Invasive Species Compendium

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rabies

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Datasheet

rabies

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabies
  • Overview
  • Rabies is caused by a neurotropic virus that is transmissible to all mammals. Birds are much less susceptible to the virus than mammals, and the presence of disease in them is very rare. The first description of rabie...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Furious stage of rabies in cattle: Salivation, dropped lower jaw and strabismus can be seen on this highly excited rabid cow.  Whilst pressing its head onto the fence it was producing a highly abnormal bellowing sound.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionFurious stage of rabies in cattle: Salivation, dropped lower jaw and strabismus can be seen on this highly excited rabid cow. Whilst pressing its head onto the fence it was producing a highly abnormal bellowing sound.
CopyrightKároly Vörös/Department of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Science, Budapest
Furious stage of rabies in cattle: Salivation, dropped lower jaw and strabismus can be seen on this highly excited rabid cow.  Whilst pressing its head onto the fence it was producing a highly abnormal bellowing sound.
SymptomsFurious stage of rabies in cattle: Salivation, dropped lower jaw and strabismus can be seen on this highly excited rabid cow. Whilst pressing its head onto the fence it was producing a highly abnormal bellowing sound.Károly Vörös/Department of Internal Medicine, University of Veterinary Science, Budapest
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
SymptomsRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
SymptomsRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabies

International Common Names

  • English: dumb rabies; furious rabies; hydrophobia; lyssa; madness; paralytic rabies; rabies
  • Spanish: rabia
  • French: rage
  • Russian: beshenstvo

Local Common Names

  • Croatia: bjesnoce
  • Germany: Tollwut
  • Hungary: veszettség
  • Italy: rabbia
  • Poland: wscieklizna
  • Portugal: raiva
  • Slovakia: besnota
  • Slovenia: stekline
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): bjesnoce

Overview

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Rabies is caused by a neurotropic virus that is transmissible to all mammals. Birds are much less susceptible to the virus than mammals, and the presence of disease in them is very rare. The first description of rabies originates from Babylon (BC 2300). Later, Demokritos and Aristotle mentioned transmission by dogs (BC 500 and BC 400, respectively). Pasteur and his co-workers developed the first immunization method in 1885. Negri discovered the inclusion bodies named after him in 1903, and the immunofluorescence test for rabies was devised by Goldwasser and Kissling in 1958.

The importance of rabies is characterized by its worldwide distribution, fatal outcome and its zoonotic aspects. Although direct economic losses are low, costs of control and elimination of the disease from a region are very high.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Hosts/Species Affected

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Hosts of infection can be any of the wild or domestic animals listed under the rabies virus data sheet. Ruminants, swine and horses kept outdoors under extensive husbandry systems are especially prone to infection.

Distribution

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Rabies occurs throughout the world and only a few countries are free of the disease, due to successful eradication programs or to island status and enforcement of rigorous quarantine regulations (Aiello and Mais, 1998; Blancou, 1998). In farm animals, rabies occurs in cattle, sheep, pigs, and horses in most countries. Bovines, including cattle and buffaloes, are the most commonly affected domestic animals (Gylys et al., 1998; Jindal and Narang, 1998; Krebs et al., 1998). Rabies in cattle is a major economic and public health problem in South America, where vampire bat-transmitted rabies results in cyclic outbreaks (Alvarez-Peralta, 1997; Jacobo et al., 1998). In Europe, sylvatic rabies is a major problem where the red fox is the principal vector; cattle are mainly infected by rabid foxes (Pastoret and Brochier, 1999; Muller et al., 1999b). More recently, bat-transmitted rabies has also been described in Europe (WHO, 1996; World Health Organization, 1998). Rabies occurs in most countries in Africa, and affects cattle and other bovines. In USA, endemic infection exists throughout southern Ohio, and the prairie states; rabies in domestic animals has steadily decreased there during the past 30 years, whereas annual occurrence in wild animals has increased (Krebs et al., 1999). Rabies is widespread and is a serious problem in several countries in Asia (Rathore, 1998), and in both European and Asian Russia. Australia and New Zealand have never had the disease (Radostits et al., 1999).

For current information on disease incidence, see OIE's WAHID Interface.

Rabies is common and enzootic in many African countries. A total of 34 countries reported 1,608 outbreaks of rabies to AU-IBAR in 2011, accounting for 7.2% of all disease outbreaks reported making it the disease with the highest number of outbreak reports. By virtue of the reports received it would appear that rabies is the most widely distributed zoonotic disease in Africa. This observation should be tempered by the fact that other zoonotic diseases are less readily diagnosed on clinical signs alone and it can be argued that many cases of for example brucellosis, echinococcosis and cysticercosis go undetected and are consequently under-reported. Algeria, South Africa and Namibia recorded the highest number of outbreaks of brucellosis with 522, 236 and 183 reports respectively (AU-IBAR, 2011).

