- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Portunus segnis (Forskål, 1775)
Other Scientific Names
- Portunus mauritianus Ward, 1942
- Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758)
- Portunus trituberculatus
International Common Names
- Spanish: jaiba azul
- French: etrille bleue
Local Common Names
- Arab countries: saratan sabih
- Indian Ocean, Western: blue manna crab; blue swimmer crab; blue swimming crab; flower crab; sand crab; swimming red crab
- Kenya: kaa kiukizi; mswete
- Pakistan: googoo tanga; kekra
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
P. segnis is a marine nocturnal crab, native to the Western Indian Ocean, from Pakistan westwards to the Arabian Gulf, the east coast of South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar and Mauritius. It is one of the earliest introductions through the Suez Canal, having been recorded in Port Said, Egypt, in 1898. During the 1920s it was widely recorded in the Levant (Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey), and has recently spread as far west as the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy and the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia.
The introduction of Erythraean biota into the Mediterranean Sea led to displacement, extirpation (local extinction), and changes to habitat structure, although little is known about the mechanisms of the inter-relationships. The impact of P. segnis on native biota is undetermined but given that it is an omnivorous predator much larger than any of the sea’s native portunid crabs and that as adults they lack any predators, it can be assumed that its impact may be negative and that it has the potential to outcompete local taxa. Global warming is expected to favour the spread of this tropical species. It is commercially important in its native range as well as in the Levant.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Crustacea
- Class: Malacostraca
- Subclass: Eumalacostraca
- Order: Decapoda
- Family: Portunidae
- Genus: Portunus
- Species: Portunus segnis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Portunus segnis (Forskål, 1775) was described from material collected near Jeddah, on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia, by Petrus Forskål. Forskål died in Arabia and his notes were published posthumously. It is uncertain whether the type specimens reached Denmark, and they are presumed lost. The specific name “segnis” has not been used since Forskål’s description, and was largely subsumed in P. (Portunus) pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758). P. pelagicus was regarded as widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region and was “generally considered a species without any nomenclatural troubles” (Holthuis, 2004). A recent revision of the genus Portunus Weber, 1795, has provided ample morphological, biogeographical and molecular evidence to resurrect P. segnis (Lai et al., 2010). All early records, with the exception of Ward (1942) and Stephenson and Rees (1967) refer to it as Lupa pelagica, Neptunus pelagicus or Portunus pelagicus.
DescriptionTop of page
Carapace broad (CW/CL c. 2.2-2.3), surface evenly granular, frequently with a short pubescence between granules. Sinuous mesogastric and arched epibranchial ridges as rows of tubercles and a pair of granular elevations in cardiac region present; no other obvious ridges. Nine anterolateral teeth; 1st acutely triangular, larger than those immediately following, 2nd to 8th sharp, 9th very long, projecting laterally. Front may have four teeth except for inner supraorbital teeth; median frontal teeth usually low and obtuse or even confluent and indistinct, leaving a wide gap between spiniform lateral median teeths. Posterolateral junction of carapace rounded. Merus of third maxilliped with anterolateral corner rounded, not expanded laterally. Chelipeds relatively slender and elongate, smooth or minutely granular; merus usually with three spines on anterior border and a single terminal spine on posterodistal corner; manus with proximal and two distal spines on upper face, upper and outer face with five well-developed costae, under surface smooth, inner surface with median low and smooth costa. Ambulatory legs with merus subquadrate, posterodistal border smooth; propodus elongate, with smooth posterior border; natatorial paddle elongate oval, obtusely angled distally. Penultimate segment of male abdomen longer than broad with evenly converging lateral borders. G1 very long and slender, base with slight basal spur, curved with finely tapering tip and spinules in distal part. Female genital opening located in median part of sternite, elongate with long axis directed anteromesially; thickened cuticle along antero- and posterolateral borders (Apel and Spiridonov, 1998).
Largest specimen recorded is an ovigerous female from Rhodes, Greece (187.8 × 84.3 mm) (Corsini Foka et al., 2004).
Lai et al. (2010) describes the differences between the male and female colouring: "males with dark olive green blue carapace with many pale white spots on surface particularly posteriorly and anterolaterally; spots do not tend to merge to form reticulating bands, however, such banding if present is typically thinner than in P. pelagicus. Females similar in pattern to male except that tips of chelipeds are red tinged with a brownish red instead of blue tinged with deep rust red”. Corsini Foka et al. (2004) described a freshly deceased female specimen: “carapace and legs show yellow-whitish spots and lines on a reddish-brown background, the dactyls of chelipeds are reddish-brown, the fingers in the second, third and fourth pereiopods are reddish at the edge and light blue on the surface”.
DistributionTop of page
P. segnis is native to the Western Indian Ocean, from Pakistan westwards to the Arabian Gulf, the east coast of Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius and Red Sea (Lai et al. 2010).
