Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pseudorasbora parva
(topmouth gudgeon)

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Datasheet

Pseudorasbora parva (topmouth gudgeon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pseudorasbora parva
  • Preferred Common Name
  • topmouth gudgeon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • P. parva is a cyprinid fish native to East Asia, including Japan and parts of Korea and China. Introduced to Romania in the early 1960s as a contaminant of Chinese carp consignments, P. parva had invad...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
P. parva from Goldings Hill Pond, Epping, England.  March 2003.
TitleAdult
CaptionP. parva from Goldings Hill Pond, Epping, England. March 2003.
CopyrightGordon H. Copp
P. parva from Goldings Hill Pond, Epping, England.  March 2003.
AdultP. parva from Goldings Hill Pond, Epping, England. March 2003.Gordon H. Copp
P. parva in aquarium (CEH-Dorset, England). May 2003
TitleAdult
CaptionP. parva in aquarium (CEH-Dorset, England). May 2003
CopyrightRodophe E. Gozlan
P. parva in aquarium (CEH-Dorset, England). May 2003
AdultP. parva in aquarium (CEH-Dorset, England). May 2003Rodophe E. Gozlan
P. parva from southern England. February 2002.
TitleAdult
CaptionP. parva from southern England. February 2002.
CopyrightRodophe E. Gozlan
P. parva from southern England. February 2002.
AdultP. parva from southern England. February 2002.Rodophe E. Gozlan

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pseudorasbora parva Bleeker, 1859

Preferred Common Name

  • topmouth gudgeon

Other Scientific Names

  • Fundulichthys virescens Bleeker, 1859
  • Fundulus virescens Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Leuciscus parvus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Leuciscus pusillus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846
  • Micraspius mianowskii Dybowski, 1869
  • Pseudorasbora altipinna Nichols, 1925
  • Pseudorasbora depressirostris Nichols, 1925
  • Pseudorasbora fowleri Nichols, 1925
  • Pseudorasbora monstrosa Nichols, 1925
  • Pseudorasbora parva parvula Nichols, 1929
  • Pseudorasbora parva tenuis Nichols, 1929
  • Pseudorasbora pusilla Bleeker, 1859

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Pseudokeilfleckbarben
  • Belgium: blauwbandgrondel; pseudorasbora
  • Czech Republic: strevlicka východní
  • France: pseudorasbora
  • Germany: Blaubandbärbling; Blaubandgründling
  • Greece: pseudorasbora
  • Hungary: kinai razbóra
  • Iran: amurcheh; parva
  • Italy: pseudorasbora
  • Japan: motsugo
  • Netherlands: blauwband
  • Poland: kielb amurski
  • Romania: murgoi baltat
  • Russian Federation: amurskiy chebachok; stone morocco
  • Slovakia: hrúzovec malý
  • Slovenia: pseudorazbora
  • Spain: pseudorasbora
  • Switzerland: pseudorasbora
  • UK: clicker barb; false harlequin
  • Ukraine: chebachok amurskii; tschebatschek
  • USA: stone morocco; topmouth minnow
  • Uzbekistan: stone morokos

Summary of Invasiveness

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P. parva is a cyprinid fish native to East Asia, including Japan and parts of Korea and China. Introduced to Romania in the early 1960s as a contaminant of Chinese carp consignments, P. parva had invaded freshwaters of most every country in Europe and adjoining parts of Asia (e.g. Asian part of Turkey) by 2000 (Copp et al., 2005b), with isolated parts of Europe such as Iberia being the last areas to be invaded (Caoila and de Sostoa, 2002). Dispersal of the species is primarily as a contaminant of fish consignments, with secondary natural dispersal also documented in many countries, but this is said to be slow (Gaviloaie and Falka, 2006). Observations of the species remarkable spread (i.e. invasive character) were made already in the 1970s and 1980s (Žitnan and Holcík, 1976; Bianco, 1988). P. parva demonstrates great adaptability and tolerance of poor habitat quality (e.g. Gozlan et al., 2002; Beyer et al., 2007), including a relatively high tolerance to rotenone exposure for a cyprinid (Allen et al., 2006). However, P. parva is not able to hypo-osmoregulate when faced with elevated salinities (i.e. >13.7), which indicates an inability to disperse through brackish waters (Scott et al., 2007a, b). Despite being considered a stream fish in its native range (Asaeda et al., 2005), P. parva reproduction and its highest abundances in its introduced range are in still waters such as floodplain water bodies (e.g. Pollux and Korosi, 2006), with stream populations rarely reported and these are in general downstream of off-channel sites that ‘drip feed’ young P. parva into the stream system (e.g. Beyer 2004; Pollux and Korosi, 2006; Beyer et al., 2007). Potential impacts by P. parva are numerous, as the species is a known facultative parasite (Trombitskiy and Kakhovskiy, 1987; Libosvárský et al., 1990) and host of the rosette agent (Gozlan et al., 2005). There is also some circumstantial evidence that P. parva presence inhibits the reproduction of some native species (Britton and Brazier, 2006). The cost of eradication of P. parva from inland waters of England and Wales over 25 years has been estimated at £3 064 million, being about £27,000/ ha per year (see P. parva economic risk assessment example at https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/nonnativespecies/downloadDocument.cfm?id=243).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Pseudorasbora
  •                                 Species: Pseudorasbora parva

