Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pomoxis nigromaculatus
(black crappie)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pomoxis nigromaculatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black crappie
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The black crappie is a freshwater fish, which has been widely introduced as a game species throughout North America. It is omnivorous, and in the absence of predators may overpopulate areas, altering fish communities th...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionPomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult. USA.
Copyright©Fishes of North Carolina/http://www.ncfishes.com - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult. USA.
AdultPomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult. USA.©Fishes of North Carolina/http://www.ncfishes.com - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult, ca.10cm (3.9 in) long. Salt Slough, San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex, California, USA. November 2012.
TitleAdult
CaptionPomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult, ca.10cm (3.9 in) long. Salt Slough, San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex, California, USA. November 2012.
Copyright©W. Beckon-2012/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult, ca.10cm (3.9 in) long. Salt Slough, San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex, California, USA. November 2012.
AdultPomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie); adult, ca.10cm (3.9 in) long. Salt Slough, San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex, California, USA. November 2012.©W. Beckon-2012/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pomoxis nigromaculatus Lesueur

Preferred Common Name

  • black crappie

Other Scientific Names

  • Cantharus nigromaculatus Lesueur
  • Centrarchus hexacanthus Valenciennes
  • Hyperistius carolinensis Gill
  • Labrus sparoides Lacepède
  • Pomoxis barberi Hildebrand and Towers
  • Pomoxis sparoides Lacepède
  • Pomoxys sparoides Lacepède

International Common Names

  • English: black crappie; calico bass; crappie; crappie, black; crawpie; grass bass; lamplighter; marigane noire; moonfish; oswego bass; shiner; silver perch; slabs; speckled bass; speckled perch; strawberry bass; tinmouth bachelor

Local Common Names

  • Canada: crappie; crawpie; grass bass; marigane noire; moonfish; oswego bass; shiner; strawberry bass
  • Denmark: sort crappie
  • Estonia: kogerkrappi
  • Finland: mustapilkkuahven
  • Mexico: mojarra negra
  • Norway: svart solabbor
  • Portugal: perca-prateada
  • Sweden: kalikoabborre; svart solabborre
  • USA: bachelor; bank lick bass; bitterhead; lamplighter; Mason perch; slabs; speckled perch; specks; straw bass; tinmouth

Parasitoses name

  • calico bass

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The black crappie is a freshwater fish, which has been widely introduced as a game species throughout North America. It is omnivorous, and in the absence of predators may overpopulate areas, altering fish communities through competition and predation. It has been reported to cause salmon declines in rivers of northwest USA and also reduce populations of endemic and native prey species, including invertebrates and fish. In the USA, it has also been reported as affecting the endangered Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis, and the critically endangered Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Percoidei
  •                             Family: Centrarchidae
  •                                 Genus: Pomoxis
  •                                     Species: Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus was first described by Lesueur in 1829 and had several synonyms in the nineteenth and twentieth century namely; Cantharus nigromaculatus, Pomoxis barberi, Centrarchus hexacanthus, Hyperistius carolinensis, Labrus sparoides.

Description

Top of page

Black crappie have a laterally compressed and deep body, silvery green in colour with yellow-greenish sides and irregular black splotches. The tail and ventral fins are covered by flecks, though juveniles tend to have less pigment than adults. During the breeding season, males have a darker head and breast. Individuals generally have 7 but can occasionally have 8 dorsal spines, with 5-8 anal spines and 6/7 branchiostegals. They have ctenoid scales, an S-shaped snout and symmetric anal and dorsal fins (Trautman, 1981; Becker, 1983; Sigler et al., 1987; Smith, 1979; Jenkins et al., 1994; Mettee et al., 1996).

Distribution

Top of page

The species was originally found in most of the eastern half of the USA but it has been widely translocated across the country into many US states, including the north-eastern seaboard and in the west (Page and Burr, 1991).

Non-native distribution of the species includes Panama, Japan (not established), Morocco (not established), Mexico, Canada and China (Froese and Pauly, 2016). 

