- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, 1900
Other Scientific Names
- Archips ishidai (Matsumura, 1900)
- Archips punicae (Matsumura, 1931)
- Cacoecia fuscocupreana Walsingham
- Ptycholoma fuscocupreanum Walsingham
Local Common Names
- Japan: apple tortrix
- USA: apple leafroller; apple tortrix; Asiatic leafroller
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page A. fuscocupreanus has spread to North America from Asia, presumably carried as egg masses on hosts. It has established and spread in the north-east and north-west of the USA. On the basis of the latitudes of its distribution in eastern Asia, Maier (2003) suggests that A. fuscocupreanus could extend its range in North America from Newfoundland in the north to Georgia in the south.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Tortricidae
- Genus: Archips
- Species: Archips fuscocupreanus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The larvae feed on a range of host plants and the adults can appear quite variable, which perhaps explains why this organism was described [named] twice by Matsumura.
DescriptionTop of page Eggs
The eggs are less than 1 mm long and oval. They are laid together in a single, circular egg mass, up to 7 mm in diameter, on tree trunks or larger branches. The egg mass is black.
The early-instar larvae are black and grey. The later-instar larvae are greyish-green with an orange or brownish head capsule and a black thoracic shield behind the head. When fully grown they are 19-22 mm long.
The pupae are 9-11 mm long and dark brown. They are formed in folded leaves or under the loose bark of tree trunks or leaf litter.
The wingspan of the males and females is 16-22 mm and 20-24 mm, respectively. The forewings are darker brown than the hindwings. The wings have dark-brown markings with orange or reddish-brown tinges. The hindwings are greyish-brown. Colour plates showing variation in the adults are provided in Mutuura et al. (1969) and Inoue et al. (1982).
DistributionTop of page A. fuscocupreanus is native to Japan where it can be found in all apple-growing regions and where it is an important pest (Tsugawa, 1971). In 1995, this pest was detected in five counties of western Washington State, USA (NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997). It had been established in Connecticut, USA since at least 1982, although it was not positively identified until 1995 (Maier and Mastro, 1998). It has become firmly established in the north-eastern states of the USA. For example, it was the fourth most abundant tortricid of 10 species found in total, in unsprayed apple orchards in a Connecticut county in 1997 (Maier and Mastro, 1998).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Present||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967; Tsugawa, 1971; Ohira and Oku, 1992|
|-Hokkaido||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967; Oku, 1993|
|-Kyushu||Present||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967|
|-Shikoku||Present||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967|
|Korea, DPR||Present||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||Native||Not invasive||Oku, 1967; APPPC, 1987|
|USA||Restricted distribution||Introduced||1982||Invasive||NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997; Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003|
|-Connecticut||Restricted distribution||Introduced||1982||Invasive||Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003|
|-Massachusetts||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Maier and Mastro, 1998; Maier, 2003|
|-New Jersey||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Maier, 2003|
|-New York||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Maier, 2003|
|-Rhode Island||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Maier, 2003|
|-Washington||Present||Introduced||Invasive||NAPPO, 1996; LaGasa, 1997; Maier, 2003|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Native||Not invasive||Kuznetsov, 1989|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page A. fucocupreanus is not on any Regional Plant Protection Organisation's lists of quarantine pests. However, its spread from Japan to the USA, and its subsequent further spread within the USA does suggest that it is an invasive species. On the basis of its pest status in Japan, it could be a risk to fruit and nursery industries in temperate regions in North America (Maier, 2003). In the USA, normal orchard pest control programmes could be expected to effectively manage the organism (NAPPO, 1996). Further spread may occur via the transport of nursery plants infested with the inconspicuous black egg masses.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page Although this species has a broad host range, feeding on 87 plants in 15 families, it is most abundant on Malus, Pyrus and Morus, and is only occasionally found on other genera. In the USA, the majority of hosts are Rosaceae (Maier, 2003).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Acer rubrum (red maple)||Aceraceae||Other|
|Acer saccharum (sugar maple)||Aceraceae||Other|
|Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon serviceberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Amelanchier arborea (Downy serviceberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Amelanchier canadensis (thicket serviceberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Amelanchier laevis (Allegheny serviceberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Aronia arbutifolia (red chokeberry)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Other|
