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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
Other Scientific Names
- Lelystad virus Wensvoort et al., 1991
International Common Names
- English: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Nidovirales
- Family: Arteriviridae
- Genus: Artervirus
- Species: Arterivirus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
The causative agent of PRRS is an enveloped virus of 45-65 nm diameter, with a relatively smooth surface and an isometric, occasionally icosahedral nucleocapsid core of 25-35 nm diameter. Short (8-12 nm) granular projections are sometimes seen on the surface of negatively-stained extracellular viral particles. Three proteins have been detected in purified virions: a nucleocapsid protein (VP1), a matrixprotein (VP2), and a glycosylated envelope protein (VP3). PRRS viruses are sensitive to lipid solvents. They can pass through 200 nm filters with high efficiency and 50 nm filters with low efficiency. PRRSV is sensitive to pH variations away from neutral; the virus is stable at pH 6-7.5 but infectivity is quickly lost above or below this range. The virus is stable for long periods at -70 and -20ºC, but 90% infectivity was lost after storage at 4ºC for a week. Infectivity persists for 1-6 days at 20-21ºC, 3-24 h at 37ºC, and 6-20 min at 56ºC. (Bloemraad et al., 1994).
In the laboratory, PRRSV can be neutralized by convalescent sow or rabbit hyperimmune sera (Benfield et al., 1992) at titres of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. Cytopathic effects (in cell line CL 2621 or alveolar macrophages) begin as small rounded clumps of cells appearing raised above the uninfected remaining monolayer. Many cells develop pyknotic nuclei and detach from the monolayer within 2-4 days. PRRSV has no serological cross-reaction with other vertebrate RNA viruses. It most closely resembles lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase (elevating) virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).
Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.
Host AnimalsTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Benfield DA; Nelson E; Collins JE; Harris L; Goyal SM; Robison D; Christianson WT; Morrison RB; Gorcyca D; Chladek D, 1992. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):127-133; 16 ref.
Bloemraad M; Kluijver EPde; Petersen A; Burkhardt GE; Wensvoort G, 1994. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: temperature and pH stability of Lelystad virus and its survival in tissue specimens from viraemic pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 42(4):361-371; 28 ref.
Godeny EK; Chen L; Kumar SN; Methven SL; Koonin EV; Brinton MA, 1993. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Virology, 194:585-596.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Plagemann PGW, 1992. Lactate Dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), Equine arteritis virus (EAV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV): a new group of positive-stranded RNA viruses. Proceedings of International Symposium on SIRS/PRRS/PEARS, Minnesota, USA, 5.
Wensvoort G; Terpstra C; Pol JMA; Laak EAter; Bloemraad M; Kluyver EPde; Kragten C; Buiten Lvan; Besten Aden; Wagenaar F; Broekhuijsen JM; Moonen PLJM; Zetstra T; Boer EAde; Tibben HJ; Jong MFde; Veld Pvan 't; Groenland GJR; Gennep JAvan; Voets MT; Verheijden JHM; Braamskamp J, 1991. Mystery swine disease in the Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. Veterinary Quarterly, 13(3):121-130; 31 ref.
CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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