Arctotheca calendula (capeweed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Prevention and Control
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Arctotis calendula L.
- Cryptostemma calendula (L.) Druce
- Cryptostemma calendulacea R. Br.
- Venidium decurrens hort.
International Common Names
- English: cape marigold; plain treasure-flower
- Spanish: filigrana pequena
- Portuguese: erva-gorda; venidium
- AROCA (Arctotheca calendula)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Arctotheca calendula has the potential to infest turf and pasture and can compete with economically important crops. It can cause allergies and dermatitis in sensitive individuals and also negatively affects stock production.
A. calendula was first identified in the USA in 200,1 in California, and was added to the US Federal Noxious Weed List and seed list in 2010.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Arctotheca
- Species: Arctotheca calendula
DescriptionTop of page
A. calendula is a rosette-forming perennial usually infesting disturbed, urban, and coastal habitats. It prefers a good amount of sun and sandy, well-drained soil. It can grow up to 25 centimeters tall (10 inches) and exhibits purple or yellow daisy-like flowers that can reach 6 centimeters (2.5 inches) in diameter. The plant is pollinated primarily by butterflies. A sterile, vegetatively reproducing yellow-flowered race is not currently regulated in California, but is noted by some to escape from cultivation. This form is now considered a separate species, A. prostrata, sometimes sold in the nursery trade. The invasive A. calendula is regulated in California has purple-tinged disc flowers, is seed-producing, and listed as a category A weed.
Plant TypeTop of page Herbaceous
DistributionTop of page
A. calendula was first identified in 2001, when USDA APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine officers detected A. calendula achenes in oats imported from Australia as livestock feed. The plant currently can be found in the coastal prairies in the San Francisco Bay area and on California’s north coast.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Disturbed areas||Principal habitat|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat|
|Coastal areas||Principal habitat|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds||Yes|
Impact SummaryTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Causes allergic responses
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
Uses ListTop of page
- Poisonous to mammals
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
A pest risk assessment completed by APHIS, USA (Lehtonen, 2003) ranked A. calendula high for both consequences of introduction and likelihood of introduction, resulting in a ranking of high overall risk potential and the species was added to the US Federal Noxious Weed List and seed list in 2010.
BibliographyTop of page
Cal-IPC. Arctotheca calendula (sterile/fertile capeweed). California Invasive Plant Council. Accessed 15 June 2009. http://www.cal-ipc.orgLehtonen
Lehtonen, Polly. 2003. Weed Risk Assessment for Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns (cape weed) Version 6. Revised February 2009 by Shirley Wager-Pagé. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/riskassessments.shtml
ReferencesTop of page
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Siverio A; Sobrino E; Rodríguez H; Arévalo JR, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.) In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011 [ed. by Arévalo JR, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society), 83-86.
USDA-ARS, 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Siverio A, Sobrino E, Rodríguez H, Arévalo J R, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.). In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011. [ed. by Arévalo J R, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society). 83-86.
USDA-ARS, 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl
Principal SourceTop of page
US Federal Noxious Weed List (draft fact sheet 2011)
Distribution MapsTop of page
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