Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Arterivirus

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Datasheet

Arterivirus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arterivirus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Nidovirales
  •         Family: Arteriviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleVirus structure
Caption
CopyrightT. Drew
Virus structureT. Drew

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arterivirus

Other Scientific Names

  • Lelystad virus Wensvoort et al., 1991

International Common Names

  • English: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

English acronym

  • LV
  • PRRSV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Nidovirales
  •                 Family: Arteriviridae
  •                     Genus: Artervirus
  •                         Species: Arterivirus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MalaysiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

BelgiumPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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The causative agent of PRRS is an enveloped virus of 45-65 nm diameter, with a relatively smooth surface and an isometric, occasionally icosahedral nucleocapsid core of 25-35 nm diameter. Short (8-12 nm) granular projections are sometimes seen on the surface of negatively-stained extracellular viral particles. Three proteins have been detected in purified virions: a nucleocapsid protein (VP1), a matrixprotein (VP2), and a glycosylated envelope protein (VP3). PRRS viruses are sensitive to lipid solvents. They can pass through 200 nm filters with high efficiency and 50 nm filters with low efficiency. PRRSV is sensitive to pH variations away from neutral; the virus is stable at pH 6-7.5 but infectivity is quickly lost above or below this range. The virus is stable for long periods at -70 and -20ºC, but 90% infectivity was lost after storage at 4ºC for a week. Infectivity persists for 1-6 days at 20-21ºC, 3-24 h at 37ºC, and 6-20 min at 56ºC. (Bloemraad et al., 1994).

In the laboratory, PRRSV can be neutralized by convalescent sow or rabbit hyperimmune sera (Benfield et al., 1992) at titres of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. Cytopathic effects (in cell line CL 2621 or alveolar macrophages) begin as small rounded clumps of cells appearing raised above the uninfected remaining monolayer. Many cells develop pyknotic nuclei and detach from the monolayer within 2-4 days. PRRSV has no serological cross-reaction with other vertebrate RNA viruses. It most closely resembles lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase (elevating) virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Anas platyrhynchosExperimental settings
GallusExperimental settings
NumidaExperimental settings
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Experimental settings

References

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Benfield DA; Nelson E; Collins JE; Harris L; Goyal SM; Robison D; Christianson WT; Morrison RB; Gorcyca D; Chladek D, 1992. Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332). Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):127-133; 16 ref.

Bloemraad M; Kluijver EPde; Petersen A; Burkhardt GE; Wensvoort G, 1994. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: temperature and pH stability of Lelystad virus and its survival in tissue specimens from viraemic pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 42(4):361-371; 28 ref.

Godeny EK; Chen L; Kumar SN; Methven SL; Koonin EV; Brinton MA, 1993. Complete genomic sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Virology, 194:585-596.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Plagemann PGW, 1992. Lactate Dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), Equine arteritis virus (EAV), and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV): a new group of positive-stranded RNA viruses. Proceedings of International Symposium on SIRS/PRRS/PEARS, Minnesota, USA, 5.

Wensvoort G; Terpstra C; Pol JMA; Laak EAter; Bloemraad M; Kluyver EPde; Kragten C; Buiten Lvan; Besten Aden; Wagenaar F; Broekhuijsen JM; Moonen PLJM; Zetstra T; Boer EAde; Tibben HJ; Jong MFde; Veld Pvan 't; Groenland GJR; Gennep JAvan; Voets MT; Verheijden JHM; Braamskamp J, 1991. Mystery swine disease in the Netherlands: the isolation of Lelystad virus. Veterinary Quarterly, 13(3):121-130; 31 ref.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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