Pomoxis annularis (white crappie)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural Food Sources
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Water Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Pomoxis annularis Rafinesque
Preferred Common Name
- white crappie
Other Scientific Names
- Cichla storeria Kirtland
- Pomoxis nitidus Girard
- Pomoxys brevicauda Gill
- Pomoxys intermedius Gill
- Pomoxys protacanthus Gill
International Common Names
- English: barfish; calicos bass; campbellite; crappie; crappie, white; newlight; papermouth; silver perch; slab; tinmouth
- Spanish: crapet
- French: crapet calicot; sac-a-lait
- Russian: pomoksis
Local Common Names
- Denmark: hvid crappie
- Estonia: kirju krappi
- Finland: hopea-ahven; hopea-aurinkoahven
- France: crapet calicot
- Russian Federation: pomoksis
- UK: calicos bass
- USA: bridge perch; gold ring; John Demon; speckled perch; timber crappie; white perch
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The popular game fish, P. annularis, commonly known as white crappie, has been introduced throughout the USA, southern Canada, Mexico, Morocco and Panama, largely for aquaculture and fishery purposes. Although not many documents exist on the impacts of white crappie, it has been reported to prey on threatened and endangered juvenile salmon fishes that occur in rivers of the Northwest USA. Habitat alteration may have allowed persistence of introduced white crappie at the expense of salmonids, however the magnitudes of these impacts are poorly known. Similarly, several native fish species reduced in abundance and diversity after non-native piscivorous fishes, including white crappie, had been introduced to several Pacific northwest rivers. This is true for endemic Warner sucker, Catostomus warnerensis in Hart and Crump lakes in the USA.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Perciformes
- Suborder: Percoidei
- Family: Centrarchidae
- Genus: Pomoxis
- Species: Pomoxis annularis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Pomoxis annularis was first described by Rafinesque in 1818 and had several synonyms in the nineteenth century namely; Pomoxys brevicauda, Pomoxys intermedius, Pomoxis nitidus, Pomoxysprotacanthus, Cichla storeria.
DescriptionTop of page
The white crappie is silvery in colour, ranging from silvery-white on the belly to a silvery-green or even dark green on the back, deep-bodied with a flattened shape. Its mouth is located in terminal with many small conical teeth, proportional to body size. There are 5-10 (usually 7-9) vertical bars along their body with dorsal fin having a maximum of six spines and 14 dorsal rays that are more flexible and six anal spines and 16 to 18 anal rays. Scales are ctenoid and silvery-olive with rows of black spots running across their sides. Breeding males have darker faces and backs than females and may develop dark colouration in the throat region during the spring spawning season. They have recognizable depressions in the forehead and a slope-shaped nasal structure; with the forward part of the back deeply concave (Mathur, 1972; Sternberg and Ignizio, 1996; Wallus and Simon, 2008; Rohde et al., 2009).
DistributionTop of page
White crappie occurs in the freshwaters of North America. It is native to the Great Lakes and Mississippi basins, Gulf Slope drainages, from Mobile Bay, Georgia and Alabama, to the Neuces River, Texas and in the Red River tributary to Hudson Bay (Page and Burr, 1991). Non-native distribution includes Panama, Mexico and Morocco where it was not established in the latter (Froese and Pauly, 2016) as well as all US states except in the upper Texas parts of the Rio Grande and Pecos basins (Hubbs et al., 1991) and southern Canada (Stauffer et al., 1995; Sternberg and Ignizio, 1996).
Distribution TableTop of page
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Morocco||Absent, formerly present||Introduced||1961||Not invasive||Welcomme, 1988|
|Canada||Present||Native||Coker et al., 2001|
|USA||Present||Native||Page and Burr, 1991|
|-Alabama||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Arizona||Present||Introduced||Miller and Lowe, 1967; USGS, 2016|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Moyle, 1976; USGS, 2016|
|-Colorado||Present||Introduced||Rasmussen, 1998; USGS, 2016|
|-Connecticut||Present||Introduced||Schmidt, 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-Delaware||Present||Introduced||Raasch and Altemus, 1991; USGS, 2016|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Georgia||Present||Introduced||Yerger, 1977; USGS, 2016|
|-Idaho||Present||Introduced||Linder, 1963; USGS, 2016|
|-Kansas||Present||Introduced||Cross, 1967; USGS, 2016|
|-Kentucky||Present||Introduced||Burr and Warren, 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-Maryland||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Hartel, 1992; USGS, 2016|
|-Montana||Present||Introduced||Holton, 1990; USGS, 2016|
|-Nebraska||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Nevada||Present||Introduced||Deacon and Williams, 1984; USGS, 2016|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||Tyus et al., 1982; USGS, 2016|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||Hocutt et al., 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||Trautman, 1981; USGS, 2016|
|-Oklahoma||Present||Introduced||Miller and Robison, 1973; USGS, 2016|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Lampman, 1946; USGS, 2016|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Introduced||Hocutt et al., 1986; USGS, 2016|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||Bailey and Allum, 1962; USGS, 2016|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Moyle and Randall, 1999; USGS, 2016|
|-Utah||Present||Introduced||Sigler and Miller, 1963; USGS, 2016|
|-Virginia||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||Stauffer et al., 1995; USGS, 2016|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Introduced||Lee et al., 1980; USGS, 2016|
|-Wyoming||Present||Introduced||Baxter and Simon, 1970; USGS, 2016|
Central America and Caribbean
|Panama||Present||Introduced||Not invasive||Welcomme, 1988|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
White crappie is a very popular game fish and its intentional stocking for sport fishing is highly common. For this reason, it has been widely translocated into freshwater resources across the USA and southern Canada (Schultz, 2004; Rohde et al., 2009). In the 1950s it was introduced to Mexico from the USA and to Morocco for fisheries in 1961 (Welcomme, 1988). It was also introduced to Panama from the USA for aquaculture.