It is one of the earliest introductions through the Suez Canal, having been recorded in Port Said, Egypt, already in 1898 (Fox, 1924, as Neptunus pelagicus). During the 1920s it was widely recorded in the Levant (Israel (Fox, 1924), Lebanon (Steinitz, 1929), Syria (Gruvel, 1930), Turkey (Gruvel, 1928)), and has spread as far west as Italy (Ghisotti,1966; Crocetta, 2006) and the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Rabaoui et al., 2015).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 14 Dec 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Egypt||Present||Introduced and invasive on Mediterranean, native in Red Sea|
|Kenya||Present, Widespread||2004||Native||Studied in Kilifi Creek, 55 km north of Mombasa city|
|Madagascar||Present||2004||Native||Belaza Tulear, Nose Be|
|Mozambique||Present||2004||Native||Inyack Bay, Inhaca, Maputo Bay|
|Somalia||Present||1976||Native||Gresira, Sar Vaule|
|South Africa||Present||2006||Native||Durban Bay|
|Sudan||Present||1991||Native||Near Port sudan|
|Iran||Present||Native||First record collected by Theodor Kotschy off Kharg; First reported: 1842-1843|
|Israel||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1924||Invasive||Off Ashjod, off Haifa|
|Kuwait||Present||Native||Khiran, Kuwait coast; Last reported: before 1978|
|Pakistan||Present||2005||Native||Karachi, Korung Creek, Indus Delta, Sindh|
|Saudi Arabia||Present, Widespread||Native||1775||Numerous locations|
|Syria||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1930||Invasive||Fish market, Latakia|
|Turkey||Present||Introduced||1928||Invasive||Aegean coast: Palamut Buku and Gokova|
|United Arab Emirates||Present||Native||1901||Abu Dhabi and off Arzana|
|Greece||Present, Localized||Introduced||1991||Rhodes Island, collected 1991-2000|
|Italy||Present, Localized||Introduced||1966||Livorno harbour, Tyrrhenian Sea|
|Indian Ocean - Western||Present, Widespread||2010||Native||Western Indian Ocean from Pakistan to South Africa|
|Mediterranean and Black Sea||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Eastern Mediterranean; First reported: after 1869|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
It is one of the earliest introductions through the Suez Canal, having been recorded in Port Said, Egypt, already in 1898 (Fox, 1924, as Neptunus pelagicus). According to Fox (1927) it was first seen in numbers in the Canal between 1889 and 1893, although Krukenberg records one specimen from the Bitter Lakes in 1886. In 1898 observations were made at Port Said, and four years later it was common in the port. During the 1920s it was widely recorded in the Levant (Israel (Fox, 1924), Lebanon (Steinitz, 1929), Syria (Gruvel, 1930) and Turkey (Gruvel, 1928)). It has spread as far west as Italy (Ghisotti, 1966; Crocetta, 2006) and the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Rabaoui et al., 2015). It is established in the Mediterranean Sea.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Mediterranean and Black Sea||Indian Ocean, Western||>1869||Aquaculture (pathway cause); Fisheries (pathway cause); Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)||Yes||Brockerhoff and McLay (2011); Galil (2011)||Exact means of dispersal are unknown|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
P. segnis is an Erythraean invasive already widely spread in the eastern and central Mediterranean Sea. The warming of the Mediterranean waters may facilitate the establishment of populations in the northern and western reaches of the sea. It may be secondarily introduced in ballast tanks to the rapidly warming Lusitanian province and to the western Atlantic (as did the Erythraean invasive portunid Charybdis hellerii (Milne Edwards, 1867) (Lemaitre, 1995).
HabitatTop of page
In its native range the species is found in coastal and brackish waters, over mud and sand, at 0-40 m (Arabian Gulf; Carpenter et al., 1997), it enters estuaries and lagoons seasonably (Anam and Mostarda, 2012; Naderloo and Türkay, 2012). In the Mediterranean, the species is found under rocks and in rock pools, on sandy or muddy substrate, intertidal to 55 m, occasionally in estuaries (Holthuis and Gottlieb, 1958; Galil et al., 2002).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Coastal dunes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal dunes||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Mangroves||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Mud flats||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Mud flats||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Intertidal zone||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Brackish||Estuaries||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Lai et al. (2010) investigated the genetics of 45 specimens of P. segnis. P. segnis revealed two co-dominant haplotypes separated from each other by two mutational steps. Haplotype 102 (n=16) was obtained from individuals collected from Mozambique and Madagascar, whereas Haplotype 99 (n=16) is restricted to the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Inter-specific divergence has been found between P. segnis and the other three species of the P. pelagicus group. Based on total sequence divergence at the COI locus, P. armatus and P. reticulatus form a sister group to P. pelagicus and P. segnis, with an average genetic distance of ~2% between P. armatus and P. reticulatus,3.14% between P. pelagicus and P. segnis, and ~7% divergence between P. armatus/P. reticulatus and P. pelagicus/P. segnis.
In the Iranian Gulf and Gulf of Oman ovigerous females occur throughout the year, with the highest proportion in the fall; spawning occurs year round with a peak in winter (Kamrani et al. 2010; Safaie et al., 2013a). Interestingly, two regional studies provide different data for fecundity; 277,421 -1,114348 eggs, with average fecundity of 662,978 eggs (Kamrani et al., 2010) and 521,027 - 6,656599 eggs, with an average fecundity of 2,397967 (Safaie et al., 2013b). In the Mediterranean the mean number of eggs (fecundity) of 12 ovigerous females (whose mean CW 143.3 ± 6.2 mm) was 777,642 ± 80684 (Rabaoui et al., 2015).