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaAbsent, unreliable recordIntroduced Not invasive Welcomme, 1988
JapanAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1936 Not invasive Welcomme, 1988

Africa

MoroccoAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced1961 Not invasive Welcomme, 1988

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
MexicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2016
USAPresentNative Not invasive Page and Burr, 1991; USGS, 2016
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Miller and Lowe, 1967; USGS, 2016
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Robison and Buchanan, 1988; USGS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Moyle, 1976; USGS, 2016
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Rasmussen, 1998; USGS, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Not invasive Schmidt, 1986; USGS, 2016
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Not invasive Raasch and Altemus, 1991; USGS, 2016
-IdahoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Linder, 1963; USGS, 2016
-KansasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Cross, 1967; USGS, 2016
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Burr and Warren, 1986; USGS, 2016
-MainePresentIntroduced Not invasive Everhart, 1976; USGS, 2016
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hartel, 1992; USGS, 2016
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holton, 1990; USGS, 2016
-NebraskaPresent Not invasive Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016
-NevadaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Deacon and Williams, 1984; USGS, 2016
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced Not invasive Deacon and Williams, 1984; USGS, 2016
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Not invasive Morse, 1905; USGS, 2016
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Tyus et al., 1982; USGS, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Not invasive Schmidt, 1986; USGS, 2016
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Miller and Robison, 1973; USGS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lampman, 1946; USGS, 2016
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hocutt et al., 1986; USGS, 2016
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced Not invasive Cooper, 1983; USGS, 2016
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Bailey et al., 1962; USGS, 2016
-TennesseePresentSigler and Miller, 1963; USGS, 2016
-TexasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Waldrip, 1993; USGS, 2016
-UtahPresentIntroduced Not invasive Sigler and Miller, 1963; USGS, 2016
-VermontPresentIntroduced Not invasive USGS, 2016
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Not invasive Lampman, 1946; USGS, 2016
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Stauffer et al., 1995; USGS, 2016
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Not invasive Becker, 1983; USGS, 2016
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Not invasive Baxter and Simon, 1970; USGS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

PanamaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2016

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

Black crappie is a popular sport fish and its distribution range has been greatly expanded through intentional stockings. It is now found in almost all suitable freshwater ecosystems in the USA (Page and Burr, 1991) and has been introduced from the USA to China, Mexico, Japan and Panama for aquaculture and to Morocco in 1961 as an ornamental fish (Welcomme, 1988).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Canada USA   Yes No Welcomme (1988)
China USA   Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Welcomme (1988)
Japan USA 1936 Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Welcomme (1988)
Mexico USA   Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Morocco USA 1961 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) No No Welcomme (1988)
Panama USA   Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No Welcomme (1988)
USA USA   Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes No Translocation within the country to many states outside its native range

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Commonly found in freshwater systems as an intentionally introduced fish species, black crappie may overpopulate ecosystems, altering fish communities through competition and predation. There is a high risk of its introduction to new areas for fisheries and aquaculture (Becker, 1983; Batzer et al., 2000; Sanderson et al., 2009; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009; 2010; Hughes and Herlihy, 2012).

Habitat

Top of page

Black crappie occur in shallow parts of large lakes, ponds, reservoirs and oxbow lakes and slower sections of large streams and rivers (Ross, 2001). Black crappie are found from turbid reservoirs and rivers, to eutrophic  and highly fertile lakes, to dark water mesotrophic lakes, to clear lakes. In their natural range, they prefer densely vegetated, warm, sandy to muddy bottoms, moderately acidic, and non-turbid waters of lakes and rivers (i.e., <50 JTU) (Sigler and Sigler, 1987). They are usually found in the middle to upper sections of the water column in the summer (Ross, 2001), but in north temperate lakes that freeze during winter, black crappie are often found near the bottom in the deepest parts of the lake. They are found in open water during the day but the shore at night when they are more active (Keast and Fox, 1992). They favour pH values from 6.0 to 7.5 and oxygen of more than 5 mg/l (Ross, 2001). The preferred temperature range is 14-26°C, and the preferred spawning temperature is about 18-20°C.

