Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Arctotheca calendula
(capeweed)

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Datasheet

Arctotheca calendula (capeweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Arctotheca calendula
  • Preferred Common Name
  • capeweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Arctotheca calendula has the potential to infest turf and pasture and can compete with economically important crops. It can cause allergies and dermatitis in sensitive individuals and also negatively affects stock production.

    A....

  • Principal Source
  • US Federal Noxious Weed List (draft fact sheet 2011)

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowers and foliage. Near Tower of Hercules, A Coruña, Spain. March 2021.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowers and foliage. Near Tower of Hercules, A Coruña, Spain. March 2021.
Copyright©Fernando Losada Rodríguez (Drow male)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowers and foliage. Near Tower of Hercules, A Coruña, Spain. March 2021.
Flowers and foliageArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowers and foliage. Near Tower of Hercules, A Coruña, Spain. March 2021.©Fernando Losada Rodríguez (Drow male)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Tocal, New South Wales, Australia. September 2018.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Tocal, New South Wales, Australia. September 2018.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Tocal, New South Wales, Australia. September 2018.
Flowering habitArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Tocal, New South Wales, Australia. September 2018.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flower underside. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowerhead close-up. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
TitleFlower
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowerhead close-up. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowerhead close-up. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
FlowerArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowerhead close-up. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
TitleFruit
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
FruitArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
TitleFruit
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
FruitArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
TitleFruit
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.
FruitArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Fruit. Dungog, New South Wales, Australia. October 2018.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleLeaf
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
LeafArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf dorsal side. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaves, ventral and dorsal sides. New South Wales, Australia. September 2008.
TitleLeaves
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaves, ventral and dorsal sides. New South Wales, Australia. September 2008.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaves, ventral and dorsal sides. New South Wales, Australia. September 2008.
LeavesArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaves, ventral and dorsal sides. New South Wales, Australia. September 2008.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, dorsal side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleLeaf
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, dorsal side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, dorsal side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
LeafArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, dorsal side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, ventral side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
TitleLeaf
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, ventral side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
Copyright©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, ventral side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.
LeafArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Leaf, ventral side close-up. New South Wales, Australia. September 2013.©Harry Rose (Macleay Grass Man)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Mount Stirling, Western Australia, Australia. September 2018.
TitleFlowering habit.
CaptionArctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Mount Stirling, Western Australia, Australia. September 2018.
Copyright©Jean and Fred Hort (taken by Jean)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0
Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Mount Stirling, Western Australia, Australia. September 2018.
Flowering habit.Arctotheca calendula (capeweed); Flowering habit. Mount Stirling, Western Australia, Australia. September 2018.©Jean and Fred Hort (taken by Jean)/via Flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns

Preferred Common Name

  • capeweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Arctotis calendula L.
  • Cryptostemma calendula (L.) Druce
  • Cryptostemma calendulacea R. Br.
  • Venidium decurrens hort.

International Common Names

  • English: cape marigold; plain treasure-flower
  • Spanish: filigrana pequena
  • Portuguese: erva-gorda; venidium

EPPO code

  • AROCA (Arctotheca calendula)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Arctotheca calendula has the potential to infest turf and pasture and can compete with economically important crops. It can cause allergies and dermatitis in sensitive individuals and also negatively affects stock production.

A. calendula was first identified in the USA in 200,1 in California, and was added to the US Federal Noxious Weed List and seed list in 2010.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Arctotheca
  •                                 Species: Arctotheca calendula

Description

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A. calendula is a rosette-forming perennial usually infesting disturbed, urban, and coastal habitats. It prefers a good amount of sun and sandy, well-drained soil. It can grow up to 25 centimeters tall (10 inches) and exhibits purple or yellow daisy-like flowers that can reach 6 centimeters (2.5 inches) in diameter. The plant is pollinated primarily by butterflies. A sterile, vegetatively reproducing yellow-flowered race is not currently regulated in California, but is noted by some to escape from cultivation. This form is now considered a separate species, A. prostrata, sometimes sold in the nursery trade. The invasive A. calendula is regulated in California has purple-tinged disc flowers, is seed-producing, and listed as a category A weed.

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial

Distribution

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A. calendula was first identified in 2001, when USDA APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine officers detected A. calendula achenes in oats imported from Australia as livestock feed. The plant currently can be found in the coastal prairies in the San Francisco Bay area and on California’s north coast.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

LesothoPresentNative
MoroccoPresent
South AfricaPresentNative
TunisiaPresent

Asia

IsraelPresent
JapanPresent

Europe

CzechiaPresent, Transient under eradication
FrancePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyPresent, Transient under eradication
GreecePresent
-CretePresent, Transient under eradication
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1987
SpainPresentIntroduced1916
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent, Transient under eradication

North America

United StatesPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1838
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
-Kermadec IslandsPresentIntroduced1972

South America

ArgentinaPresent
ChilePresentIntroduced1940

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat
LittoralCoastal areas Principal habitat

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
turfgrassesOther

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Hitchhiker Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) weeds/seeds Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A pest risk assessment completed by APHIS, USA (Lehtonen, 2003) ranked A. calendula high for both consequences of introduction and likelihood of introduction, resulting in a ranking of high overall risk potential and the species was added to the US Federal Noxious Weed List and seed list in 2010.

Bibliography

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Cal-IPC. Arctotheca calendula (sterile/fertile capeweed). California Invasive Plant Council. Accessed 15 June 2009. http://www.cal-ipc.orgLehtonen

Lehtonen, Polly. 2003. Weed Risk Assessment for Arctotheca calendula (L.) Levyns (cape weed) Version 6. Revised February 2009 by Shirley Wager-Pagé. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/riskassessments.shtml

References

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EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Siverio A; Sobrino E; Rodríguez H; Arévalo JR, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.) In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011 [ed. by Arévalo JR, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society), 83-86.

USDA-ARS, 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2011. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Michael P J, Jones D, White N, Hane J K, Bunce M, Gibberd M, 2020. Crop-zone weed mycobiomes of the south-western Australian grain belt. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11 (November), DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2020.581592

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Siverio A, Sobrino E, Rodríguez H, Arévalo J R, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.). In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011. [ed. by Arévalo J R, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society). 83-86.

USDA-ARS, 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database, Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2011. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Principal Source

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US Federal Noxious Weed List (draft fact sheet 2011)

Distribution Maps

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