It is an active nocturnal predator, buried in daytime, with only its eyes, antennae and gill openings protruding.
Chatterji et al. (1994) noted lunar periodicity in the abundance of P. pelagicus s.l. (possibly P. segnis) in trawl catches along the Goa coast, India, with higher catches during the full moon and the new moon.
P. segnis is an omniverous predator. According to studies of stomach contents, juvenile crabs (<90 mm CW) prefer crustaceans (48.6%) to molluscs (21.5%) and fish (17.5 %), adults (CW 111-150 mm) shift their diet to a higher proportion of fish (26.7%), though crustaceans and molluscs remain principal components (40.5%, 24.5%, respectively), and the largest adults (CW 151-170 mm) consume more fish (29.4%), and reduce the proportions of crustaceans and molluscs (37.5%, 21.6%, respectively) (Hosseini et al 2014). These results are similar to those obtained by Pazooki et al. (2012).
P. segnis is tolerant of a wide ranger of temperatures from 13.5°C (winter, Livorno, Italy) to 30°C (summer, SE Levant). It is euryhaline (adapts to a wide range of salinities), moving between brackish estuaries to marine and even hypersaline waters (the Bitter Lakes, suez Canal, fide Krukenberg, 1888).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||0||55||Harmful||For Portunus pelagicus s.l.|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||10||40||Harmful||For Portunus pelagicus s.l.|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||13.5||30||Harmful||For Portunus pelagicus s.l.|
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Alsaqabi et al. (2010) studied external and internal parasites of P. segnis (as P. pelagicus) off the Saudi coast of the Arabian Gulf and identified a poecilasmatid parasite identified as Octolasmis sp., and ‘pepper spot’ parasites – a condition brought about by hyperparasitic protozoans infecting trematod cysts, which become melanized.
The adult crab has no natural enemies in the Mediterranean Sea.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Dispersal by currents of larvae is most likely as attested by its temporally sequential records along the Suez Canal, Levantine coast line and further west.
Secondary introductions in ballast tanks or escape/release from farming facilities are possible.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
The introduction of Erythraean biota into the Mediterranean Sea led to displacement, extirpation (local extinction), and changes to habitat structure, although little is known about the mechanisms of the inter-relationships (Galil, 2007a,b). The populations of P. segnis, an omnivorous predator much larger than any of the sea’s native portunid crabs, and lacking predators as adults, may outcompete local taxa.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Altered trophic level
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Pest and disease transmission
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
UsesTop of page
P. segnis is an important fishery resource in its native region (Chande and Mgaya, 2003). It is listed (as P. pelagicus) in several regional FAO field guides (Bianchi, G., 1985; Carpenter et al 1997; Anam and Mostarda, 2012). It is fished using traps, spears, set nets, baited sticks, and bottom trawls along the coast of Kenya (Anam and Mostarda, 2012), shrimp bottom trawl, bottom set gillnet, fish traps and stake-nets along the Iranian coastline (Safaie et al., 2013). Along the Arabian Peninsula “berried females fetch high market prices” (Carpenter et al., 1997).
It was already making its way through the Suez Canal in the 1880s and was noticed by the Canal company employees who were enthusiastic amateur fishermen (Fox, 1927). In the 1920s it was fished for sale in the markets at Alexandria and at Haifa (Fox, 1927) and by 1962 (to 1983) it dominated decapod fisheries near Alexandria (Abdel-Razek, 1987). The crab production in Bardawil lagoon started at the beginning of 1986. It is one of the most valuable fishery resources in Bardawil lagoon, on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai Peninsula, the catch increasing from 491.7 tons in 1995 to 1321.8 tons in 2005 (Abdel Razek et al., 2006). In the 1930s it was considered of high commercial value (Steinitz, 1933); in the 1940s the annual average catch was twenty-two tons (Perlmutter, 1956), and it was reported as “..very common in trawl and beach seine catches” in the 1950s off the Israeli coast (Holthuis and Gottlieb, 1958). In the 2000s it was selling in huge quantities at the fish markets of Sicily (Crocetta, 2006). The species is commercially important on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, fished by traps, trawls, beach seines, and gill nets (Ozcan, 2012).
Uses ListTop of page
Human food and beverage
- Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
P. segnis is easily distinguished from the Chesapeake blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, the only similarly sized portunid in the Mediterranean, by the prominent inner spine on the cheliped carpus and, in males, by the triangular abdomen (Galil et al., 2002).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
P. segnis is an Erythraean invasive already widely spread in the Mediterranean Sea. Care should be taken to prevent secondary introductions in ballast tanks to the rapidly warming Lusitanian province and to the western Atlantic (i.e. the application of the International Convention for the control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments, IMO, 2004).
Physical/mechanical control is futile as P. segnis has already established flourishing populations in the Mediterranean Sea. Reintroducing a high-salinity barrier and locks should, however, reduce further introductions of propagules through the Suez Canal.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Lai et al. (2010) suggested verification of P. pelagicus s.l. records in order to refine the spatial distribution of the species, with emphasis on regions of suspected sympatry.