 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Irrigation channels Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Lakes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Ponds Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

Black crappie have a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 48 and haploid/gametic (n) of 24 (Klinkhardt et al., 1995). It is known that they naturally hybridize with white crappie and artificially crossed with other genera (Schwartz, 1972; Travnichek et al., 1996).

Reproductive Biology

Although it greatly varies among populations based on where they live, black crappie usually spawn between April and June, in water temperatures of 14-20°C. Individuals reach sexual maturity at two years of age. This species aggregates in shallow waters for feeding before spawning and then males prepare nests to attract females. Female black crappie have a very high egg production potential, usually 10,000-200,000 eggs depending on the size of the female. Males guard the nest until the juveniles can swim and feed freely (Becker, 1983; Robison et al., 1988; Jenkins et al., 1994; Mettee et al., 1996). 

Physiology and Phenology

Black crappie are active in winter and during the day (Becker, 1983).

Longevity

The longevity of black crappie is 15 years (Quinn, 2001).

Activity Patterns

Winter sees higher activity patterns (Becker, 1983).

Nutrition

Black crappie mainly feed early morning. Young individuals feed on planktonic crustaceans, dipterous larvae and zooplankton such as Cyclops spp., Cladocera, and Daphnia spp. Adults on the other hand feed on insects, minnows, and fingerlings of other species (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Black crappie are known to utilize all kinds of foods in the environment at all times of the year but the peak times for feeding are midnight, dawn, noon and dusk (Becker, 1983).

Environmental Requirements

The species is highly tolerant of environmental factors such as temperature (up to 31°C) (Froese and Pauly, 2016), pH (6.0 to 7.5) and oxygen down to 5 mg/l. However, it prefers cool and moderately turbid <50 JTU) or stagnant waters <10 m/s) between 14 and 20°C (Ross, 2011). 

Natural Food Sources

Top of page
Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
ChaoborusAdult 70
Chironomidae Adult 25
Cladocera Adult 50
CopepodaAdult 20
Flying insects Adult 15
Small fish Adult 25

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
27-52

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 31

Water Tolerances

Top of page
ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.07 Optimum
Conductivity (µmhos/cm) 418 Optimum
Depth (m b.s.l.) 0.2-0.6 Optimum
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 7.3 Optimum
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 1.5 Harmful
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 7.0-12.0 Optimum
Salinity (part per thousand) 10.0 Optimum
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) <50 Optimum
Velocity (cm/h) 10 Optimum
Water pH (pH) 6.0-7.5 Optimum
Water pH (pH) 5.0-9.0 Harmful
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 14-20 Harmful
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 31.0 Harmful

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ambloplites rupestris Predator All Stages to species N
Diacyclops thomasi Parasite All Stages to species N
Mesocyclops edax Parasite All Stages to species N
Micropterus salmoides Predator All Stages to species N
Perca flavescens Predator All Stages to species N

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Large piscivorous fish, such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) are potential predators of black crappie. Predatory aquatic insects and zooplankton (Diacyclops thomasi and Mesocyclops edax) may also be potential predators (Martinez, 1991).

Black crappie has been reported as infected with Gyrodactylus goerani and Gyrodactylus lineadactylus (Harris et al., 2004). The monogenes Haplocleidus dispar and Cleidodiscus vancleavei have been reported as parasites of the black crappie. Several protozoans, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans and leeches have also been recognised (Hoffman, 1967).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Intentional Introduction

The main pathway is deliberate introductions for recreational fishing (Page and Burr, 1991). This fish species has been introduced to countries outside of its native range for fisheries enhancement, aquaculture and ornamental purposes (Welcomme, 1988).  

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

Black crappie is an important fish for sportive fisheries, stocking and aquaculture (Becker, 1983). Due to its popularity as a game fish it may increase tourism and have positive local impacts (Sigler et al., 1987). 

