- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, 1900
Other Scientific Names
- Archips ishidai (Matsumura, 1900)
- Archips punicae (Matsumura, 1931)
- Cacoecia fuscocupreana Walsingham
- Ptycholoma fuscocupreanum Walsingham
Local Common Names
- Japan: apple tortrix
- USA: apple leafroller; apple tortrix; Asiatic leafroller
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Tortricidae
- Genus: Archips
- Species: Archips fuscocupreanus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The eggs are less than 1 mm long and oval. They are laid together in a single, circular egg mass, up to 7 mm in diameter, on tree trunks or larger branches. The egg mass is black.
The early-instar larvae are black and grey. The later-instar larvae are greyish-green with an orange or brownish head capsule and a black thoracic shield behind the head. When fully grown they are 19-22 mm long.
The pupae are 9-11 mm long and dark brown. They are formed in folded leaves or under the loose bark of tree trunks or leaf litter.
The wingspan of the males and females is 16-22 mm and 20-24 mm, respectively. The forewings are darker brown than the hindwings. The wings have dark-brown markings with orange or reddish-brown tinges. The hindwings are greyish-brown. Colour plates showing variation in the adults are provided in Mutuura et al. (1969) and Inoue et al. (1982).
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Native|
|United States||Present, Localized||Introduced||1982||Invasive|
|-New Jersey||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
|-New York||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Rhode Island||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Fruit / webbing|
|Inflorescence / external feeding|
|Inflorescence / webbing|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / leaves rolled or folded|
|Leaves / webbing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Egg masses of A. fuscocupreanus could be carried on the branches and trunks of dormant hosts. Hosts such as Malus, Prunus, Pyrus and Rosa are traded internationally. The spread of this pest from Japan to the USA suggests that pathways for the intercontinental movement of A. fuscocupreanus exist. The transport of soft-bodied larvae with host fruit is unlikely. In the USA, A. fucsocupreanus is not a pest of actual fruit, and commercial fruit movement does not present a risk of transporting the pest (NAPPO, 1996).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.In Japan, conventional organophosphate compounds have provided control when applied before apple blossoms open (Sekita et al., 1994). However, A. fuscocupreanus has developed some resistance to insecticides in Japan (Ohira and Oku, 1992). Mating disruption can be an effective management option (Toshiaki et al., 2002). The pheromone (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Hamakikon-R) disrupts mating thus causing reduced and delayed oviposition (Ohira and Oku, 1992; Oku, 1993). When mating disruption was applied against A. fuscocupreanus and insecticides were excluded, egg mortality due to parasitism increased. The population of A. fuscocupreanus was kept below damaging levels, without the need for additional control, for the succeeding three generations (Ohira and Oku, 1996).
ReferencesTop of page
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Inoue H; Sugi S; Kuroko H; Moriuti S; Kawabe A, 1982. Moths of Japan. Vol. 2: Plates and Synonymic Catalogue. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Co. Ltd.
Kazuhiro W; Shigemi K, 1997. Forecasting of occurrence time of apple insect pests with effective accumulative temperature calculated by "Triangle Method". Bulletin of the Yamagata Prefectural Horticultural Experiment Station, 12:39-52.
Kuznetsov VI, 1989. Leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of the southern part of the Soviet Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kryzhanovskii OL, ed. Lepidopterous Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Countries. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 57-249.
LaGasa E, 1997. Biology and distribution of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Washington State, a polyphagous leafroller pest new to North America. Proceedings of the 71st Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 8-10 January 1997, Imperial Hotel, Portland. Proceedings Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 71:95-96.
Maier CT, 2003. Distribution, hosts, abundance, and seasonal flight activity of the exotic leafroller, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(5):660-666.
Maier CT; Mastro VC, 1998. Discovery, abundance, and distribution of the exotic apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 100(3):545-552; 8 ref.
Maier, C. T., 2003. Distribution, hosts, abundance, and seasonal flight activity of the exotic leafroller, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(5), 660-666. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2003)096[0660:DHAASF]2.0.CO;2
Mizukoshi T, 1988. Insect pests on Lonicera-caerulea l. Popular name Haskappu in Hokkaido Japan. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, (57):49-60.
Mutuura A; Yamamoto Y; Hattori I; Kuroko H; Kodama T; Yasuda T; Moriuti S; Saito T, 1969. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour, Volume II. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co.
NAPPO, 1996. Apple tortrix in Washington State. North American Plant Protection Organisation Newsletter, 16(4):3.
Ohira Y, 1990. Reproductive biology of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) I. Some reproductive characters of adults and their relation to pupal weight. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station, No. 17:63-76
Ohira Y; Oku T, 1996. A trial to promote the effect of natural control agents, especially of Trichogramma sp., on the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, by disrupting the mating of the pest. Biological pest control in systems of integrated pest management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on "The use of Biological Control Agents under Integrated Pest Management"., 131-136; 7 ref.
Oku T, 1967. Tortricoidea as agricultural and horticultural pests in Hokkaido, with special reference to host plants. Bulletin Hokkaido Prefecture Agricultural Experimental Station, 16:44-62.
Oku T, 1970. Studies on life-histories of apple leaf-rollers belonging to the tribe Archipsini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Report of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 19:52pp.
Oku T; Ohira Y, 1987. Variation in the hatching period of overwintering apple tortrix eggs Archips fuscocupeana Walsingham according to the deposition site in dwarf apple trees. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station Series C (Morioka), 14:61-68.
Sekita N; Fujita K; Kawashima K, 1994. The present situation in the control of apple insect pests and diseases in Japan. Agrochemicals Japan, 65:5-8.
Toshiaki K; Yoshiko K; Yoichi I, 2002. Pest control of noxious insect of apple by mating disruptants "Confuser R". Report of Tohoku Agricultural Research, 55:171-172.
Tsugawa C, 1971. Changes in control measures of major diseases and insect pests of apples in Japan. Japan Pesticide Information, 7:17-20.
Yoshii T; Yokoi N, 1984. Tortricid moths attacking mulberry trees in Fukushima Prefecture Japan with field observations of the over-wintering sites of summer fruit tortrix larvae on mulberry trees. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, 53(5):409-413.
Yukinari M, 1976. The parasites of leaf-rollers of pear orchards and their neighbouring hedges in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(4):208-211.
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Kuznetsov VI, 1989. Leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of the southern part of the Soviet Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Lepidopterous Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Countries, [ed. by Kryzhanovskii OL]. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. 57-249.
LaGasa E, 1997. Biology and distribution of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Washington State, a polyphagous leafroller pest new to North America. [Proceedings of the 71st Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 8-10 January 1997, Imperial Hotel, Portland; Proceedings Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference], 71 95-96.
Maier C T, 2003. Distribution, hosts, abundance, and seasonal flight activity of the exotic leafroller, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 96 (5), 660-666. DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2003)096[0660:DHAASF]2.0.CO;2
Maier C T, Mastro V C, 1998. Discovery, abundance, and distribution of the exotic apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 100 (3), 545-552.
NAPPO, 1996. Apple tortrix in Washington State. In: North American Plant Protection Organisation Newsletter, 16 (4) 3.
Ohira Y, Oku T, 1992. Selective control of the apple tortrix by means of mating disruption and an egg parasite: a preliminary account. In: Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27 (1-4) 501-506.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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