There is the need to study of the impacts of the introduction of P. segnis on the native Mediterranean biota through modelling its spread under different scenarios of rising sea water temperature.
ReferencesTop of page
Abdel-Razek FA, 1987. Crab fishery of the Egyptian waters with notes on the bionomics of Portunus pelagicus (L.). Acta Adriatica, 28(1-2):143-154.
Al-Mohanna SY; Subrahmanyam MNV, 2001. Flux of heavy metal accumulation in various organs of the intertidal marine blue crab, Portunus pelagicus (L.) from the Kuwait coast after the Gulf War. Environment International, 27(4):321-326.
Alsaqabi SM; Eshky AA; Albelali AS, 2010. Parasitic Infections In The Blue Crab Swimmer Portunus pelagicus (Linneaus, 1758) Crustacea) found in the Arabian Gulf (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 28:185-196.
Anam R; Mostarda E, 2012. Field identification guide to the living marine resources of Kenya. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, Italy: FAO, 357 pp.
Anirban Chakraborty; Otta SK; Joseph B; Sanath Kumar; Hossain MS; Indrani Karunasagar; Venugopal MN; Iddya Karunasagar, 2002. Prevalence of white spot syndrome virus in wild crustaceans along the coast of India. Current Science, 82(11):1392-1397.
Archdale MV; Añasco CP; Nakagawa A, 2010. Liftnets compare favorably with pots as harvesting fishing gear for invasive swimming crabs. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 5(6):510-516. http://www.academicjournalsinc.com
Ariani AP; Serra V, 1969. Sulla presenza del Portunus pelagicus (L.) in acque italiane, con osservazioni sulla morfologia delle specie (Crustacea Decapoda). (Sulla presenza del Portunus pelagicus (L.) in acque italiane, con osservazioni sulla morfologia delle specie (Crustacea Decapoda).) Archivio Botanico e Biogeografico Italiano, 14(4):187-206.
Audouin V, 1826. Explication sommaire des planches de Crustacés de l'Égypte et de la Syrie, publiées par Jules-César Savigny, Membre de l'Institut; offrant un exposé des caractères naturels des genres, avec la distinction des espèces. Explication sommaire des planches de Crustacés de l?Égypte et de la Syrie, publiées par Jules-César Savigny, Membre de l?Institut; offrant un exposé des caractères naturels des genres, avec la distinction des espèces. Description de l?Égypte, ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l?expédition de l?armée française, publiée par les ordres de Sa Majesté l?Empereur Napoléon le Grand. Histoire naturelle. Imprimerie impériale, Paris. Animaux invertébrés, 1(4):77-98.
Batoy CB; Sarmago JF; Pilapil BC, 1987. Breeding season, sexual maturity and fecundity of the blue crab, Portunus pelagicus (L.) in selected coastal waters in Leyte and vicinity, Philippines. Annals of Tropical Research, 9(3):157-177.
Bianchi G, 1985. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Pakistan. Rome, Italy: FAO, 200 pp.
Brockerhoff A; McLay C, 2011. Human-Mediated spread of Alien Crabs. In: In the wrong place-alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology and impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, 6 [ed. by Galil, B. S. \Clark, P. F. \Carlton (eds), J. T.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 27-106.
Bryars SR, 1997. Unpublished PhD thesis. Adelaide, Australia: Flinders University, 256 pp.
Bryars SR; Havenhand JN, 2004. Temporal and spatial distribution and abundance of blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) larvae in a temperate gulf. Marine and Freshwater Research, 55(8):809-818.
Calman WT, 1927. Report on the Phyllocarida, Cumacea and Stomatopoda (Cambridge Exp. Suez 1924). Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 22:399-401.
Carpenter KE; Krupp F; Jones DA; Zajonz U, 1997. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), viii + 293 pp.
Cavaliere A; Berdar A, 1975. Presenza di Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (Decapoda Brachyura) nello Stretto di Messina. (Presenza di Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (Decapoda Brachyura) nello Stretto di Messina.) Bollettino di Pesca, Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia, 30(2):315-322.
Chande AI; Mgaya YD, 2003. The Fishery of Portunus pelagicus and Species Diversity of Portunid Crabs along the Coast of Dar es Salaam. Tanzania Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci, 2(1):75-84.
Chatterji A; Ansari ZA; Ingole BS; Sreepada RA; Kanti A; Parulekar AH, 1994. Effect of lunar periodicity on the abundance of crabs from the Goa coast. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 23(3):180-181.
Corsini Foka M; Kondylatos; G; Economidis PS, 2004. Occurrence of the Lessepsian species Poriunus pelagicus (Crustacea) and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces) in the marine area of Rhodes Island. Mediterranean Marine Science, 5(1):83-89.
Crocetta F, 2006. First record of Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Crustaceana, 79(9):1145-1148.
Crosnier A, 1962. Crustaces decapodes Portunidae. Faune de Madagascar, 16:1-154.
Demetropoulos A; Neocleous D, 1969. The fishes and crustaceans of Cyprus. Fisheries Bulletin Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Cyprus, 1:3-21.