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Mexico||USA||1950s||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Morocco||USA||1961||Stocking (pathway cause)||No||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|Panama||USA||unknown||Aquaculture (pathway cause)||Yes||No||Welcomme (1988)|
|USA||USA||Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)||No||No||Translocation within the country to many states outside its native range|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
White crappie has been introduced into lakes, streams and reservoirs mostly deliberately for recreational purposes, however given that there have been only a few reports on impacts to native or endemic freshwater fish species and habitat structure, colonization of new waters beyond the point of release or escape should be a major concern. Introduction of this species due to fisheries and aquaculture can also cause serious environmental risks and should be considered (Sanderson et al., 2009; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010; Hughes and Herlihy, 2012).
HabitatTop of page
P. annularis can be found in low-velocity areas of large rivers, various sizes of lakes and reservoirs with the exception of high-altitude streams and are usually abundant in large impoundments and backwaters. White crappie are tolerant of turbid waters and can be found mostly in warm waters no deeper than the thermocline. They tend to aggregate around submerged boulders in still water of 2-4 m during the day. Young and foraging adults occupy shallow zones of stagnant waters. They prefer waters with neutral pH that varies between 6.5 and 8.5, and can survive in low oxygen levels (down to 3.3 mg/L). To avoid predators, they gather around underwater rocks, woody debris and submerged plants (Lee, 1980; Schorr and Miranda, 1995; Schultz, 2004; Wallus and Simon, 2008; Rohde et al., 2009).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Irrigation channels||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Lakes||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Reservoirs||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Rivers / streams||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Productive/non-natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
White crappie have a diploid (2n) chromosome number of 48 and haploid/gametic (n) of 24 (Klinkhardt et al., 1995). It is known to naturally hybridize with black crappie and has been artificially crossed with other genera (Schwartz, 1972; Travnichek et al., 1996).
White crappie are nest builders and spawn between May and June when water temperatures reach 13°C, however, spawning generally takes place around 18-21°C. Males first construct nests in relatively large beds usually in water less than 1.5 m deep and guard them until the fry leave the nests. Hatching takes three to five days and fry remain in the nests for a few more days. Females usually produce 3000-15,000 eggs per spawn but larger females may produce up to 150,000 eggs. Eggs are approximately 0.9 mm in diameter (Siefert, 1968; McGinnis, 2006; Wallus and Simon, 2008; Cooke and Phillip, 2009; Michaletz, 2013). The nest is usually found near or in beds of vegetation or plant debris, occasionally nearby or under overhanging bushes (Simon, 1999). White crappies reach maturity at two to three years old (Hansen, 1951) although Carlander (1977) reported first year of maturity from Texas, USA.
Physiology and Phenology
White crappie are active year-round but relatively less so in winter and during the day (Moyle, 1976). In summer, their feeding activity peaks in the early morning, late afternoon and early evening (Sublette et al., 1990).
They can live up to 8-10 years (Muoneke et al., 1992).
Their activity slows during the winter months (Moyle, 1976).
Adult white crappie feed on other fish, planktonic crustaceans and aquatic insects, while young individuals are filter feeders and eats invertebrates such as water fleas. Their feeding changes depending on ontogenetic growth as they develop, i.e. their feeding regime changes from zooplankton to crustaceans and small fish and insects when they reach their second year of life. Adults prefer small fish such as minnows and young individuals of American shad (Alosa sapidissima), threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and other white crappies. Feeding varies depending on the location but they feed largely on mayflies in the summer (Marcy, 1954; Greene and Murphy, 1971; Mathur, 1972; Stauffer et al., 1995; McGinnis, 2006).