Description

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P. parva populations occurring in European fresh waters display a wide morphological variability, significantly differing from one another (Kotusz and Witkowski, 1998; Záhorská et al., unpublished). However, there appears to be little variability amongst introduced European populations, with the greatest morphological variation appearing to be between native and non-native populations (Louette et al., 2002). The species is generally saline intolerant (Scott et al., 2007) and is known to disappear from fresh waters that suffer rises in salinity Sexual dimorphism is manifested in larger body size of males as well as in four plastic characters (Coombs, 2004). Large adults have sexually dimorphic coloration (Kottelat, 2001). The body colour is greenish-grey and brown in the back. Lateral line runs along the centre of body and contains 35-38 scales. P. parva has a total of 3-3 dorsal spines and 7-7 dorsal rays whereas anal spines and anal rays are 3-3 and 6-6, respectively. Mouth is transverse and positioned superiorly. It does not have barbels. P. parva can grow to a total length of 11 cm (Berg, 1964).

Distribution

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The native distribution of P. parva is Asia, including in southern and central Japan, Taiwan, Korea, China and Amur basin. It has been introduced to various areas in Europe and Asia (Banarescu, 1964, Welcomme, 1988; Gaviloaie and Falka, 2006) and currently occurs in the Dnieper, Dniester, Danube basins (eastern/central Europe), the Scutari and Prespa lakes (southeastern Europe) and Aliakmon River in Greece (Reshetnikov et al., 1997). Several countries have reported adverse ecological impact after introduction of this species, though quantitative data are lacking. It has also been introduced in Iran and Turkmenistan.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentIntroducedCoad, 1981
ArmeniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Pipoyan, 1996; Gabrielyan, 2001
ChinaPresentNative Invasive Barus, 1995; Bogutskaya and Naseka, 1996
IranPresentIntroducedCoad, 1996
JapanPresentNative Invasive Barus, 1995; Azuma and Motomura, 1998
KazakhstanPresentIntroduced1968 Invasive Blanc et al., 1971
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeBarus, 1995
LaosPresentIntroduced Invasive Kottelat, 2001
TaiwanPresentIntroducedShen, 1993
TurkeyLocalisedIntroducedWildekamp et al., 1997; Yilmaz et al., 2006
UzbekistanPresentIntroduced Invasive Kamilov and Urchinov, 1995; Louette et al., 2002

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced1990sPerdices and Doadrio, 1992

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
AustriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weber, 1984; Welcomme, 1988
BelgiumWidespreadIntroduced1992 Invasive Verreycken et al., 2007
BulgariaPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988; Louette et al., 2002
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Copp et al., 2005b; Welcomme, 1988
DenmarkPresentCopp et al., 2005b
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive Allardi and Keith, 1991; Keith et al., 2001
GermanyPresentIntroduced Invasive Arnold, 1985; Welcomme, 1988
GreecePresentIntroduced1987Rosecchi et al., 1993
HungaryPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1997
ItalyPresentIntroduced1988 Invasive Bianco and Ketmaier, 2001
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1983Louette et al., 2002
MoldovaPresentIntroducedCopp et al., 2005b
NetherlandsLocalisedIntroduced1992 Invasive Pollux and Korosi, 2006Highest abundances in floodplain waterbodies
PolandPresentIntroduced Invasive Witkowski, 1991; FAO, 1997
RomaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988; FAO, 1997
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988; Barus, 1995; Bogutskaya and Naseka, 1996
SlovakiaWidespreadIntroduced1960s Invasive Welcomme, 1988
SpainPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Caoila and Sostoa, 2002
SwedenPresentIntroducedCopp et al., 2005b
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997; Wittenberg, 2005
UKPresentIntroduced Invasive FAO, 1997; Pinder et al., 2005
UkrainePresentIntroduced Invasive Movchan and Smirnov, 1981
Yugoslavia (former)WidespreadIntroduced1977 Invasive Cakic et al., 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Welcomme, 1988

