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Archips fuscocupreanus

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Datasheet

Archips fuscocupreanus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Archips fuscocupreanus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. fuscocupreanus has spread to North America from Asia, presumably carried as egg masses on hosts. It has established and spread in the north-east and north-west of the USA. On the basis of the latitudes of its distribution in eastern Asia, ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); adult (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); adult (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); adult (museum set specimen).
AdultArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); adult (museum set specimen).©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); mature larva.
TitleMature larva
CaptionArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); mature larva.
Copyright©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); mature larva.
Mature larvaArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); mature larva.©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); egg clusters (arrowed) on apple twig.
TitleEgg clusters
CaptionArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); egg clusters (arrowed) on apple twig.
Copyright©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
Archips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); egg clusters (arrowed) on apple twig.
Egg clustersArchips fuscocupreanus (apple tortrix moth); egg clusters (arrowed) on apple twig.©Chris T. Maier/Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, 1900

Other Scientific Names

  • Archips ishidai (Matsumura, 1900)
  • Archips punicae (Matsumura, 1931)
  • Cacoecia fuscocupreana Walsingham
  • Ptycholoma fuscocupreanum Walsingham

Local Common Names

  • Japan: apple tortrix
  • USA: apple leafroller; apple tortrix; Asiatic leafroller

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. fuscocupreanus has spread to North America from Asia, presumably carried as egg masses on hosts. It has established and spread in the north-east and north-west of the USA. On the basis of the latitudes of its distribution in eastern Asia, Maier (2003) suggests that A. fuscocupreanus could extend its range in North America from Newfoundland in the north to Georgia in the south.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Archips
  •                                 Species: Archips fuscocupreanus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The larvae feed on a range of host plants and the adults can appear quite variable, which perhaps explains why this organism was described [named] twice by Matsumura.

Description

Top of page Eggs

The eggs are less than 1 mm long and oval. They are laid together in a single, circular egg mass, up to 7 mm in diameter, on tree trunks or larger branches. The egg mass is black.

Larvae

The early-instar larvae are black and grey. The later-instar larvae are greyish-green with an orange or brownish head capsule and a black thoracic shield behind the head. When fully grown they are 19-22 mm long.

Pupae

The pupae are 9-11 mm long and dark brown. They are formed in folded leaves or under the loose bark of tree trunks or leaf litter.

Adults

The wingspan of the males and females is 16-22 mm and 20-24 mm, respectively. The forewings are darker brown than the hindwings. The wings have dark-brown markings with orange or reddish-brown tinges. The hindwings are greyish-brown. Colour plates showing variation in the adults are provided in Mutuura et al. (1969) and Inoue et al. (1982).

Distribution

Top of page A. fuscocupreanus is native to Japan where it can be found in all apple-growing regions and where it is an important pest (Tsugawa, 1971). In 1995, this pest was detected in five counties of western Washington State, USA (NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997). It had been established in Connecticut, USA since at least 1982, although it was not positively identified until 1995 (Maier and Mastro, 1998). It has become firmly established in the north-eastern states of the USA. For example, it was the fourth most abundant tortricid of 10 species found in total, in unsprayed apple orchards in a Connecticut county in 1997 (Maier and Mastro, 1998).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanPresentNative Not invasive Oku, 1967; Tsugawa, 1971; Ohira and Oku, 1992
-HokkaidoWidespreadNative Not invasive Oku, 1967; Oku, 1993
-HonshuPresentNative Invasive Oku, 1967
-KyushuPresentNative Not invasive Oku, 1967
-ShikokuPresentNative Not invasive Oku, 1967
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive Oku, 1967
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive Oku, 1967; APPPC, 1987

North America

USARestricted distributionIntroduced1982 Invasive NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997; Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003
-ConnecticutRestricted distributionIntroduced1982 Invasive Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003
-MassachusettsRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003
-New JerseyRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Maier, 2003
-New YorkRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Maier, 2003
-Rhode IslandRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Maier, 2003
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997; Maier, 2003

