rd int. Cong. Entomol. Moscou 1966, t. 2, 139-140.

Ciglar I, Schmidt L, 1983. Insect fauna of the apple orchard 'Borinci' - Vinkovci, Croatia, Yugoslavia. Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, 19(1/2):83-90

Cross JV, 1996. A pheromone trap survey of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards in England subject to different insecticide management. Entomologist, 115(3/4):168-180; 14 ref.

De Jong DG, Vlug HJ, 1976. Bestimmungsschlüssel der in den Niederlanden am Apfel vorkommenden Blattwicklerraupen. Nützlinge in Apfelanlagen. Einführung in den Integrierten Pflanzenschutz, Teil 3. Wageningen, Netherlands: IOBC/WPRS, 35-38.

Dem'yanenko VE, Tret'yakov NN, 1990. Tortricid distribution in apple orchards. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), 5:33

Dickler E, Zimmermann H, 1972. Investigations on the control of the bark Tortricid Enarmonia formosana Scop. (Lepid., Tortr.). Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, 144:143-150

Dreyer W, 1984. The biology of important hawthorn insects and their parasites. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 97(3):286-298

Evenhuis HH, Jong DJ de, Vlug HJ, 1973. The pupae of the leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple in the Netherlands. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 73(4):351-365

Evenhuis HH, Vlug HJ, 1973. On two species of Apanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) as parasites of apple leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Entomologische Berichten, 33(5):86-90

Ford LT, 1949. A Guide to the Smaller British Lepidoptera. London, UK.

Gottwald R, 1976. The directed control of various species of tortricid from the point of view of reduced treatment with insecticides. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 30(6):117-121

Gottwald R, Freier B, Karg W, 1986. Fundamentals of integrated plant protection against animal pests in high-intensity apple growing in the German Democratic Republic. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 40(1):10-15

Grauslund J, Lindhard H, Christensen JV, Schenk AME, Webster AD, Wertheim SJ, 1993. An experiment to compare integrated and conventional spray programmes in eight apple cultivars. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Integrated Fruit Production, Veldhoven, Netherlands, 24-28 August, 1992. Acta Horticulturae, 347:57-63.

Ivinskis PP, Pakal'nishkis SA, 1983. Microlepidoptera of orchard coenoses of the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 6:55-75

Johansson K, 1971. Laboratory tests with Entobakterin-3 (Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae) against larvae of the gypsy moth, the nun moth, the greater budroller, the cabbage moth and the cabbage sawfly. Meddelanden, Statens Vaxtskyddanstalt, 15(139):111-137

Kapidani A, Duraj N, 1991. Investigations on the biology and control of the tortricid Archips rosana L. in Albania. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 52(2):79-88

Kilincer N, Gurkan MO, Bulut H, 1992. Control using pheromones in fruit orchards in Ankara Province. Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Entomology Izmir, Turkey; Ege Universitesi, 193-200

Kolev K, Balevski A, 1978. Increased infestation by leafrollers on fruit trees. Rastitelna Zashchita, 26(5):27-32

Komarek S, 1987. Study on the species composition and the population dynamics of the family Tortricidae in some orchards in southern Bohemia using pheromone traps. Pflanzenschutzberichte, 48(1):2-23.

Koslinska M, 1973. The Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some areas of Poland. Part II. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 43(2):331-346

Koslinska M, Tworkowska U, Predki S, Wojtas-Koziel B, Gromisz Z, Bachnacki R, Karczewski J, Piotrowski S, Pluciennik Z, Zielinska B, Dlugowolski B, 1990. Flight phenology of the eye-spotted bud moth - Spilonota ocellana (F.) and the green budworm - Hedya nubiferana (Hw.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Poland. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria A, Prace Doswiadczalne z Zakresu Sadownictwa, 29:87-96

Krakowiak A, 1974. Occurrence of leaf rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the orchards of the Poznan region. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 44(4):835-838

Krause G, 1985. Observations on catches of non-target species in pheromone traps in orchards. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 58(4):68-70

Meyrick E, 1928. A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera. London, UK.

Miczulski B, Koslinska M, 1976. Parasites of leafrollers (Tortricidae) occurring in apple orchards in some regions of Poland. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 46(1):165-178

Mletzko HG, Zech E, 1972. Ecological investigations on tortrix moths (Lep., Tortricidae) in an intensively managed apple orchard. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 26(12):242-245

Myttus EP, Emel'yanov VA, Laanmaa MK, Nikolpva ZV, 1987. Dynamics of the flight of males of the variable (Hedya nubiferana Haw.) and the rose (Archips rosana L.) leaf-rollers (Tortricidae) to sex pheromone in orchards of the Pskov region. Trudy Latviiskoi Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, No. 237:4-10

Naton E, 1972. The efficiency of light-traps for the capture of Tortricids frequent in orchards dependent on construction and light colour. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 71(3):270-277

Naumova LV, 1988. Testing of synthetic pheromones of leafrollers. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:34-35