Duruer EC; Kinacigil T; Soykan O; Tosunoglu Z, 2008. Contribution to some biological and fishery aspects of commercial penaid prawns in Mersin Bay (North-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey). Crustaceana, 81(5):577-585.
Ekman S, 1967. Zoogeography of the sea. London, UK: Siddgwick and Jackson, 419 pp.
Encyclopedia of Life, 2013. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org
Engel WAvan, 1958. The blue crab and its fishery in Chesapeake Bay. Part I. Reproduction, early development, growth and migration. Commercial Fishing Review, 20:6-17.
Faisal MS; Ismaeel AO; Ali NM, 2010. Parasitic infections in the blue crab swimmer Portunus pelagicus (Linneaus, 1758), (Arthropoda: Crustacea) found in the Arabian gulf (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 28(3):185-196. http://www.agu.edu.bh/en/magazine/index_archive2.asp
FAO-DIAS, 2013. Database on introductions of aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Global Information System. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, FAO. http://www.fao.org/fi/figis/
Fox HM, 1924. The migration of a Red Sea crab through the Suez Canal. Nature, 113:714-715.
Fox HM, 1927. Appendix to the Report on the Crustacea Decapoda (Brachyura). Zoological Results of the Cambridge Expedition on the Suez Canal, 1924. Transactions of the Zoological Society London, 22:217-219.
Galil BS, 2011. The Alien Crustaceans in the Mediterranean Sea: An Historical Review. In: In the wrong place-alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology and impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, 6 [ed. by Galil, B. S. \Clark, P. F. \Carlton (eds), J. T.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 377-401.
Ghisotti F, 1966. Il Callinectes sapidus Rathbun nel Mediterraneo (Crustacea, Decapoda). (Il Callinectes sapidus Rathbun nel Mediterraneo (Crustacea, Decapoda).) Natura (Milano), 57(3):177-180.
Gollasch S, 2006. Overview on introduced aquatic species in European navigational and adjacent waters. Helgoland Marine Research, 60(2):84-89. http://www.springerlink.com/(vbc5i445bmwdkp45y4ynpj45)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,3,13;journal,2,169;linkingpublicationresults,1:103796,1
Gruvel A, 1928. Repartition geographique de quelques Crustaces comestibles sur les cotes d'Egypte et de Syrie. (Repartition geographique de quelques Crustaces comestibles sur les cotes d'Egypte et de Syrie.) Comptes rendus de la société de biogéographie, 5(39):45-56.
Gruvel A, 1930. Les Richesses marines et fluviales de la Syrie. Exploitation actuelle-Avenir (Les Richesses marines et fluviales de la Syrie. Exploitation actuelle-Avenir), 68. Paris, France: Revue Scientifique, 33-41.
Heller C, 1861. Beiträge zur Crustaceen-Fauna des rothen Meeres. (Erster Theil.). Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Classe, Wien, 43. 297-374.
Hewitt C; Minchin D; Olenin S; Gollasch S, 2006. Canals, invasion corridors and Introductions. In: Bridging divides: maritime canals as invasion corridors, Monographiae Biologicae(83) [ed. by Gollasch, S. \Galil, B. S. \Cohen, A. N.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer, 301-306 pp.
Holthuis LB, 1961. Report on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda from Turkey and the Balkans. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 47:1-67.
Holthuis LB, 2004. The Identity and lectotype of Portunus pelagicus (L., 1758). Crustaceana, 77(10):1267-1269.
Holthuis LB; Gottlies E, 1958. An annotated list of Decapod Crustacea of the Mediterranean Coast of Israel, with an appendix listing the Decapoda of the Eastern Mediterranean. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel:1-126.
Hosseini M; Pazooki J; Safaie M; Tadi-Beni F, 2014. The Biology of the Blue Swimming Crab Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) along the Bushehr Coasts, Persian Gulf. Environmental studies of Persian Gulf, 1:81-92.
Josileen J; Menon NG, 2004. Larval Stages of the Blue Swimmer Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura). Crustaceana, 77(7):785-803.
Kamrani E; Sabili AN; Yahyavi M, 2010. Stock assessment and reproductive biology of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus in Bandar Abbas Coastal Waters, Northern Persian Gulf. Journal of the Persian Gulf (Marine Science), 1(2):11-22.
Kangas MI, 2000. Synopsis of the biology and exploitation of the blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus in Western Australia. Fisheries research report, 121. Perth, Western Australia: Fisheries Western Australia, 1-22 pp. http://www.fish.wa.gov.au/Documents/research_reports/frr121.pdf
Khvorov SA; Al-Sinawi MN; Al-Kharusi LH; Al-Mosharfi MN, 2012. Catalogue of brachyuran crabs (Decapoda) of the Sultanate of Oman: Part I. The Arabian Sea coast (Dhofar, Al-Wusta, southern part of Sharqiya). Crustaceana, 85(14):1735-1744.
Kocatas A; Katagan T, 2003. The Decapod Crustacean fauna of the Turkish Seas. Zoology in the Middle East, 29:63-74.
Koukouras A; Kitsos MS; Tzomos T; Tselepides A, 2010. Evolution of the entrance rate and of the spatio-temporal distribution of Lessepsian Crustacea Decapoda in the Mediterranean sea. Crustaceana, 83(12):1409-1430.