It is a tolerant species, generally found in large reservoirs, lakes, small parts of big rivers and water courses, and able to withstand a variety of environmental conditions, including a wide range of temperatures, although it prefers cool, moderately turbid waters (i.e., <50 JTU) and pH (6.5-8.5). It can accommodate salinity values up to 10 ppt and withstand low oxygen levels e.g. as low as 3.3 mg/l (Schorr and Miranda, 1995; Schultz, 2004; Wallus and Simon, 2008; Rohde et al., 2009).
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
|Food Source||Food Source Datasheet||Life Stage||Contribution to Total Food Intake (%)||Details|
|Unidentifiable fish tissue||1.22|
|Unidentifiable fish tissue||Adult||6.4|
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
|Dw - Continental climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||31|
Water TolerancesTop of page
|Parameter||Minimum Value||Maximum Value||Typical Value||Status||Life Stage||Notes|
|Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l)||0.09||Optimum|
|Depth (m b.s.l.)||0.5-1.0||Optimum|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||5.7||Optimum|
|Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||3.3||Harmful|
|Salinity (part per thousand)||10||Harmful|
|Turbidity (JTU turbidity)||50||Optimum|
|Water pH (pH)||7.1||Optimum|
|Water pH (pH)||5.0-9.0||Harmful|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||27.6||Optimum|
|Water temperature (ºC temperature)||31||Harmful|
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Several natural enemies are reported including, northern pike (Esox lucius) and muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), walleye (Sander vitreus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the USA (Wahl and Stein, 1991).
White crappie have been reported to be infected with the fish parasite Gyrodactylus goerani (Harris et al., 2004), and host some parasitic worms (Acanthocephala), flatworms (Cestoda and Trematoda), nematodes (Nemata) and crustaceans (Copepoda) (Mayberry et al., 2000). In some reservoirs, a parasitic juvenile fluke Posthodiplostomum minimum can be found in the species. Leeches such as Actinobdella inequiannulata and Myzobdella lugubris may attach themselves to the gills.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
White crappie is important to aquaculture, fisheries and is widely fished recreationally. They may increase tourism and have positive local impacts (Schoonover and Thompson,1954; Dorr et al., 2002).
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
White crappie presence was reported to be associated with habitat alteration resulting in salmon fish decline, however the magnitude of these impacts are poorly known (Sanderson et al., 2009).
Impact on Biodiversity
White crappie are thought to have negatively affected the abundance and diversity of salmon fishes in rivers in the northwestern USA, preying on juveniles and altering their habitat (Sanderson et al., 2009).
Similarly, several native fish species reduced in abundance and diversity after non-native piscivorous fishes, including white crappie, had been introduced into several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy, 2012). This is true for the endemic warner suckers (Catostomus warnerensis) in Hart and Crump lakes in USA (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Catostomus warnerensis (Warner sucker)||EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||Oregon||Predation||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010|
Social ImpactTop of page
This species is an important fish species for recreational fishing and may have positive impacts on tourism (Rohde et al., 2009).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Has high reproductive potential
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
It is an economically important recreational and sporting fish and is often considered in fisheries management plans. They are commonly fished in lakes and impoundments and may increase tourism income (enhanced sales of fishing equipment, food, accommodation, transportation and other tourism activities) (Schoonover and Thompson, 1954; Dorr et al., 2002).
As white crappie is a very popular game fish, it is of high importance recreationally and commercially. Its positive impacts on tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating, etc. All of these activities may generate or improve economic incomes.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
White crappie can be separated from all other sunfishes by having less than 10 dorsal spines but it is very similar to the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus). The main differences between the two species is that the white crappie has a silver body with vertical bands down the sides, has 5-6 rather than 7-8 dorsal spines, a shorter dorsal fin base, more distinct bands on the sides and a shallower body (Ross, 2001).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Due to its popularity as a game fish there is a lack of awareness on its impacts.
Little is known with regards to the potential control of this species using chemicals, physical or cultural control methods.
There is no evidence of biological control for this species but natural enemies from its native area could be used (e.g. Esox lucius, Esox masquinongy, Sander vitreus, Micropterus salmoides) (Wahl and Stein, 1991).
Monitoring and Surveillance (Incl. Remote Sensing)
Both telemetry and radio telemetry could be used.
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Although impacts of the species have been recorded and it has been widely spread by humans, there is little information or awareness of the species’ invasiveness. Further studies should therefore be conducted to look at the magnitude of impact of the white crappie on other native species and the ecosystem structure. Appropriate prevention and control measures should then be planned and implemented following this further study.
ReferencesTop of page
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Principal SourceTop of page
Draft datasheet under review
ContributorsTop of page
13/05/16 Original text by:
Ali Serhan Tarkan, Mugla Sitki Koçman University, Turkey
Distribution MapsTop of page
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