|Carpinus betulus (hornbeam)||Betulaceae||Other|
|Castanea sativa (chestnut)||Fagaceae||Other|
|Celastrus orbiculatus (Asiatic bittersweet)||Salacia||Wild host|
|Chaenomeles japonica (Japanese quince)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)||Cornaceae||Wild host|
|Cornus sericea (redosier dogwood)||Cornaceae||Wild host|
|Corylus cornuta (beaked hazel)||Betulaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus crus-galli (Cockspur hawthorn)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus magniflora||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus nuda||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus pedicellata||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus scabrida||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Crataegus viridis||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Cudrania tricuspidata||Moraceae||Wild host|
|Cydonia oblonga (quince)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Diospyros (malabar ebony)||Ebenaceae||Other|
|Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)||Elaeagnaceae||Wild host|
|Fraxinus americana (white ash)||Oleaceae||Wild host|
|Ilex verticillata (common winterberry (USA))||Aquifoliaceae||Wild host|
|Juglans regia (walnut)||Juglandaceae||Other|
|Ligustrum acutissimum||Oleaceae||Wild host|
|Ligustrum vulgare (common privet)||Oleaceae||Other|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Other|
|Lonicera caerulea||Caprifoliaceae||Wild host|
|Lonicera fragrantissima||Wild host|
|Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)||Caprifoliaceae||Wild host|
|Malus baccata (siberian crab apple)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus bracteata||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus dawsoniana||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus domestica (apple)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Malus glabrata||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus hupehensis (hupeh crab-apple)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus ioensis (prairie crab-apple)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus prunifolia (plum-leaved crab apple)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus purpurea||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus sikkimensis||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus sublobata||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus sylvestris (crab-apple tree)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus toringo (toringo crab-apple)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus toringoides||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus yunnanensis||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Malus zumi||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Morus alba (mora)||Moraceae||Main|
|Photinia villosa||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen)||Salicaceae||Other|
|Prunus armeniaca (apricot)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus avium (sweet cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus cerasus (sour cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus domestica (plum)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus laurocerasus (cherry laurel)||Other|
|Prunus maritima (beach plum)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus nigra (Canada plumtree)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus padus (bird cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus pensylvanica (pin cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus serotina (black cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus serrulata (Japanese flowering cherry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Prunus verecunda||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Prunus virginiana (common chokecherrytree)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Pyrus calleryana (bradford pear)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Pyrus communis (European pear)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Pyrus salicifolia (willow-leaved pear)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Pyrus ussuriensis (amur pear)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Ribes oxyacanthoides (Northern gooseberry)||Grossulariaceae||Other|
|Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)||Grossulariaceae||Other|
|Rosa multiflora (Multiflora rose)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Rubus idaeus (raspberry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Rumex crispus (curled dock)||Polygonaceae||Wild host|
|Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow)||Salicaceae||Wild host|
|Sorbus forrestii||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Sorbus yuana||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Spiraea alba (Narrowleaf meadowsweet)||Rosaceae||Wild host|
|Syringa julianae||Wild host|
|Syringa oblata||Oleaceae||Wild host|
|Syringa villosa (late lilac)||Oleaceae||Wild host|
|Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy)||Anacardiaceae||Wild host|
|Viburnum nudum (possumhaw viburnum (USA))||Caprifoliaceae||Other|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage
SymptomsTop of page There are two types of symptoms: feeding damage to the leaves, blossoms and developing fruit caused by the larvae; and the more characteristic folded or rolled damage to leaves and flower parts, caused when the larvae make shelters using silk.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / external feeding|
|Fruit / webbing|
|Inflorescence / external feeding|