Krukenberg CFrW, 1888. Die Durchfluthung des Isthmus von Suez in chorologischer, hydrographischer und historischer Beziehung. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse meiner Reise vom Etang de Berre über Marseille und Triest nach Suakim und Massaua. II. Theil. Vergleichend- physiologische Studien. Experimente le Untersuchungen, ser. 2 (Die Durchfluthung des Isthmus von Suez in chorologischer, hydrographischer und historischer Beziehung. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse meiner Reise vom Etang de Berre über Marseille und Triest nach Suakim und Massaua. II. Theil. Vergleichend- physiologische Studien. Experimente le Untersuchungen, ser. 2), 5(1). 1-156.
Kumar MS; Ferguson G; Xiao Y; Hooper G; Venema S, 2000. Studies on Reproductive biology and distribution of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) in South Australia waters, Research Report Series 4. Adelaide, Australia: South Australian Research and Development Institute, 34 pp.
Lai JCY; Ng PKL; Davie PJF, 2010. A revision of the Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) species complex (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae), with the recognition of four species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 58(2):199-237.
Lestang Sde; Hall NG; Potter IC, 2003. Reproductive biology of the blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus, Decapoda: Portunidae) in five bodies of water on the west coast of Australia. Fishery Bulletin, 101:745-757.
Lewinsohn C; Holthuis LB, 1986. The Crustacea Decapoda of Cyprus. Zoologische Verhandelingen, 230: 1-64. Leiden, 230:1-64.
Liao YY; Wang HH; Lin ZG, 2011. Effect of ammonia and nitrite on vigour, survival rate, moulting rate of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus zoea. Aquaculture International, 19(2):339-350.
Llanes IB; Tourenq C; Drew C; Al Dhaheri S, 2008. Presence of the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) in the diet of the Pharaoh Eagle-Owl (Bubo ascalaphus) in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Journal of Raptor Research, 42(1):70-72.
McPherson R; Brown K, 2001. The bioaccumulation of cadmium by the Blue Swimmer Crab Portunus pelagicus L. Science of the Total Environment, 279(1-3):223-230.
Meagher TD, 1971. DPhil Thesis. Perth, Australia: University of Western Australia, 462 pp.
Naderloo R; Turkay M, 2012. Decapod crustaceans of the littoral and shallow sublittoral Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf: Faunistics, Biodiversity and Zoogeography. Zootaxa, 3374:1-67.
Nobili G, 1906. Faune carcinologique de la Mer Rouge. Décapodes et Stomatopodes. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie (Series 9), 4:1-347.
Ozcan T, 2012. The swimming crab Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775): host for the barnacle Chelonibia platula (Ranzani, 1818) from the Turkish coast. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment, 18(3):271-278.
Ozcan T; Katagan T; Kocatas A, 2005. Brachyuran crabs from Iskenderun Bay (southeastern Turkey). Crustaceana, 78(2):237-243.
Pasternak; Z; Abelso, 2002. Pasternak, Z., Abelson, A., Achituv, Y. (2002) Orientation of Chelonibia patula (Crustacea: Cirripedia) on the carapace of its crab host is determined by the feeding mechanism of the adult barnacles. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 82:583-588.
Pazooki J; Hosseini M; Vaziri Zadeh A, 2012. The Dietary Compositions of the Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) from Persian Gulf, South Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 20(3):416-422.
Perlmutter A, 1956. Sea fisheries. Report to the government of Israel. Technical Assistance program USOM Agricultural Report, 13. 58 pp.
Potter IC; Chrystal PJ; Loneragan NR, 1983. The biology of the blue manna crab P.pelagicus in an Australian Estuary. Marine Biology, 78:75-85.
Potter IC; Lestang Sde, 2000. Blue swimmer crab Portunus pelagicus in Leschenault Estuary and Koombana Bay, south-western Australia, 83:443-458.
Potter MA; Sumpton WD; Smith GS, 1991. Movement, fishing sector impact and factors affecting the recapture rate of tagged sand crabs, Portunus pelagicus (L.) in Moreton Bay, Queensland. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 42:751-760.
Rabaoui R; Arculeo M; Mansour L; Tlig-Zouari S, 2015. Occurrence of the lessepsian species Portunus segnis (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia): first record and new information on its biology and ecology. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 56:169-175.
Romano N; Zeng ChaoShu, 2006. The effects of salinity on the survival, growth and haemolymph osmolality of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs, Portunus pelagicus. Aquaculture, 260(1/4):151-162. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486
Rugolo LJ; Knotts KS; Lange AM; Crecco VA, 1998. Stock assessment of Chesapeake Bay blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun). In: Journal of Shellfish Research, 17(3) [ed. by Cook, P. A.\Davis, G. E.\Haaker, P. L.\Leighton, D. L.]. 906-930.
Safaie M; Kiabi B; Pazooki J; Reza Shokri M, 2013. Growth parameters and mortality rates of the blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) in coastal waters of Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 60(1):9-13.