Countries in Africa reporting rabies to AU-IBAR in 2011

Country

Outbreaks

Cases

Deaths

Slaughtered

Destroyed

Algeria

522

563

191

2

476

Benin

1

1

NS

NS

NS

Botswana

41

37

45

0

0

Cameroon

3

3

3

0

NS

Central African Republic

2

10

4

0

0

Chad

2

2

0

1

2

Congo DRC

18

77

80

0

5

Côte d'Ivoire

13

17

17

1

5

Eritrea

1

1

1

NS

1

Ethiopia

38

325

187

4

NS

Gabon

3

3

3

0

0

Gambia

3

3

3

0

0

Ghana

44

49

35

0

15

Kenya

11

11

6

0

1

Lesotho

11

21

22

0

0

Liberia

1

15

14

0

9

Madagascar

3

9

9

NS

NS

Malawi

4

4

4

NS

NS

Mauritania

12

12

9

0

3

Mozambique

2

3

1

0

1

Namibia

183

269

253

0

0

Nigeria

14

30

10

3

11

Rwanda

40

86

59

0

795

Senegal

18

38

36

0

0

Somalia

5

10

10

0

0

South Africa

236

NS

NS

NS

NS

Sudan

1

1

1

0

0

Swaziland

57

62

55

3

4

Tanzania

10

214

27

NS

NS

Togo

14

25

6

16

2

Tunisia

106

91

82

62

34

Uganda

74

466

191

119

52

Zambia

42

207

68

NS

NS

Zimbabwe

73

114

92

NS

NS

Total (34)

1608

2779

1524

211

1416

NS=Not specified 

Although rabies is one of the major zoonotic diseases, reports on its situation from many countries are often incomplete. There were many gaps in the reports received in 2011, most of which did not capture the number of outbreaks, cases, mortalities, species involvement, sources of infection and the number of human cases. These parameters are essential to substantiate the impact of rabies in public health. Nevertheless, available data calls for an urgent, concerted and coordinated effort in controlling the disease in Africa considering its impact on human health.

Dogs were the most commonly affected species, constituting 63% of all cases followed by cattle (16%) and sheep and goats (4%). There was a high incidence of rabies cases in wildlife reported by Namibia where 59 cases of a total of 70 reported cases occurred in wildlife. The species most commonly affected were the greater kudu antelope and jackal.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanNo information availableOIE, 2009
ArmeniaPresentOIE, 2009
AzerbaijanPresentOIE, 2009
BahrainDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BangladeshPresentOIE, 2009
BhutanPresentNULLOwoyele, 1992; OIE, 2009
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CambodiaNo information availableOIE, 2009
ChinaRestricted distributionNULLHe et al., 1993; Qian et al., 1998; OIE, 2009
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Georgia (Republic of)PresentOIE Handistatus, 2005; OIE, 2009
IndiaRestricted distributionNULLKandavel et al., 1989; Singh et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
-HaryanaPresentJindal and Narang, 1998
IndonesiaPresentOIE, 2009
IranPresentOIE, 2009
IraqRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
IsraelPresentOIE, 2009
JapanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
JordanPresentNULLAl-Qudah et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofPresentNULLKim et al., 1995; OIE, 2009
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
KyrgyzstanRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
LaosPresentOIE, 2009
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Peninsular MalaysiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaPresentOIE, 2009
MyanmarDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
NepalPresentNULLThakuri et al., 1992; OIE, 2009
OmanPresentNULLWorld Health Organization, 1992; OIE, 2009
PakistanRestricted distributionNULLRehman et al., 1988; OIE, 2009
PhilippinesPresentOIE, 2009
QatarDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Russian Federation
-Russia (Asia)WidespreadPolyushkina and Gorkunov, 1998
Saudi ArabiaPresentOIE, 2009
SingaporeDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Sri LankaPresentOIE, 2009
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
TaiwanLast reported1959OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanPresentOIE, 2009
ThailandPresentNULLIto et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
TurkeyPresentOIE, 2009
TurkmenistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reported1999World Health Organization, 1992; OIE, 2009
UzbekistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
YemenPresentOIE, 2009