Europe

Russian Federation
-Russian Far EastPresentNative Not invasive Kuznetsov, 1989

Risk of Introduction

Top of page A. fucocupreanus is not on any Regional Plant Protection Organisation's lists of quarantine pests. However, its spread from Japan to the USA, and its subsequent further spread within the USA does suggest that it is an invasive species. On the basis of its pest status in Japan, it could be a risk to fruit and nursery industries in temperate regions in North America (Maier, 2003). In the USA, normal orchard pest control programmes could be expected to effectively manage the organism (NAPPO, 1996). Further spread may occur via the transport of nursery plants infested with the inconspicuous black egg masses.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page Although this species has a broad host range, feeding on 87 plants in 15 families, it is most abundant on Malus, Pyrus and Morus, and is only occasionally found on other genera. In the USA, the majority of hosts are Rosaceae (Maier, 2003).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContext
Acer rubrum (red maple)AceraceaeOther
Acer saccharum (sugar maple)AceraceaeOther
Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon serviceberry)RosaceaeWild host
Amelanchier arborea (Downy serviceberry)RosaceaeWild host
Amelanchier canadensis (thicket serviceberry)RosaceaeWild host
Amelanchier laevis (Allegheny serviceberry)RosaceaeWild host
Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)RosaceaeWild host
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeOther
Carpinus betulus (hornbeam)BetulaceaeOther
Castanea sativa (chestnut)FagaceaeOther
Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)SalaciaWild host
Chaenomeles japonica (Japanese quince)RosaceaeWild host
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)CornaceaeWild host
Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)CornaceaeWild host
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel)BetulaceaeWild host
Crataegus crus-galli (Cockspur hawthorn)RosaceaeWild host
Crataegus magnifloraRosaceaeWild host
Crataegus nudaRosaceaeWild host
Crataegus pedicellataRosaceaeWild host
Crataegus scabridaRosaceaeWild host
Crataegus viridisRosaceaeWild host
Cudrania tricuspidataMoraceaeWild host
Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
Diospyros (malabar ebony)EbenaceaeOther
Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)ElaeagnaceaeWild host
Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeOther
Fraxinus americana (white ash)OleaceaeWild host
Ilex verticillata (common winterberry (USA))AquifoliaceaeWild host
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
Ligustrum acutissimumOleaceaeWild host
Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)OleaceaeOther
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Other
Lonicera caeruleaCaprifoliaceaeWild host
Lonicera fragrantissimaWild host
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
Malus baccata (siberian crab apple)RosaceaeWild host
Malus bracteataRosaceaeWild host
Malus dawsonianaRosaceaeWild host
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Malus glabrataRosaceaeWild host
Malus hupehensis (hupeh crab-apple)RosaceaeWild host
Malus ioensis (prairie crab-apple)RosaceaeWild host
Malus prunifolia (plum-leaved crab apple)RosaceaeWild host
Malus purpureaRosaceaeWild host
Malus sikkimensisRosaceaeWild host
Malus sublobataRosaceaeWild host
Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)RosaceaeWild host
Malus toringo (toringo crab-apple)RosaceaeWild host
Malus toringoidesRosaceaeWild host
Malus yunnanensisRosaceaeWild host
Malus zumiRosaceaeWild host
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
Morus alba (mora)MoraceaeMain
Photinia villosaRosaceaeWild host
Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen)SalicaceaeOther
Potentilla (Cinquefoil)RosaceaeOther
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus hillieriRosaceaeOther
Prunus laurocerasus (cherry laurel)Other
Prunus maritima (beach plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus nigra (Canada plumtree)RosaceaeOther
Prunus padus (bird cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Prunus serotina (black cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus serrulata (Japanese flowering cherry)RosaceaeOther
Prunus verecundaRosaceaeWild host
Prunus virginiana (common chokecherrytree)RosaceaeOther
Prunus yedoensisRosaceaeOther
Pyrus calleryana (bradford pear)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeMain
Pyrus dimorphophyllaRosaceaeOther
Pyrus salicifolia (willow-leaved pear)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus ussuriensis (amur pear)RosaceaeOther
Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeOther
Ribes oxyacanthoides (Northern gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
Rosa multiflora (Multiflora rose)RosaceaeMain
Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeWild host
Rubus idaeus (raspberry)RosaceaeOther
Rumex crispus (curled dock)PolygonaceaeWild host
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow)SalicaceaeWild host
Solidago (Goldenrod)AsteraceaeOther
Sorbus forrestiiRosaceaeWild host
Sorbus yuanaRosaceaeWild host
Spiraea alba (Narrowleaf meadowsweet)RosaceaeWild host
Syringa julianaeWild host
Syringa oblataOleaceaeWild host
Syringa villosa (late lilac)OleaceaeWild host
Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)AnacardiaceaeWild host
Trifolium (clovers)FabaceaeOther
Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum (USA))CaprifoliaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage

Symptoms

Top of page There are two types of symptoms: feeding damage to the leaves, blossoms and developing fruit caused by the larvae; and the more characteristic folded or rolled damage to leaves and flower parts, caused when the larvae make shelters using silk.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / webbing
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / webbing
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / webbing

Biology and Ecology

Top of page A. fuscocupreanus is univoltine. Usually each female lays one egg mass in a protected area on a trunk or branch of a host from mid June to early July. The eggs overwinter and remain in diapause until the spring of the following year. The hatching date for egg masses varies according to the differences in position of egg deposition on trunks and branches. The date of hatching is heavily influenced by solar radiation and micro-habitat temperatures, with eggs in masses on south-facing trunks hatching first (Oku and Ohira, 1987). The eggs hatch from late April to mid-May, with 50% hatching coinciding with the flowering of apple blossoms. The young larvae feed on developing leaves. The older larvae also eat flowers and may graze fruit (Oku, 1967). The larvae feed until mid-May or mid-June. There are four larval instars. Pupation occurs towards the bottom of the host plants or in the soil close to hosts. The adults appear from mid-June to early July (Sekita and Yamada, 1990). The threshold temperature for the development of the egg is 7.3°C, 8.1°C for the larva, and 10.7°C for the pupa (Oku, 1970). Laboratory experiments carried out at 15, 19 and 23°C showed that longevity, duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, and rate of mating decreased with temperatures above 15°C (Ohira, 1990). Kuzuhiro and Shigemi (1997) used accumulated temperature to forecast the occurrence of A. fuscocupreanus in Japan. Their forecasts were reported to be accurate within 5 days.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Clinocentrus aeternus Parasite Larvae
Eumea linearicornis Parasite Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page In unsprayed orchards, Trichogramma species can parasitize 60% of eggs (Ohira and Oku, 1992). The listed natural enemies are not host specific and have a wide range in Eurasia (D Greathead, [address available from CABI], personal communication, 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Movement in Trade

Egg masses of A. fuscocupreanus could be carried on the branches and trunks of dormant hosts. Hosts such as Malus, Prunus, Pyrus and Rosa are traded internationally. The spread of this pest from Japan to the USA suggests that pathways for the intercontinental movement of A. fuscocupreanus exist. The transport of soft-bodied larvae with host fruit is unlikely. In the USA, A. fucsocupreanus is not a pest of actual fruit, and commercial fruit movement does not present a risk of transporting the pest (NAPPO, 1996).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches eggs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page A. fuscocupreanus is a pest of orchard crops. It has been considered a major apple pest in Japan for many years where it is one of the three most important leaf-roller pests (Tsugawa, 1971; Sekita et al., 1994). The larvae feed on the buds, flower clusters, petals, fruitlets and leaves of host plants. A colour plate showing damage to petals is provided in Sekita et al. (1994). When abundant, the larvae can defoliate fruit trees. The older larvae attack fruit when it is small, thus feeding damage to fruit can be serious. The fruit may not survive the attack, thus causing direct crop losses, or the fruit may be rejected on quality grounds because feeding damage can cause fruit to be severely misshapen and blemished and hence unmarketable (Sekita et al., 1994). As well as larval feeding damage, injury is caused by webbing leaves and occasionally flowers or fruitlets together when the larvae form shelters. The economic threshold for treatment in apple orchards is one egg mass per tree (Ohira and Oku, 1996). In Japan, A. fuscocupreanus is recorded as a pest of pears (Pyrus communis) (Yukinari, 1976), mulberry (Morus alba) (Yoshii and Yokoi, 1984) and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) (Mizukoshi, 1988).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page In the winter, the trunks and larger branches of hosts can be visually examined for egg masses. In the spring and summer, the leaves and flowers on branches can be scanned for signs of feeding damage or folded and rolled leaves.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Adult A. fuscocupreanus are very similar to the European leafroller or rose tortrix, Archips rosanus. The costal fold on the male forewing is broad and is approximately one-third the length of the costal margin. In contrast, A. rosanus has a narrow costal fold that extends approximately half the length of the costal margin of the forewing. Examination of the male genitalia can also be used to separate species. The larvae of A. fuscocupreanus are similar to larvae of Choristoneura rosaceana (oblique-banded leafroller).