Safaie M; Pazooki J; Kiabi B; Shokri MR, 2013. Reproductive biology of blue swimming crab, Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) in coastal waters of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, Iran. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12(2):430-444. http://www.jifro.ir/browse.php?a_id=1000&sid=1&slc_lang=en
Sigana DO; Mavuti KM; Ruwa RK, 2009. Fish species composition and distribution in Kilifi Creek. Advances in Coastal Ecology People, processes and ecosystems in Kenya, 20:15-27 pp.
Smith GS; Sumpton WD, 1987. Sand crabs a valuable fishery in southeast Queensland. Queensland Fisherman, 5:13-15.
Smith H, 1982. Blue crabs in South Australia - their status, potential and biology. Australian Fisheries Industry Council, 6(5). Adelaide,, South Australia: Australian Fisheries Industry Council (SAFIC), 6-9.
Steinitz W, 1929. Die Wanderung indopazifischer Arten ins Mittelmeer seit Beginn der Quartar-periode. (Die Wanderung indopazifischer Arten ins Mittelmeer seit Beginn der Quartar-periode.) Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 22:1-90.
Steinitz W, 1933. Beiträge zur Ke nntnis der Küstenfauna Palästinas. II. Pubblicazioni Della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, 1:143-154.
Sudtongkong C, 2006. Reproductive biology of P. pelagicus Linnaeus in Sikao Bay southern Thailand. Proceedings of the International conference "Coastal oceanography and sustainable marine aquaculture, confluence & synergy", 2-4 May 2006. Kota Kinabalu and Sabah, Malaysia and Thailand: Department of Marine Science Rajamangala University, 138-150.
Sukumaran KK; Neelakantan B, 1997. Food and feeding of Portunus (Portunus) sanguinolentus (Herbst) and Portunus (Portunus) pelagicus (Linnaeus) (Brachyura: Portunidae) along Karnataka coast. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 26(1):35-38.
Sumpton WD; Potter MA; Smith GS, 1994. Reproduction and growth of the commercial sand crab, Portunus pelagicus (L.) in Moreton Bay, Queensland. Asian Fisheries Science, 7:103-113.
Sumpton WD; Smith GS, 1991. The facts about sand crabs. The Queensland Fisherman, June 1991:29-31.
Svane I; Hooper G, 2004. Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Fishery. Fishery Assessment Report to PIRSA for the Blue Crab Fishery Management Committee, Aquatic Sciences Publication RD03/0274., Australia: SARDI, 53 pp.
Tirmizi NM; Kazmi QB, 1996. Marine fauna of Pakistan: 6. Crustacea: Brachyura, Brachyrhyncha Part II (Portunidae). Karachi, Pakistan: Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre, University of Karachi,.
Tirmizi NM; Kazmi QM, 1983. Carcinological studies in Pakistan, with remarks on species common to the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 9:347-380.
Torchio M, 1967. Il Callinectes sapidus Rathbun nelle acque siciliane (Crustacea, Decapoda). Natura, 58(1):81.
Torchio M, 1968. Osservazioni e considerazioni sugli spostamenti di alcuni malacostraci in Mediterraneo. (Osservazioni e considerazioni sugli spostamenti di alcuni malacostraci in Mediterraneo.) Natura, Milano, 59(2):61-74.
Tortonese E, 1986. Apogonidae. In: Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Vol [ed. by Whitehead, P. J. P. \Bauchot, M. L. \Hureau, J. C. \Nielsen, J. \Torton]. Paris, France: UNESCO, 803-809 pp.
Ward M, 1942. Notes on the Crustacea of the Desjardins Museum, Mauritius Institute with descriptions of new genera and species. Bulletin of the Mauritius Institute, 2(2):49-113.
Weng HT, 1992. The sand crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus) populations of two different environments in Queensland. Fisheries Research, 13:407-422.
Yokes MB; Karhan SÜ; Okus E; Yüksek A; Aslan-Yilmaz A; Yilmaz IN; Demirel N; Demir V; Galil BS, 2007. Alien crustacean decapods from the Aegean coast of Turkey. Aquatic Invasions, 2(3):162-168. http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Yokes_etal.pdf
Zenetos A; Gofas S; Verlaque M; Cinar ME; Garcia Raso JE; Bianchi CN; Morri C; Azzurro E; Bilecenoglu M; Froglia C; Siokou I; Violanti D; Sfriso A; San Martin G; Giangrande A; Katagan T; Ballesteros E; Ramos-Espla A; Mastrototaro F; Ocana O; Zingone A; Gambi MC; Streftaris N, 2010. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. Mediterranean Marine Science, 11(2):381-493. http://www.medit-mar-sc.net/files/201102/23-103521437_MMS_v11n2_ZENETOS.pdf
Al-Mohanna SY, Subrahmanyam MNV, 2001. Flux of heavy metal accumulation in various organs of the intertidal marine blue crab, Portunus pelagicus (L.) from the Kuwait coast after the Gulf War. In: Environment International, 27 (4) 321-326.
Apel M, Spiridonov V A, 1998. Taxonomy and zoogeography of the portunid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae) of the Arabian Gulf and adjacent waters. In: Fauna of Arabia, Vol. 17. Basle, Switzerland: Pro Entomologia. 159-331.