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Biodiversity

Black crappie is an omnivorous species, and in the absence of predators may overpopulate areas, altering fish communities through competition and predation. They have been reported to cause salmon declines in rivers of northwest USA (Sanderson et al., 2009) and reduce endemic and native prey species including invertebrates (critically endangered Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis and midge larvae) and fish (endangered Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis) and juveniles of their predators such as northern pike (Esoxlucius), walleye (Sander vitreus) and muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) (Becker, 1983; Batzer et al., 2000; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009; 2010; Hughes and Herlihy, 2012). 

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Catostomus warnerensis (Warner sucker)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesOregonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010
Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Social Impact

Top of page

This species is important for recreational fishing and may have positive impacts on tourism (Sigler et al., 1987). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic Value

Black crappie is an economically important game fish. It is a popular fish for anglers because of its white and flaky flesh. It can also be easily caught using a variety of methods and can be caught all year round, even in harsh winter conditions (i.e. ice covered lakes) (Becker, 1983; Sigler et al., 1987).  

Social Benefit

It is an important fish species for recreational fishery (Sigler et al., 1987). Its positive impacts on tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating, etc. All of these activities may generate or improve economic incomes. 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

The black crappie is very similar in physical appearance to the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) but the black crappie has a deeper body and a longer dorsal fin base, is silvery-green in colour and has 7/8 spines on its dorsal fin (white crappies have five or six dorsal spines) (Ross, 2001).

The black crappie can be easily distinguished from other sunfish by having less than 10 dorsal spines. 

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

Public Awareness

Due to its recreational value there is a lack of awareness of its impacts.

Control

Little is known with regards to the potential control of this species using chemicals, physical or cultural control methods.

Biological Control

There is no evidence of biological control for this species but natural enemies could be used (e.g. yellow perch (Perca flavescens), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and zooplankton; Diacyclops thomasi and Mesocyclops edax) (Martinez, 1991).

Monitoring and Surveillance (Incl. Remote Sensing)

Both telemetry and radio telemetry could be used.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

There is little awareness of the invasiveness of black crappie and the extent of its impact on other native species, the ecosystem structure and services. Following documented evidence of its impacts, appropriate prevention and control measures should then be planned and implemented.

References

Top of page

Bailey RM, Allum, MO, 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 119:1-131.

Batzer DP, Pusateri CR, Vetter R, 2000. Impacts of fish predation on marsh invertebrates: direct and indirect effects. Wetlands, 20(2):307-312.

Baxter GT, Simon JR, 1970. Wyoming fishes. Bulletin No. 4. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY, 4.

Becker GC, 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. Madison, WI, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, xii + 1052 pp.

Burr BM, Warren Jr ML, 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, 4. Frankfort, Kentucky, USA: Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission.

Carlander KD, 1977. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, volume 2, 2. Ames, Iowa, USA: The Iowa State University Press, 432 pp.

Cooper EL, 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the Northeastern United States. Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania State University Press University Park, 243 pp.

Cross FB, 1967. Handbook of fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Misc Publ No 45. Kansas, USA: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 357 pp.

Deacon JE, Williams JE, 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 97(1):103-118.

Everhart WH, 1976. Fishes of Maine. 4th edition. Augusta, Maine, USA: Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2016. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Harris PD, Shinn AP, Cable J, Bakke TA, 2004. Nominal species of the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), with a list of principal host species. Systematic Parasitology, 59(1):1-27.

Hartel K, 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the MCZ Fish Department, 2:1-9.

Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, Stauffer Jr JR, 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes [ed. by Hocutt, C. H. \Wiley, E. O.]. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 161-212.

Hoffman GL, 1967. Parasites of North American freshwater fishes. Berkeley: University of California Press, viii + 486 pp.

Holton GD, 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Helena, Montana, USA: Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, 104 pp.

Hughes RM, Herlihy AT, 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries (Bethesda), 37(5):201-211.

Jenkins RE, Burkhead NM, 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. Bethesda, MD, USA: American Fisheries Society.

