Pomoxis nigromaculatus (black crappie)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural Food Sources
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pomoxis nigromaculatus Lesueur
Preferred Common Name
- black crappie
Other Scientific Names
- Cantharus nigromaculatus Lesueur
- Centrarchus hexacanthus Valenciennes
- Hyperistius carolinensis Gill
- Labrus sparoides Lacepède
- Pomoxis barberi Hildebrand and Towers
- Pomoxis sparoides Lacepède
- Pomoxys sparoides Lacepède
International Common Names
- English: black crappie; calico bass; crappie; crappie, black; crawpie; grass bass; lamplighter; marigane noire; moonfish; oswego bass; shiner; silver perch; slabs; speckled bass; speckled perch; strawberry bass; tinmouth bachelor
Local Common Names
- Canada: crappie; crawpie; grass bass; marigane noire; moonfish; oswego bass; shiner; strawberry bass
- Denmark: sort crappie
- Estonia: kogerkrappi
- Finland: mustapilkkuahven
- Mexico: mojarra negra
- Norway: svart solabbor
- Portugal: perca-prateada
- Sweden: kalikoabborre; svart solabborre
- USA: bachelor; bank lick bass; bitterhead; lamplighter; Mason perch; slabs; speckled perch; specks; straw bass; tinmouth
- calico bass
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The black crappie is a freshwater fish, which has been widely introduced as a game species throughout North America. It is omnivorous, and in the absence of predators may overpopulate areas, altering fish communities through competition and predation. It has been reported to cause salmon declines in rivers of northwest USA and also reduce populations of endemic and native prey species, including invertebrates and fish. In the USA, it has also been reported as affecting the endangered Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis, and the critically endangered Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Perciformes
- Suborder: Percoidei
- Family: Centrarchidae
- Genus: Pomoxis
- Species: Pomoxis nigromaculatus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus was first described by Lesueur in 1829 and had several synonyms in the nineteenth and twentieth century namely; Cantharus nigromaculatus, Pomoxis barberi, Centrarchus hexacanthus, Hyperistius carolinensis, Labrus sparoides.
DescriptionTop of page
Black crappie have a laterally compressed and deep body, silvery green in colour with yellow-greenish sides and irregular black splotches. The tail and ventral fins are covered by flecks, though juveniles tend to have less pigment than adults. During the breeding season, males have a darker head and breast. Individuals generally have 7 but can occasionally have 8 dorsal spines, with 5-8 anal spines and 6/7 branchiostegals. They have ctenoid scales, an S-shaped snout and symmetric anal and dorsal fins (Trautman, 1981; Becker, 1983; Sigler et al., 1987; Smith, 1979; Jenkins et al., 1994; Mettee et al., 1996).
DistributionTop of page
The species was originally found in most of the eastern half of the USA but it has been widely translocated across the country into many US states, including the north-eastern seaboard and in the west (Page and Burr, 1991).
Non-native distribution of the species includes Panama, Japan (not established), Morocco (not established), Mexico, Canada and China (Froese and Pauly, 2016).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Absent, unreliable record||Introduced||Not invasive||Welcomme, 1988|
|Japan||Absent, formerly present||Introduced||1936||Not invasive||Welcomme, 1988|
|Morocco||Absent, formerly present||Introduced||1961||Not invasive||Welcomme, 1988|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2016|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Froese and Pauly, 2004|
|Mexico||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||USGS, 2016|
|USA||Present||Native||Not invasive||Page and Burr, 1991; USGS, 2016|
|-Arizona||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Miller and Lowe, 1967; USGS, 2016|
|-Arkansas||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Robison and Buchanan, 1988; USGS, 2016|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Moyle, 1976; USGS, 2016|
|-Colorado||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Rasmussen, 1998; USGS, 2016|
|-Connecticut||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Schmidt, 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-Delaware||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Raasch and Altemus, 1991; USGS, 2016|
|-Idaho||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Linder, 1963; USGS, 2016|
|-Kansas||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Cross, 1967; USGS, 2016|
|-Kentucky||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Burr and Warren, 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-Maine||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Everhart, 1976; USGS, 2016|
|-Maryland||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Hartel, 1992; USGS, 2016|
|-Montana||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Holton, 1990; USGS, 2016|
|-Nebraska||Present||Not invasive||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Nevada||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Deacon and Williams, 1984; USGS, 2016|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Deacon and Williams, 1984; USGS, 2016|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Morse, 1905; USGS, 2016|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Tyus et al., 1982; USGS, 2016|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Schmidt, 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Miller and Robison, 1973; USGS, 2016|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lampman, 1946; USGS, 2016|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Hocutt et al., 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Cooper, 1983; USGS, 2016|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Bailey et al., 1962; USGS, 2016|