Niemczyk E, 1980. Applying bacterial preparations against orchard pests. In: Proceedings of the International symposium of IOBC/WPRS on integrated control in agriculture, forestryVienna, ed. Workshop sessions. Vienna, Austria: International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section, 416-419

Niemczyk E, Dronka K, 1976. The effectiveness of the bacterial preparation Dipel for the control of leaf-rollers (Tortricidae) in apple orchards. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 6(1):143-149

Niemczyk E, Dronka K, Dawydko B, Predki S, 1975. Effectiveness of bacterial preparation Thuricide 90TS to control leaf rollers (Tortricidae) in apple-orchards. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E, 5(1):75-85

Osman SE, Balazs K, 1988. Observations on the parasitoid Macrocentrus pallipes Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in connection with its two hosts Hedya nubiferana Haw. and Pandemis heparana Den & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(1-2):147-152

Papp J, Reichart G, 1973. Data on knowledge of some Braconid parasites on moth pests of fruit trees (Lepidoptera et Hymenoptera). Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 26(2):363-371

Peltotalo P, Tuovinen T, 1986. Specificity of pheromone preparates for lepidopterous pests. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 25(2):139-146

Pierce FN, Metcalfe JW, 1922. The Genitalia of the group Tortricidae of the lepidoptera of the British Islands. Oundle, UK.

Pollini A, Bariselli M, 1997. Adoxophyes orana, a new danger for fruit cultivation in Emilia-Romagna. Informatore Agrario, 53(12):93-95.

Reichart G, Berezvai F, Jakab J, Molnar J, Szegeny A, 1976. Study of moth communities damaging fruit trees in the spring of 1975. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Evkonyve, 14:49-67

Reichart G, Javor A, Berezvai F, Molnar J, Szegeny A, 1973. Composition of set of pests to be found in curled spring shoots of pome fruit trees in Hungary. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Kozlemenyei, 7:67-78

Reichart G, Szathmary B, Berezvai F, Molnar J, Szegeny A, 1974. On the composition of pest communities living in curled shoots of pomaceous fruit trees in the spring. Novenyvedelem Korszerusitese, 8:39-49

Reichart G, Szegeny A, Berezvai F, Molnar J, 1973. Analysis of the pest association found in 1971 in curled spring shoot of pome fruit trees in Hungary. A Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Kozlemenyei, 6:19-37.

Reichart G, Wator M, Berezvai F, Molnar J, Szegeny A, 1975. Spring aspect of pest communities in 1974, found in twisted shoots of pomaceous fruit trees. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Evkonyve, 13:87-106

Rings RW, 1992. New apple pest, Hedya nubiferana (Haworth), discovered in Ohio. Ohio Journal of Science, 92(3):72

Sanders GE, Dustan AG, 1919. The apple bud moths and their control in Nova Scotia. Canada Department of Agriculture, Entomological Branch Bulletin, 16:1-39.

Susea S, 1986. Aspects of the use of pheromones in determining the degree of attack by some lepidopterous pests in apple orchards. Buletinul de Protectia Plantelor, 1:24-28

Wardlow LR, Baker CRB, Ludlam FAB, 1978. Light-trap catches of fruit tortricid moths in Kent, 1964-74, and associated temperature sums. Plant Pathology, 27(4):169-182

Weirs R, Riedl H, 1991. Other Tortricids on Pome and Stone Fruits. North American Species. In: van der Geest LPS, Evenhuis HH, eds. Tortricid Pests, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 5. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 413-434.

Witzgall P, Chambon JP, Bengtsson M, Unelius CR, Appelgren M, Makranczy G, Muraleedharan N, Reed DW, Hellrigl K, Buser HR, Hallberg E, Bergstrom G, Toth M, Lofstedt C, Lofqvist J, 1996. Sex pheromones and attractants in the Eucosmini and Grapholitini (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Chemoecology, 7(1):13-23.

Zurabova eR, Pokozii IT, Yatsenko VG, Vavilov VG, 1986. Lepidocide against Lepidoptera in orchards and soft-fruit crops. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:26-27.

Distribution References

Audemard H, Daures V, 1992. Trapping survey of populations of lepidopteran pests in 2 apple orchards for an integrated control programme. (Surveillance des populations de lepidopteres ravageurs par piégeage sexuel dans 2 vergers de pommiers protégés par une lutte intégrée.). In: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27 (1-4) 51-57.

Balevski A, Ivanov S, 1979. Control of leafrollers - damagers of fruit in apple orchards. Rastitelna Zashchita. 27 (4), 32-35.

Batasheva Z N, 1981. Leafrollers on raspberry. Zashchita Rastenii. 41.

Bulut H, 1990. Investigations on the distribution and natural effectiveness of Trichogramma embryophagum (Hartig) in the eggs of Hedya nubiferana and Spilonota ocellana F. (Tomurcuk tırtılları (Hedya nubiferana Haw. ve Spilonota ocellana F.)'nin yumurtalarında saptanan Trichogramma embryophagum (Hartig)'un bulundughacek˜u yerler ve doghacek˜al etkinlighacek˜i üzerinde arascedilla˜tırmalar.). In: Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control [Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control], Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi. 25-35.