Ariani AP, Serra V, 1969. (Sulla presenza del Portunus pelagicus (L.) in acque italiane, con osservazioni sulla morfologia delle specie (Crustacea Decapoda)). In: Archivio Botanico e Biogeografico Italiano, 14 (4) 187-206.
Brockerhoff A, McLay C, 2011. Human-Mediated spread of Alien Crabs. In: In the wrong place-alien marine crustaceans: distribution, biology and impacts. Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology, 6 [ed. by Galil BS, Clark PF, Carlton JT]. Berlin, Germany: Springer. 27-106.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Corsini Foka M, Kondylatos, G, Economidis PS, 2004. Occurrence of the Lessepsian species Poriunus pelagicus (Crustacea) and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces) in the marine area of Rhodes Island. In: Mediterranean Marine Science, 5 (1) 83-89.
Crocetta F, 2006. First record of Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea. In: Crustaceana, 79 (9) 1145-1148.
Crosnier A, 1962. Crustaces decapodes Portunidae. In: Faune de Madagascar, 16 1-154.
Demetropoulos A, Neocleous D, 1969. The fishes and crustaceans of Cyprus. In: Fisheries Bulletin Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Cyprus, 1 3-21.
Fox HM, 1924. The migration of a Red Sea crab through the Suez Canal. In: Nature, 113 714-715.
Ghisotti F, 1966. (Il Callinectes sapidus Rathbun nel Mediterraneo (Crustacea, Decapoda)). In: Natura (Milano), 57 (3) 177-180.
Gruvel A, 1928. (Repartition geographique de quelques Crustaces comestibles sur les cotes d'Egypte et de Syrie). In: Comptes rendus de la société de biogéographie, 5 (39) 45-56.
Gruvel A, 1930. (Les Richesses marines et fluviales de la Syrie). In: Exploitation actuelle-Avenir, 68 Paris, France: Revue Scientifique. 33-41.
Holthuis LB, 1961. Report on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda from Turkey and the Balkans. In: Zoologische Verhandelingen, 47 1-67.
Khvorov SA, Al-Sinawi MN, Al-Kharusi LH, Al-Mosharfi MN, 2012. Catalogue of brachyuran crabs (Decapoda) of the Sultanate of Oman: Part I. The Arabian Sea coast (Dhofar, Al-Wusta, southern part of Sharqiya). In: Crustaceana, 85 (14) 1735-1744.
Kocatas A, Katagan T, 2003. The Decapod Crustacean fauna of the Turkish Seas. In: Zoology in the Middle East, 29 63-74.
Lai JCY, Ng PKL, Davie PJF, 2010. A revision of the Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) species complex (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae), with the recognition of four species. In: Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 58 (2) 199-237.
Naderloo R, Turkay M, 2012. Decapod crustaceans of the littoral and shallow sublittoral Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf: Faunistics, Biodiversity and Zoogeography. In: Zootaxa, 3374 1-67.
Nobili G, 1906. (Faune carcinologique de la Mer Rouge. Décapodes et Stomatopodes). In: Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie (Series 9), 4 1-347.
Ozcan T, Katagan T, Kocatas A, 2005. Brachyuran crabs from Iskenderun Bay (southeastern Turkey). In: Crustaceana, 78 (2) 237-243.
Sigana DO, Mavuti KM, Ruwa RK, 2009. Fish species composition and distribution in Kilifi Creek. In: Advances in Coastal Ecology People, processes and ecosystems in Kenya, 20 15-27.
Steinitz W, 1929. Immigration of Indo-Pacific species into the Mediterranean Sea since the start of the Quaternary. (Die Wanderung indopazifischer Arten ins Mittelmeer seit Beginn der Quartärperiode.). Internationale Revue der gesammten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie. 1-90.
Tirmizi NM, Kazmi QM, 1983. Carcinological studies in Pakistan, with remarks on species common to the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. In: Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, 9 347-380.
Torchio M, 1967. (Il Callinectes sapidus Rathbun nelle acque siciliane (Crustacea, Decapoda)). In: Natura, 58 (1) 81.
Yokes M B, Karhan S Ü, Okus E, Yüksek A, Aslan-Yİlmaz A, Yİlmaz I N, Demİrel N, Demİr V, Galil B S, 2007. Alien crustacean decapods from the Aegean coast of Turkey. Aquatic Invasions. 2 (3), 162-168. DOI:10.3391/ai.2007.2.3.2
Zenetos A, Gofas S, Verlaque M, Cinar ME, Garcia Raso JE, Bianchi CN, Morri C, Azzurro E, Bilecenoglu M, Froglia C, Siokou I, Violanti D, Sfriso A, San Martin G, Giangrande A, Katagan T, Ballesteros E, Ramos-Espla A, Mastrototaro F, Ocana O, Zingone A, Gambi MC, Streftaris N, 2010. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part I. Spatial distribution. In: Mediterranean Marine Science, 11 (2) 381-493. http://www.medit-mar-sc.net/files/201102/23-103521437_MMS_v11n2_ZENETOS.pdf
ContributorsTop of page
07/08/2015 Updated by:
Bella Galil, National Institute of Oceanography, Israel
19/09/2013 Original text by:
Ekaterina Shalaeva, Consultant, South Croydon, Greater London, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/