|-Tennessee||Present||Sigler and Miller, 1963; USGS, 2016|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Waldrip, 1993; USGS, 2016|
|-Utah||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Sigler and Miller, 1963; USGS, 2016|
|-Vermont||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||USGS, 2016|
|-Virginia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Lampman, 1946; USGS, 2016|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Stauffer et al., 1995; USGS, 2016|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Becker, 1983; USGS, 2016|
|-Wyoming||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Baxter and Simon, 1970; USGS, 2016|
Central America and Caribbean
|Panama||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Froese and Pauly, 2016|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Black crappie is a popular sport fish and its distribution range has been greatly expanded through intentional stockings. It is now found in almost all suitable freshwater ecosystems in the USA (Page and Burr, 1991) and has been introduced from the USA to China, Mexico, Japan and Panama for aquaculture and to Morocco in 1961 as an ornamental fish (Welcomme, 1988).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|China||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Japan||USA||1936||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||No||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Mexico||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Morocco||USA||1961||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||No||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Panama||USA||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|USA||USA||Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Translocation within the country to many states outside its native range|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Commonly found in freshwater systems as an intentionally introduced fish species, black crappie may overpopulate ecosystems, altering fish communities through competition and predation. There is a high risk of its introduction to new areas for fisheries and aquaculture (Becker, 1983; Batzer et al., 2000; Sanderson et al., 2009; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009; 2010; Hughes and Herlihy, 2012).
HabitatTop of page
Black crappie occur in shallow parts of large lakes, ponds, reservoirs and oxbow lakes and slower sections of large streams and rivers (Ross, 2001). Black crappie are found from turbid reservoirs and rivers, to eutrophic and highly fertile lakes, to dark water mesotrophic lakes, to clear lakes. In their natural range, they prefer densely vegetated, warm, sandy to muddy bottoms, moderately acidic, and non-turbid waters of lakes and rivers (i.e., <50 JTU) (Sigler and Sigler, 1987). They are usually found in the middle to upper sections of the water column in the summer (Ross, 2001), but in north temperate lakes that freeze during winter, black crappie are often found near the bottom in the deepest parts of the lake. They are found in open water during the day but the shore at night when they are more active (Keast and Fox, 1992). They favour pH values from 6.0 to 7.5 and oxygen of more than 5 mg/l (Ross, 2001). The preferred temperature range is 14-26°C, and the preferred spawning temperature is about 18-20°C.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Lakes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Reservoirs||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Black crappie have a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 48 and haploid/gametic (n) of 24 (Klinkhardt et al., 1995). It is known that they naturally hybridize with white crappie and artificially crossed with other genera (Schwartz, 1972; Travnichek et al., 1996).
Although it greatly varies among populations based on where they live, black crappie usually spawn between April and June, in water temperatures of 14-20°C. Individuals reach sexual maturity at two years of age. This species aggregates in shallow waters for feeding before spawning and then males prepare nests to attract females. Female black crappie have a very high egg production potential, usually 10,000-200,000 eggs depending on the size of the female. Males guard the nest until the juveniles can swim and feed freely (Becker, 1983; Robison et al., 1988; Jenkins et al., 1994; Mettee et al., 1996).
Physiology and Phenology
Black crappie are active in winter and during the day (Becker, 1983).
The longevity of black crappie is 15 years (Quinn, 2001).
Winter sees higher activity patterns (Becker, 1983).
Black crappie mainly feed early morning. Young individuals feed on planktonic crustaceans, dipterous larvae and zooplankton such as Cyclops spp., Cladocera, and Daphnia spp. Adults on the other hand feed on insects, minnows, and fingerlings of other species (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Black crappie are known to utilize all kinds of foods in the environment at all times of the year but the peak times for feeding are midnight, dawn, noon and dusk (Becker, 1983).
The species is highly tolerant of environmental factors such as temperature (up to 31°C) (Froese and Pauly, 2016), pH (6.0 to 7.5) and oxygen down to 5 mg/l. However, it prefers cool and moderately turbid <50 JTU) or stagnant waters <10 m/s) between 14 and 20°C (Ross, 2011).