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Afghanistan Unknown Yes Coad (1981); Coad (1981)
Albania Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Armenia Unknown Yes Gabrielyan (2001); Gabrielyan (2001)
Austria Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Bulgaria Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Czech Republic Hungary 1960-1969 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Fiji Japan 1984 Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
France Asia 1978-1979 Unknown Yes Allardi and Keith (1991)
Germany Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Greece Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Rosecchi et al. (1993)
Hungary Romania 1963 Government Yes FAO (1997)
Hungary China 1963 Government Yes FAO (1997)
Iran Unknown Yes Coad (1996)
Italy 1988 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FAO (1997)
Kazakhstan 1968-1969 Unknown Yes Blanc and et al. (1971); Blanc et al. (1971)
Laos Unknown Yes ; Kottelat (2001); Kottelat (2001a); Kottelat et al. (2001a)
Poland Hungary 1987 Individual Yes FAO (1997)
Romania China 1960-1962 Government Yes FAO (1997)
Russian Federation China 1961 Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Slovakia Hungary 1960-1969 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Switzerland 1993 Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FAO (1997)
Taiwan UnknownShen (1993)
UK 1975-2004 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FAO (1997)
Ukraine UnknownMovchan and Smirnov (1981)
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) Interconnected waterways (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
nekton Adult/Fry
phytoplankton Adult/Fry
zoobenthos Adult/Fry
zooplankton Adult/Fry

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 22

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 22

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Depth (m b.s.l.) Optimum Shallow (<1 m) preferred but known to occur at various depths
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Optimum Tolerates very low concentrations
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) 15 Optimum Exact tolerances not known (FishBase, 2004)
Salinity (part per thousand) Optimum <10.8 preferred; 10.8-13.7 tolerated (Scott et al., 2007a)
Turbidity (JTU turbidity) Optimum Occurs in turbid and clear waters
Velocity (cm/h) Optimum Lentic preferred; lotic tolerated
Water pH (pH) Optimum Exact tolerances not known (FishBase, 2004)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 2 22 Optimum At least up to 28 tolerated (FishBase, 2004) (is established in River Ebro canals, Spain)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Lepomis macrochirus Predator Adult/Fry Katano et al., 2003
Micropterus salmoides Predator Adult/Fry Azuma and Motomura, 1998
Salmo trutta Predator Adult/Juveniles
Siniperca chuatsi Predator Adult/Fry Xie et al., 1997

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockAll life stages as contaminants Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b
BaitJuveniles and adults Yes
Pets and aquarium speciesAll life stages as contaminants Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b
WaterAll life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes Copp et al., 2005b

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Native fauna Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

It is reported that the introduction of P. parva has negatively impacted upon the diversity of species in Puntee Alberete wetland in Italy (SEHUMED, 2000). P. parva, which has been introduced accidentally into freshwater ecosystems in China, not only has little commercial value but has made three species of Schizothoracine fishes endangered to near extinction (Liang, personal communication as stated in Ping and Yiyu, 2004). In Tashkent in the former USSR, a number of fishes including P. parva, which were accidentally introduced, together with Ctenopharyngodon idella resulted in declines in local species through superior growth and fecundity (Rosenthal, 1976 as stated in FAO, 2004). P. parva is known to host non-native diseases of threat to native species (Cesco et al., 2001), including the rosette agent (Gozlan et al., 2005, 2006).