Keast A, Fox MG, 1992. Space use and feeding patterns of offshore fish assemblage in shallow mesotrophic lake. Environmental Biolology of Fishes, 34:159-170.

Klinkhardt M, Tesche M, Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften.

Lampman BH, 1946. The Coming of the Pond Fishes. Portland, Oregon, USA: Binfords and Mort.

Lee DS, Gilbert CR, Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, McAllister DE, Stauffer JRJr, 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. Raleigh, NC, RC: North Carolina State Museum of Natural History,.

Linder AD, 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. TEBIWA, 6:12-15.

Martinez ND, 1991. Artifacts or attributes? Effects of resolution on the Little Rock Lake food web. Ecol Monogr, 61:367-392.

Mettee M, O'Neil P, Pierson J, 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Birmingham, Alabama, USA: Oxmoor House, Inc, 820 pp.

Miller RJ, Robison HW, 1973. The Fishes of Oklahoma. Oklahoma, USA: Oklahoma State University Press.

Miller RR, Lowe CH, 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona. In: The Vertebrates of Arizona [ed. by Lowe, C. H.]. Tuscon, USA: University of Arizona Press, 133-151.

Morse SR, 1905. Fresh and salt water fish found in the waters of New Jersey. Part I. New Jersey, USA: MacCrellish and Quigley.

Moyle PB, 1976. Inland fishes of California. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.

Page LM, Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp.

Quinn S, 2001. How long do fish live? In-Fisherman, 26:15.

Raasch MS, Altemus Sr VL, 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Dover, Delaware, USA: Delaware State College Center for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware, 166 pp.

Rasmussen JL, 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi river basin. In: 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH. unpaginated.

Robison H, Buchanan T, 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA: Universty of Arkansas Press, 536 pp.

Ross ST, 2001. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson, 624 pp.

Sanderson BL, Barnas KA, Rub AMW, 2009. Nonindigenous species of the Pacific Northwest: an overlooked risk to endangered salmon? , BioScience, 59(3):245-256

Schmidt RE, 1986. Zoogeography of the northern Appalachians. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes [ed. by Hocutt, C. H. \Wiley, E. O.]. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 137-160.

Schwartz FJ, 1972. World literature to fish hybrids with an analysis by family, species, and hybrid, Gulf Coast Res. Lab. Mus. Publication, 3:1-328

Scott WB, Crossman EJ, 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bulletin 184, NO. 184:966 pp.

Sigler W, Sigler J, 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin. Reno, Nevada, USA: University of Nevada Press, 425 pp.

Sigler WF, Miller RR, 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah, USA: Utah Department of Fish and Game, 203 pp.

Smith PW, 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Urbana, IL, USA: University of Illinois Press.

Stauffer JR, Boltz JM, White LR, 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. The Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 146:1-389.

Trautman MB, 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Columbus, OH, USA: Ohio State University Press.

Travnichek VH, Maceina MJ, Smith SM, Dunham RA, 1996. Natural Hybridization between black and white crappies (Pomoxis) in 10 Alabama reservoirs, American Midland Naturalist, 135:185-191

Tyus HM, Burdick BD, Valdez RA, Haynes CM, Lytle TA, Berry CR, 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado basin: distribution, abundance, and status. In: Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future [ed. by Miller, W. H. \Tyus, H. M. \Carlson, C. A.]. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: Western Division, American Fisheries Society, 12-70.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis, 5-year review: summary and evalution., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Warner sucker (Catostomus warnerensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Washington DC, USA: USFWS. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3356.pdf

USGS NAS, 2016. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/

Waldrip LLW, 1993. 1992 fish stocking report. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. January 8, 1993, 1993. Texas, USA: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 9-12.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
FishBasehttp://www.fishbase.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Non Indigenous Aquatic Species (NAS)http://nas.er.usgs.gov/

Contributors

Top of page

13/05/16 Original text by:

Ali Serhan Tarkan, Mugla Sitki Koçman University, Turkey

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map