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||31|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l)||0.07||Optimum|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||0.2-0.6||Optimum|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||7.3||Optimum|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||1.5||Harmful|
|Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate)||7.0-12.0||Optimum|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||10.0||Optimum|
|Turbidity (JTU turbidity)||<50||Optimum|
|Water pH (pH)||6.0-7.5||Optimum|
|Water pH (pH)||5.0-9.0||Harmful|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||14-20||Harmful|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||31.0||Harmful|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Ambloplites rupestris||Predator||All Stages||to species||N|
|Diacyclops thomasi||Parasite||All Stages||to species||N|
|Mesocyclops edax||Parasite||All Stages||to species||N|
|Micropterus salmoides||Predator||All Stages||to species||N|
|Perca flavescens||Predator||All Stages||to species||N|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Large piscivorous fish, such as yellow perch (Perca flavescens), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) are potential predators of black crappie. Predatory aquatic insects and zooplankton (Diacyclops thomasi and Mesocyclops edax) may also be potential predators (Martinez, 1991).
Black crappie has been reported as infected with Gyrodactylus goerani and Gyrodactylus lineadactylus (Harris et al., 2004). The monogenes Haplocleidus dispar and Cleidodiscus vancleavei have been reported as parasites of the black crappie. Several protozoans, trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans and leeches have also been recognised (Hoffman, 1967).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The main pathway is deliberate introductions for recreational fishing (Page and Burr, 1991). This fish species has been introduced to countries outside of its native range for fisheries enhancement, aquaculture and ornamental purposes (Welcomme, 1988).
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
Black crappie is an important fish for sportive fisheries, stocking and aquaculture (Becker, 1983). Due to its popularity as a game fish it may increase tourism and have positive local impacts (Sigler et al., 1987).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Biodiversity
Black crappie is an omnivorous species, and in the absence of predators may overpopulate areas, altering fish communities through competition and predation. They have been reported to cause salmon declines in rivers of northwest USA (Sanderson et al., 2009) and reduce endemic and native prey species including invertebrates (critically endangered Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis and midge larvae) and fish (endangered Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis) and juveniles of their predators such as northern pike (Esoxlucius), walleye (Sander vitreus) and muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) (Becker, 1983; Batzer et al., 2000; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009; 2010; Hughes and Herlihy, 2012).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Catostomus warnerensis (Warner sucker)||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||Oregon||Predation||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010|
|Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)||CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Predation||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010|
Social ImpactTop of page
This species is important for recreational fishing and may have positive impacts on tourism (Sigler et al., 1987).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Modification of natural benthic communities
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
Black crappie is an economically important game fish. It is a popular fish for anglers because of its white and flaky flesh. It can also be easily caught using a variety of methods and can be caught all year round, even in harsh winter conditions (i.e. ice covered lakes) (Becker, 1983; Sigler et al., 1987).
It is an important fish species for recreational fishery (Sigler et al., 1987). Its positive impacts on tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating, etc. All of these activities may generate or improve economic incomes.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
The black crappie is very similar in physical appearance to the white crappie (Pomoxis annularis) but the black crappie has a deeper body and a longer dorsal fin base, is silvery-green in colour and has 7/8 spines on its dorsal fin (white crappies have five or six dorsal spines) (Ross, 2001).
The black crappie can be easily distinguished from other sunfish by having less than 10 dorsal spines.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Due to its recreational value there is a lack of awareness of its impacts.
Little is known with regards to the potential control of this species using chemicals, physical or cultural control methods.
There is no evidence of biological control for this species but natural enemies could be used (e.g. yellow perch (Perca flavescens), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) and zooplankton; Diacyclops thomasi and Mesocyclops edax) (Martinez, 1991).
Monitoring and Surveillance (Incl. Remote Sensing)
Both telemetry and radio telemetry could be used.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
There is little awareness of the invasiveness of black crappie and the extent of its impact on other native species, the ecosystem structure and services. Following documented evidence of its impacts, appropriate prevention and control measures should then be planned and implemented.
ReferencesTop of page
Bailey RM, Allum, MO, 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 119:1-131.
Baxter GT, Simon JR, 1970. Wyoming fishes. Bulletin No. 4. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY, 4.