Owing to its potential threat to aquatic biodiversity, P. parva has been listed under the species of fish whose keeping or release in any part of England and Wales is prohibited except under the authority of a license (Defra, 2004).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has high genetic variability
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Fouling
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
  • Predation
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Bait/attractant
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Biological control

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Research model

References

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Allardi J; Keith P, 1991. Atlas préliminaire des poissons d’eau douce de France. Coll. Patrimoines Naturels, vol. 4. Paris: Secrétariat Faune Flore, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 234 pp.

Allen Y; Kirby S; Copp GH; Brazier M, 2006. Toxicity of rotenone to topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva for eradication of this non-native species from a tarn in Cumbria, England. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 13(5):337-340. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=fme

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Arnold A, 1985. [English title not available]. (Pseudorasbora parva, nun auch in den DDR!.) Zeitschrift für die Binnenfisherei der DDR, 32:182-183.

Asaeda T; Kein T; Manatunge J, 2005. Effects of flow velocity on feeding behaviour and microhabitat selection of the stone moroko Pseudorasbora parva: a trade-off between feeding and swimming costs. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134:537-547.

Azuma M; Motomura Y, 1998. Feeding habits of largemouth bass in a non-native environment: the case of a small lake with bluegill in Japan. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 52(1/3):379-389; 33 ref.

Banarescu P, 1964. [Fauna of the Romanian people's republic No. 8 - Pisces - Osteichthyes]. Fauna republicii populare Romîne-Pisces-Osteichthyes. Bucuresti, Romania: Editura Academiei Republicii Populare Romîne, 959 pp.

Barus V, 1995. Pseudorasbora parva (Schlegel, 1842). In: Fauna CR a SR/Mihulovci a ryby (2) [ed. by Baru?, V.\Oliva, O.]. Prague: Academia, 102-109.

Berg LS, 1964. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. volume 2, 4th edition. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. (Russian version published 1949).

Beyer K, 2004. Escapees of potentially invasive fishes from an ornamental aquaculture facility: The case of the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva). Journal of Fish Biology, 65(A):326-327.

Beyer K, 2008. Ecological implications of introducing Leucaspius delineatus and Pseudorasbora parva into inland waters in England., UK: University of Hull.

Beyer K; Copp GH; Gozlan RE, 2007. Microhabitat use and interspecific associations of introduced topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva and native fishes in a small stream. Journal of Fish Biology, 71(Suppl. D):224-238. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01677.x

Beyer K; Miranda R; Copp GH; Gozlan RE, 2006. Biometric relationships between body and bone size of two invasive non-native fish species in the UK: topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva and sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus. Folia Zoologica, 55:287-292.

Bianco PG, 1988. Occurrence of the Asiatic gobionid Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel) in south-eastern Europe. Journal of Fish Biology, 32:973-974.

Bianco PG; Ketmaier V, 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. Journal of Fish Biology, 59(Supplement A):190-208.

Billard R, 1997. Les poissons d’eau douce des rivieres de France. Identification, inventaire et repartition des 83 especes. Lausanne: Delachaux and Niestle, 192 pp.

Blanc M; Gaudet JL; Banarescu P; Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Bogutskaya NG; Naseka AM, 1996. Cyclostomata and fishes of Khanka Lake drainage area (Amur river basin). An annotated check-list with comments on taxonomy and zoogeography of the region. Zool. Inst. Russ. Acad. Sci., 89 pp.

Britton JR; Brazier M, 2006. Eradicating the invasive topmouth gudgeon, Pseudorasbora parva, from a recreational fishery in northern England. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 13(5):329-335. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=fme

Britton JR; Davies GD; Brazier M; Pinder AC, 2007. A case study on the population ecology of a topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva) population in the UK and the implications for native fish communities. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 17(7):749-759. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/114025174/abstract

Cakic P; Lenhardt M; Kolarevic J; Mickovic B; Hegedis A, 2004. Distribution of the Asiatic cyprinid Pseudorasbora parva in Serbia and Montenegro. Journal of Fish Biology, 65:1431-1434.

Caoila N; Sostoa Ade, 2002. First record of the Asiatic cyprinid Pseudorasbora parva in the Iberian Peninsula. J. Fish. Biol, 61:1058-1060.

Cesco H; Lambert A; Crivelli AJ, 2001. Is Pseudorasbora parva, an invasive fish species (Pisces, Cyprinidae), a new agent of anguillicolosis in France? (Pseudorasbora parva (Téléostéen, Cyprinidae) espèce invasive, nouvel agent du maintien et de la dissémination de l'Anguillicolose en France?.) Parasite, 8(1):75-76.