Burghardt G, Knauf W, 1981. The use of pheromone traps as part of a forecasting process for harmful Lepidoptera. (Die Verwendung von Pheromonfallen innerhalb von Prognoseverfahren fur Schadlepidopteren.). Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie. 2 (3/5), 269-278.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chapman PJ, Lienk SE, 1971. Tortricid fauna of apple in New York., Geneva, New York State, Special Publications, Agricultural Experimental Station, Cornell University. 46-48.

Ciglar I, Schmidt L, 1983. Insect fauna of the apple orchard 'Borinci' - Vinkovci, Croatia, Yugoslavia. (Fauna kukaca y jabučnjaku 'Borinci' - Vinkovci, Hrvatska, Jugoslavija.). Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica. 19 (1/2), 83-90.

Cross J V, 1996. A pheromone trap survey of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards in England subject to different insecticide management. Entomologist. 115 (3/4), 168-180.

Dem'yanenko V E, Tret'yakov N N, 1990. Tortricid distribution in apple orchards. Zashchita Rasteniĭ (Moskva). 33.

Dickler E, Zimmermann H, 1972. Investigations on the control of the bark Tortricid Enarmonia formosana Scop. (Lepid., Tortr.). (Untersuchungen zur Bekampfung des Rindenwicklers Enarmonia formosana Scop. (Lepid., Tortr.).). Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem. 143-150.

Gottwald R, 1976. The directed control of various species of tortricid from the point of view of reduced treatment with insecticides. (Die gezielte Bekampfung verschiedener Wicklerarten unter dem Gesichtspunkt reduzierter Insektizidbehandlungen.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 30 (6), 117-121.

Gottwald R, Freier B, Karg W, 1986. Fundamentals of integrated plant protection against animal pests in high-intensity apple growing in the German Democratic Republic. (Die Grundlagen eines integrierten Pflanzenschutzes gegen tierische Schaderreger im Apfelintensivanbau der DDR.). Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 40 (1), 10-15.

Ivinskis P P, Pakal'nishkis S A, 1983. Microlepidoptera of orchard coenoses of the Lithuanian SSR. Acta Entomologica Lituanica. 55-75.

Kapidani A, Duraj N, 1991. Investigations on the biology and control of the tortricid Archips rosana L. in Albania. (Untersuchungen zur Biologie und Bekämpfung des Heckenwicklers (Archips rosana L.) in Albanien.). Pflanzenschutzberichte. 52 (2), 79-88.

Kilinçer N, Gürkan M O, Bulut H, 1992. Control using pheromones in fruit orchards in Ankara Province. (Ankara ilinde meyve ağaçlarında zararlı bazı Lepidopterlerin savașımında feromon tuzaklardan yararlanma olanakları.). In: Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Entomology [Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Entomology], Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi. 193-200.

Kolev K, Balevski A, 1978. Increased infestation by leafrollers on fruit trees. Rastitelna Zashchita. 26 (5), 27-32.

Komarek S, 1987. Study on the species composition and the population dynamics of the family Tortricidae in some orchards in southern Bohemia using pheromone traps. (Studie über das Artenspektrum und die Populationsdynamik der Familie Tortricidae in einigen Obstanlagen in Südböhmen unter Verwendung von Pheromonfallen.). Pflanzenschutzberichte. 48 (1), 2-23.

Koslinska M, 1973. The Tortricid fauna (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on apple trees in some areas of Poland. Part II. (Fauna zwojkowek (Lepidoptera, Tortricdae) na jabloniach w niektorych okolicach Polski. Czesc II.). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne. 43 (2), 331-346.

Koślińska M, Tworkowska U, Prędki S, Wojtas-Kozieł B, Gromisz Z, Bachnacki R, Karczewski J, Piotrowski S, Płuciennik Z, Zielińska B, Długowolski B, 1990. Flight phenology of the eye-spotted bud moth - Spilonota ocellana (F.) and the green budworm - Hedya nubiferana (Hw.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Poland. (Fenologia lotu wydłubki oczateczki - Spilonota ocellana (F.) i płatkówki pstrocineczki - Hedya nubiferana (Hw.) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) w Polsce.). Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa i Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach. Seria A, Prace Doświadczalne z Zakresu Sadownictwa. 87-96.

Krakowiak A, 1974. Occurrence of leaf rollers (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in the orchards of the Poznan region. (Wystepowanie zwojek (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) w sadach okolic Poznania.). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne. 44 (4), 835-838.

Krause G, 1985. Observations on catches of non-target species in pheromone traps in orchards. (Beobachtungen über Nebenfänge von Pheromonfallen im Obstbau.). Anzeiger für Schädlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz. 58 (4), 68-70. DOI:10.1007/BF01903226

Mletzko H G, Zech E, 1972. Ecological investigations on tortrix moths (Lep., Tortricidae) in an intensively managed apple orchard. (Okologische Untersuchungen an Fruchtschalen- und Knospenwicklern (Lep., Tortricidae) in einer Apfelintensivanlage.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR. 26 (12), 242-245.

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