|Inflorescence / webbing|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / leaves rolled or folded|
|Leaves / webbing|
Biology and EcologyTop of page A. fuscocupreanus is univoltine. Usually each female lays one egg mass in a protected area on a trunk or branch of a host from mid June to early July. The eggs overwinter and remain in diapause until the spring of the following year. The hatching date for egg masses varies according to the differences in position of egg deposition on trunks and branches. The date of hatching is heavily influenced by solar radiation and micro-habitat temperatures, with eggs in masses on south-facing trunks hatching first (Oku and Ohira, 1987). The eggs hatch from late April to mid-May, with 50% hatching coinciding with the flowering of apple blossoms. The young larvae feed on developing leaves. The older larvae also eat flowers and may graze fruit (Oku, 1967). The larvae feed until mid-May or mid-June. There are four larval instars. Pupation occurs towards the bottom of the host plants or in the soil close to hosts. The adults appear from mid-June to early July (Sekita and Yamada, 1990). The threshold temperature for the development of the egg is 7.3°C, 8.1°C for the larva, and 10.7°C for the pupa (Oku, 1970). Laboratory experiments carried out at 15, 19 and 23°C showed that longevity, duration of the pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, and rate of mating decreased with temperatures above 15°C (Ohira, 1990). Kuzuhiro and Shigemi (1997) used accumulated temperature to forecast the occurrence of A. fuscocupreanus in Japan. Their forecasts were reported to be accurate within 5 days.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page In unsprayed orchards, Trichogramma species can parasitize 60% of eggs (Ohira and Oku, 1992). The listed natural enemies are not host specific and have a wide range in Eurasia (D Greathead, [address available from CABI], personal communication, 2005).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Movement in Trade
Egg masses of A. fuscocupreanus could be carried on the branches and trunks of dormant hosts. Hosts such as Malus, Prunus, Pyrus and Rosa are traded internationally. The spread of this pest from Japan to the USA suggests that pathways for the intercontinental movement of A. fuscocupreanus exist. The transport of soft-bodied larvae with host fruit is unlikely. In the USA, A. fucsocupreanus is not a pest of actual fruit, and commercial fruit movement does not present a risk of transporting the pest (NAPPO, 1996).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||eggs||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page A. fuscocupreanus is a pest of orchard crops. It has been considered a major apple pest in Japan for many years where it is one of the three most important leaf-roller pests (Tsugawa, 1971; Sekita et al., 1994). The larvae feed on the buds, flower clusters, petals, fruitlets and leaves of host plants. A colour plate showing damage to petals is provided in Sekita et al. (1994). When abundant, the larvae can defoliate fruit trees. The older larvae attack fruit when it is small, thus feeding damage to fruit can be serious. The fruit may not survive the attack, thus causing direct crop losses, or the fruit may be rejected on quality grounds because feeding damage can cause fruit to be severely misshapen and blemished and hence unmarketable (Sekita et al., 1994). As well as larval feeding damage, injury is caused by webbing leaves and occasionally flowers or fruitlets together when the larvae form shelters. The economic threshold for treatment in apple orchards is one egg mass per tree (Ohira and Oku, 1996). In Japan, A. fuscocupreanus is recorded as a pest of pears (Pyrus communis) (Yukinari, 1976), mulberry (Morus alba) (Yoshii and Yokoi, 1984) and blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea) (Mizukoshi, 1988).
Detection and InspectionTop of page In the winter, the trunks and larger branches of hosts can be visually examined for egg masses. In the spring and summer, the leaves and flowers on branches can be scanned for signs of feeding damage or folded and rolled leaves.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Adult A. fuscocupreanus are very similar to the European leafroller or rose tortrix, Archips rosanus. The costal fold on the male forewing is broad and is approximately one-third the length of the costal margin. In contrast, A. rosanus has a narrow costal fold that extends approximately half the length of the costal margin of the forewing. Examination of the male genitalia can also be used to separate species. The larvae of A. fuscocupreanus are similar to larvae of Choristoneura rosaceana (oblique-banded leafroller).
Prevention and ControlTop of page In Japan, conventional organophosphate compounds have provided control when applied before apple blossoms open (Sekita et al., 1994). However, A. fuscocupreanus has developed some resistance to insecticides in Japan (Ohira and Oku, 1992). Mating disruption can be an effective management option (Toshiaki et al., 2002). The pheromone (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Hamakikon-R) disrupts mating thus causing reduced and delayed oviposition (Ohira and Oku, 1992; Oku, 1993). When mating disruption was applied against A. fuscocupreanus and insecticides were excluded, egg mortality due to parasitism increased. The population of A. fuscocupreanus was kept below damaging levels, without the need for additional control, for the succeeding three generations (Ohira and Oku, 1996).