Prevention and Control

Top of page In Japan, conventional organophosphate compounds have provided control when applied before apple blossoms open (Sekita et al., 1994). However, A. fuscocupreanus has developed some resistance to insecticides in Japan (Ohira and Oku, 1992). Mating disruption can be an effective management option (Toshiaki et al., 2002). The pheromone (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Hamakikon-R) disrupts mating thus causing reduced and delayed oviposition (Ohira and Oku, 1992; Oku, 1993). When mating disruption was applied against A. fuscocupreanus and insecticides were excluded, egg mortality due to parasitism increased. The population of A. fuscocupreanus was kept below damaging levels, without the need for additional control, for the succeeding three generations (Ohira and Oku, 1996).

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Inoue H; Sugi S; Kuroko H; Moriuti S; Kawabe A, 1982. Moths of Japan. Vol. 2: Plates and Synonymic Catalogue. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Co. Ltd.

Kazuhiro W; Shigemi K, 1997. Forecasting of occurrence time of apple insect pests with effective accumulative temperature calculated by "Triangle Method". Bulletin of the Yamagata Prefectural Horticultural Experiment Station, 12:39-52.

Kuznetsov VI, 1989. Leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of the southern part of the Soviet Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kryzhanovskii OL, ed. Lepidopterous Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Countries. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 57-249.

LaGasa E, 1997. Biology and distribution of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Washington State, a polyphagous leafroller pest new to North America. Proceedings of the 71st Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 8-10 January 1997, Imperial Hotel, Portland. Proceedings Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 71:95-96.

Maier CT, 2003. Distribution, hosts, abundance, and seasonal flight activity of the exotic leafroller, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(5):660-666.

Maier CT; Mastro VC, 1998. Discovery, abundance, and distribution of the exotic apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 100(3):545-552; 8 ref.

Mizukoshi T, 1988. Insect pests on Lonicera-caerulea l. Popular name Haskappu in Hokkaido Japan. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, (57):49-60.

Mutuura A; Yamamoto Y; Hattori I; Kuroko H; Kodama T; Yasuda T; Moriuti S; Saito T, 1969. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour, Volume II. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co.

NAPPO, 1996. Apple tortrix in Washington State. North American Plant Protection Organisation Newsletter, 16(4):3.

Ohira Y, 1990. Reproductive biology of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) I. Some reproductive characters of adults and their relation to pupal weight. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station, No. 17:63-76

Ohira Y; Oku T, 1992. Selective control of the apple tortrix by means of mating disruption and an egg parasite: a preliminary account. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 27(1-4):501-506

Ohira Y; Oku T, 1996. A trial to promote the effect of natural control agents, especially of Trichogramma sp., on the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, by disrupting the mating of the pest. Biological pest control in systems of integrated pest management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on "The use of Biological Control Agents under Integrated Pest Management"., 131-136; 7 ref.

Oku T, 1967. Tortricoidea as agricultural and horticultural pests in Hokkaido, with special reference to host plants. Bulletin Hokkaido Prefecture Agricultural Experimental Station, 16:44-62.

Oku T, 1970. Studies on life-histories of apple leaf-rollers belonging to the tribe Archipsini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Report of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 19:52pp.

Oku T, 1993. Suppression of lepidopterous pest populations in apple orchards through mating disruption with synthetic sex pheromones. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 26(4):271-276.

Oku T; Ohira Y, 1987. Variation in the hatching period of overwintering apple tortrix eggs Archips fuscocupeana Walsingham according to the deposition site in dwarf apple trees. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station Series C (Morioka), 14:61-68.

Sekita N; Fujita K; Kawashima K, 1994. The present situation in the control of apple insect pests and diseases in Japan. Agrochemicals Japan, 65:5-8.

Sekita N; Yamada M, 1990. Life cycle relations of Trichogramma sp. to its host Archips fuscocupreanus. Bulletin of the Aomori Apple Experiment Station, No. 26:1-13

Toshiaki K; Yoshiko K; Yoichi I, 2002. Pest control of noxious insect of apple by mating disruptants "Confuser R". Report of Tohoku Agricultural Research, 55:171-172.

Tsugawa C, 1971. Changes in control measures of major diseases and insect pests of apples in Japan. Japan Pesticide Information, 7:17-20.

Yoshii T; Yokoi N, 1984. Tortricid moths attacking mulberry trees in Fukushima Prefecture Japan with field observations of the over-wintering sites of summer fruit tortrix larvae on mulberry trees. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, 53(5):409-413.

Yukinari M, 1976. The parasites of leaf-rollers of pear orchards and their neighbouring hedges in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(4):208-211.

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