Burr BM, Warren Jr ML, 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, 4. Frankfort, Kentucky, USA: Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission.
Carlander KD, 1977. Handbook of freshwater fishery biology, volume 2, 2. Ames, Iowa, USA: The Iowa State University Press, 432 pp.
Cooper EL, 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the Northeastern United States. Pennsylvania, USA: Pennsylvania State University Press University Park, 243 pp.
Cross FB, 1967. Handbook of fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History Misc Publ No 45. Kansas, USA: Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 357 pp.
Everhart WH, 1976. Fishes of Maine. 4th edition. Augusta, Maine, USA: Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife.
Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.
Froese R, Pauly D, 2016. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org
Harris PD, Shinn AP, Cable J, Bakke TA, 2004. Nominal species of the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), with a list of principal host species. Systematic Parasitology, 59(1):1-27.
Hartel K, 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the MCZ Fish Department, 2:1-9.
Hocutt CH, Jenkins RE, Stauffer Jr JR, 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes [ed. by Hocutt, C. H. \Wiley, E. O.]. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 161-212.
Holton GD, 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Helena, Montana, USA: Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, 104 pp.
Keast A, Fox MG, 1992. Space use and feeding patterns of offshore fish assemblage in shallow mesotrophic lake. Environmental Biolology of Fishes, 34:159-170.
Lampman BH, 1946. The Coming of the Pond Fishes. Portland, Oregon, USA: Binfords and Mort.
Linder AD, 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. TEBIWA, 6:12-15.
Martinez ND, 1991. Artifacts or attributes? Effects of resolution on the Little Rock Lake food web. Ecol Monogr, 61:367-392.
Mettee M, O'Neil P, Pierson J, 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Birmingham, Alabama, USA: Oxmoor House, Inc, 820 pp.
Miller RJ, Robison HW, 1973. The Fishes of Oklahoma. Oklahoma, USA: Oklahoma State University Press.
Miller RR, Lowe CH, 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona. In: The Vertebrates of Arizona [ed. by Lowe, C. H.]. Tuscon, USA: University of Arizona Press, 133-151.
Morse SR, 1905. Fresh and salt water fish found in the waters of New Jersey. Part I. New Jersey, USA: MacCrellish and Quigley.
Quinn S, 2001. How long do fish live? In-Fisherman, 26:15.
Raasch MS, Altemus Sr VL, 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Dover, Delaware, USA: Delaware State College Center for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware, 166 pp.
Rasmussen JL, 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi river basin. In: 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH. unpaginated.
Robison H, Buchanan T, 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA: Universty of Arkansas Press, 536 pp.
Sanderson BL, Barnas KA, Rub AMW, 2009. Nonindigenous species of the Pacific Northwest: an overlooked risk to endangered salmon? , BioScience, 59(3):245-256
Schmidt RE, 1986. Zoogeography of the northern Appalachians. In: The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes [ed. by Hocutt, C. H. \Wiley, E. O.]. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 137-160.
Schwartz FJ, 1972. World literature to fish hybrids with an analysis by family, species, and hybrid, Gulf Coast Res. Lab. Mus. Publication, 3:1-328
Sigler W, Sigler J, 1987. Fishes of the Great Basin. Reno, Nevada, USA: University of Nevada Press, 425 pp.
Sigler WF, Miller RR, 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah, USA: Utah Department of Fish and Game, 203 pp.
Travnichek VH, Maceina MJ, Smith SM, Dunham RA, 1996. Natural Hybridization between black and white crappies (Pomoxis) in 10 Alabama reservoirs, American Midland Naturalist, 135:185-191
Tyus HM, Burdick BD, Valdez RA, Haynes CM, Lytle TA, Berry CR, 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado basin: distribution, abundance, and status. In: Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future [ed. by Miller, W. H. \Tyus, H. M. \Carlson, C. A.]. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: Western Division, American Fisheries Society, 12-70.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Shasta crayfish, Pacifastacus fortis, 5-year review: summary and evalution., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Warner sucker (Catostomus warnerensis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Washington DC, USA: USFWS. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3356.pdf
USGS NAS, 2016. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/
Waldrip LLW, 1993. 1992 fish stocking report. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. January 8, 1993, 1993. Texas, USA: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 9-12.
ContributorsTop of page
13/05/16 Original text by:
Ali Serhan Tarkan, Mugla Sitki Koçman University, Turkey
Distribution MapsTop of page
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