Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Arterivirus

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Datasheet

Arterivirus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arterivirus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Arteriviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleVirus structure
Caption
CopyrightT. Drew
Virus structureT. Drew

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arterivirus

Other Scientific Names

  • Lelystad virus Wensvoort et al., 1991

International Common Names

  • English: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

English acronym

  • LV
  • PRRSV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Arteriviridae
  •                     Genus: Artervirus
  •                         Species: Arterivirus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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The causative agent of PRRS is an enveloped virus of 45-65 nm diameter, with a relatively smooth surface and an isometric, occasionally icosahedral nucleocapsid core of 25-35 nm diameter. Short (8-12 nm) granular projections are sometimes seen on the surface of negatively-stained extracellular viral particles. Three proteins have been detected in purified virions: a nucleocapsid protein (VP1), a matrixprotein (VP2), and a glycosylated envelope protein (VP3). PRRS viruses are sensitive to lipid solvents. They can pass through 200 nm filters with high efficiency and 50 nm filters with low efficiency. PRRSV is sensitive to pH variations away from neutral; the virus is stable at pH 6-7.5 but infectivity is quickly lost above or below this range. The virus is stable for long periods at -70 and -20ºC, but 90% infectivity was lost after storage at 4ºC for a week. Infectivity persists for 1-6 days at 20-21ºC, 3-24 h at 37ºC, and 6-20 min at 56ºC. (Bloemraad et al., 1994).

In the laboratory, PRRSV can be neutralized by convalescent sow or rabbit hyperimmune sera (Benfield et al., 1992) at titres of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. Cytopathic effects (in cell line CL 2621 or alveolar macrophages) begin as small rounded clumps of cells appearing raised above the uninfected remaining monolayer. Many cells develop pyknotic nuclei and detach from the monolayer within 2-4 days. PRRSV has no serological cross-reaction with other vertebrate RNA viruses. It most closely resembles lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase (elevating) virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

References

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Benfield DA; Nelson E; Collins JE; Harris L; Goyal SM; Robison D; Christianson WT; Morrison RB; Gorcyca D; Chladek D, 1992. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):127-133; 16 ref.

Bloemraad M; Kluijver EPde; Petersen A; Burkhardt GE; Wensvoort G, 1994. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: temperature and pH stability of Lelystad virus and its survival in tissue specimens from viraemic pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 42(4):361-371; 28 ref.

Godeny EK; Chen L; Kumar SN; Methven SL; Koonin EV; Brinton MA, 1993. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Virology, 194:585-596.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Plagemann PGW, 1992. Lactate Dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), Equine arteritis virus (EAV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV): a new group of positive-stranded RNA viruses. Proceedings of International Symposium on SIRS/PRRS/PEARS, Minnesota, USA, 5.

Wensvoort G; Terpstra C; Pol JMA; Laak EAter; Bloemraad M; Kluyver EPde; Kragten C; Buiten Lvan; Besten Aden; Wagenaar F; Broekhuijsen JM; Moonen PLJM; Zetstra T; Boer EAde; Tibben HJ; Jong MFde; Veld Pvan 't; Groenland GJR; Gennep JAvan; Voets MT; Verheijden JHM; Braamskamp J, 1991. Mystery swine disease in the Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. Veterinary Quarterly, 13(3):121-130; 31 ref.

Distribution Maps

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