ReferencesTop of page
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Inoue H; Sugi S; Kuroko H; Moriuti S; Kawabe A, 1982. Moths of Japan. Vol. 2: Plates and Synonymic Catalogue. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha Co. Ltd.
Kazuhiro W; Shigemi K, 1997. Forecasting of occurrence time of apple insect pests with effective accumulative temperature calculated by "Triangle Method". Bulletin of the Yamagata Prefectural Horticultural Experiment Station, 12:39-52.
Kuznetsov VI, 1989. Leaf-rollers (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of the southern part of the Soviet Far East and their seasonal cycles. In: Kryzhanovskii OL, ed. Lepidopterous Fauna of the USSR and Adjacent Countries. Brill, Leiden, Netherlands, 57-249.
LaGasa E, 1997. Biology and distribution of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Washington State, a polyphagous leafroller pest new to North America. Proceedings of the 71st Annual Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 8-10 January 1997, Imperial Hotel, Portland. Proceedings Western Orchard Pest & Disease Management Conference, 71:95-96.
Maier CT, 2003. Distribution, hosts, abundance, and seasonal flight activity of the exotic leafroller, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Northeastern United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 96(5):660-666.
Maier CT; Mastro VC, 1998. Discovery, abundance, and distribution of the exotic apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 100(3):545-552; 8 ref.
Mizukoshi T, 1988. Insect pests on Lonicera-caerulea l. Popular name Haskappu in Hokkaido Japan. Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, (57):49-60.
Mutuura A; Yamamoto Y; Hattori I; Kuroko H; Kodama T; Yasuda T; Moriuti S; Saito T, 1969. Early stages of Japanese moths in colour, Volume II. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co.
NAPPO, 1996. Apple tortrix in Washington State. North American Plant Protection Organisation Newsletter, 16(4):3.
Ohira Y, 1990. Reproductive biology of the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) I. Some reproductive characters of adults and their relation to pupal weight. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station, No. 17:63-76
Ohira Y; Oku T, 1996. A trial to promote the effect of natural control agents, especially of Trichogramma sp., on the apple tortrix, Archips fuscocupreanus Walsingham, by disrupting the mating of the pest. Biological pest control in systems of integrated pest management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on "The use of Biological Control Agents under Integrated Pest Management"., 131-136; 7 ref.
Oku T, 1967. Tortricoidea as agricultural and horticultural pests in Hokkaido, with special reference to host plants. Bulletin Hokkaido Prefecture Agricultural Experimental Station, 16:44-62.
Oku T, 1970. Studies on life-histories of apple leaf-rollers belonging to the tribe Archipsini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Report of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, No. 19:52pp.
Oku T; Ohira Y, 1987. Variation in the hatching period of overwintering apple tortrix eggs Archips fuscocupeana Walsingham according to the deposition site in dwarf apple trees. Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station Series C (Morioka), 14:61-68.
Sekita N; Fujita K; Kawashima K, 1994. The present situation in the control of apple insect pests and diseases in Japan. Agrochemicals Japan, 65:5-8.
Toshiaki K; Yoshiko K; Yoichi I, 2002. Pest control of noxious insect of apple by mating disruptants "Confuser R". Report of Tohoku Agricultural Research, 55:171-172.
Tsugawa C, 1971. Changes in control measures of major diseases and insect pests of apples in Japan. Japan Pesticide Information, 7:17-20.
Yoshii T; Yokoi N, 1984. Tortricid moths attacking mulberry trees in Fukushima Prefecture Japan with field observations of the over-wintering sites of summer fruit tortrix larvae on mulberry trees. Journal of Sericultural Science of Japan, 53(5):409-413.
Yukinari M, 1976. The parasites of leaf-rollers of pear orchards and their neighbouring hedges in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 20(4):208-211.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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