Coad BW, 1981. Fishes of Afghanistan, an annotated check-list. Publications in Zoology, National Museums of Canada, 14:23.

Coad BW, 1996. Exotic fish species in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. Zoology in the Middle East 13:71-83.

Coombs, 2004. Comparative morphology of an invasive freshwater fish species: the topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva). Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. Natural Environment Research Council Online. http://dorset.ceh.ac.uk/Science_and_Society/Schools/nuff_topmouth_gudgeon_03.htm. Accessed on 29 April 2004.

Copp GH; Bianco PG; Bogutskaya N; Ero?s T; Falka I; Ferreira MT; Fox MG; Freyhof J; Gozlan RE; Grabowska J; Kovàc V; Moreno-Amich R; Naseka AM; Penàz M; Povz M; Przybylski M; Robillard M; Russell IC; Stakenas S; Sumer S; Vila-Gispert A; Wiesner C, 2005. To be, or not to be, a non-native freshwater fish? Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21:242-262.

Copp GH; Garthwaite R; Gozlan RE, 2005. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: a summary of concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21:371-373.

Copp GH; Garthwaite R; Gozlan RE, 2005. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK. Lowestoft: Cefas, 32 pp. [Cefas Science Technical Report No. 129.]

Copp GH; Templeton M; Gozlan RE, 2007. Propagule pressure and the invasion risks of non-native freshwater fishes: a case study in England. Journal of Fish Biology, 71(Suppl. D):148-159. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2007.01680.x

Copp GH; Wesley KJ; Verreycken H; Russell IC, 2007. When an 'invasive' fish species fails to invade! Example of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Aquatic Invasions, 2:107-112.

Cui J; Ren X; Yu Q, 1991. Nuclear DNA content variation in fishes. Cytologia, 56(3):425-429.

Declerck S; Louette G; Bie Tde; Meester Lde, 2002. Patterns of diet overlap between populations of non-indigenous and native fishes in shallow ponds. Journal of Fish Biology, 61(5):1182-1197.

DEFRA, 2004. DEFRA Online. http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/livefish-order/annexb.pdf. Accessed on 2 May 2004.

Domaniewski J; Wheeler AC, 1996. The topmouth gudgeon has arrived. Fish, 43:40.

Dussling U; Berg R, 2001. [English title not available]. (Fische in Baden-Wuerttemberg.) Fische in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Ministerium fuer Ernaehrung und Laendlichen Raum Baden-Wuerttemberg, 176 pp.

Elvira B, 2001. Identification of non-native freshwater fishes established in Europe and assessment of their potential threats to the biological diversity. Strasbourg, France: Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 35 pp. https://wcd.coe.int/com.instranet.InstraServlet?command=com.instranet.CmdBlobGet&InstranetImage=1338217&SecMode=1&DocId=1464096&Usage=2

Erk'aran F, 1984. [English title not available]. (Trakya Bölgesi'nden Türkije için yeni kayit olan bir balik türü Pseudorasbora parva (Pisces-Cyprinidae).) Doga Bilim Dergisi, 8(A2):350-351.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

FAO, 2004. Aquatic Macrophytes as a Habitat of Vectors and Hosts of Tropical Diseases, and Biological Control Using Fish Food and Agriculture Organisation. Online. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/X7580E/X7580E14.htm. Accessed on 28 April 2004.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)http://www.defra.gov.uk/
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationshttp://www.fao.org/

Organizations

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Belgium: Dept. of Biology, University of Leuven, http://bio.kuleuven.be/

Belgium: Instituut voor Natuur en Bosenderzoek, Flanders, http://www.inbo.be

UK: CEFAS (Centre for Environment Fisheries and Aquaculture Science), Cefas Weymouth Laboratory, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, Weymouth, UK, http://www.cefas.co.uk/

UK: School of Conservation Sciences, University of Bournemouth, http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/conservation/

Contributors

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01/11/2007 Updated by:

Gordon Copp, CEFAS, Salmon and Freshwater Team, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT, UK

05/05/2004 Original text for the Aquaculture Compendium by:

Sunil Siriwardena, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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