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE, 2012
AngolaPresentOIE, 2012
BeninPresentOIE, 2012
BotswanaPresentMasupu, 1992; OIE, 2012
Burkina FasoPresentOIE, 2012
BurundiPresentOIE, 2012
CameroonPresentOIE, 2012
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
Central African RepublicPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
ChadPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
ComorosDisease never reportedOIE, 2012
CongoNo information availableOIE, 2009
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentOIE, 2012
Côte d'IvoirePresentAU-IBAR, 2011
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EgyptPresentSalem et al., 1995; OIE, 2012
Equatorial GuineaOIE, 2012Disease suspected
EritreaPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
EthiopiaPresentOIE, 2012
GabonPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
GambiaPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
GhanaPresentOIE, 2012
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Guinea-BissauOIE, 2012Disease suspected
KenyaPresentBinepal, 1992; Muriuki et al., 1994; OIE, 2012
LesothoPresentKhomari, 1992; OIE, 2012
LiberiaPresentAU-IBAR, 2011
LibyaPresentOIE, 2012
MadagascarPresentMorvan, 1992; OIE, 2012
MalawiPresentMwiyeriwa, 1992; OIE, 2012
MaliDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MauritaniaPresentOIE, 2012
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE, 2012
MoroccoPresentOIE, 2012
MozambiquePresentDias, 1992; OIE, 2012
NamibiaPresentDepner, 1992; OIE, 2012
NigerOIE, 2012Disease suspected
NigeriaPresentOIE, 2012
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaPresentOIE, 2012
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalPresentOIE, 2012
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaPresentOIE, 2012
South AfricaPresentBishop, 1992; OIE, 2012
SudanPresentHameid, 1991; AU-IBAR, 2011
SwazilandPresentOIE, 2012
TanzaniaPresentKavishe, 1988; OIE, 2012
TogoPresentOIE, 2012
TunisiaPresentArrouji et al., 1991; AU-IBAR, 2011
UgandaPresentIllango, 1992; OIE, 2012
ZambiaPresentSinyangwe, 1992; Mweene et al., 1996; OIE, 2012
ZimbabwePresentBingham, 1992; OIE, 2012

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaPresentNULLKrebs et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentWebster et al., 1989
-Nova ScotiaPresentWebster et al., 1989
-QuebecPresentLagacé, 1998
GreenlandPresentOIE, 2009
MexicoRestricted distributionNULLVargas-Garcia and Cardenas-Lara, 1996; Jaramillo and Martínez, 1998; OIE, 2009
USAPresentOIE, 2009
-CaliforniaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-ConnecticutLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-FloridaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-GeorgiaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-IowaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-KansasLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-KentuckyWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-MarylandLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-MassachusettsLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-MinnesotaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-MontanaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-New HampshireLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-New JerseyLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-New YorkWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-North CarolinaLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-North DakotaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-OklahomaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-South DakotaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-TennesseeLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-TexasWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-VermontLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-VirginiaWidespreadKrebs et al., 1999
-WisconsinLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999
-WyomingLocalisedKrebs et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizePresentOIE, 2009
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
CubaPresentOIE, 2009
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE, 2009
El SalvadorPresentOIE, 2009
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
GuatemalaPresentNULLFlores-Crespo et al., 1989; OIE, 2009
HaitiPresentOIE, 2009
HondurasPresentOIE, 2009
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
MartiniqueDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
NicaraguaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
PanamaPresentOIE, 2009
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaPresentNULLDelpietro and Nader, 1989; Delpietro et al., 1991; OIE, 2009
BoliviaPresentOIE, 2009
BrazilPresentOIE, 2009
-AmazonasPresentLau, 1990
-Minas GeraisPresentPessôa et al., 1996
-Rio de JaneiroPresentFeital and Confalonieri, 1998
ChileDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
ColombiaPresentOIE, 2009
EcuadorPresentOIE, 2009
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
GuyanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
UruguayPresentOIE, 2009
VenezuelaPresentNULLMattos et al., 1996; Plaza et al., 1997; OIE, 2009

Europe

AlbaniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
BelarusPresentNULLKovalev and Usenya, 1996; OIE, 2009
BelgiumDisease not reported200804Brochier et al., 1998; OIE, 2009
Bosnia-HercegovinaReported present or known to be presentRukavina et al., 1991; OIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaPresentNULLValtchovski, 1995; OIE, 2009
CroatiaPresentNULLSeparovic et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
DenmarkDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
EstoniaDisease not reportedNULLKulonen and Boldina, 1993; OIE, 2009
FinlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
FrancePresentOIE, 2009
GermanyDisease not reported2007Schulz, 1989; OIE, 2009
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
HungaryRestricted distributionNULLKerekes, 1997; Vörös et al., 1999; OIE, 2009
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaPresentOIE, 2009
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
LithuaniaRestricted distributionNULLGylys et al., 1998; OIE, 2009
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentGroushko, 1993; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MontenegroPresentOIE, 2009
NetherlandsPresentOIE, 2009
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
PolandPresentNULLLis, 1999; Mól, 1999; OIE, 2009
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
RomaniaPresentOIE, 2009
Russian FederationPresentOIE, 2009
-Russia (Europe)WidespreadPolyushkina and Gorkunov, 1998
SerbiaPresentOIE, 2009
SlovakiaDisease not reported200608Mandelík et al., 1997; OIE, 2009
SloveniaPresentNULLHostnik et al., 1994; OIE, 2009
SpainRestricted distributionOIE, 2009
SwedenDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
SwitzerlandDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
UKDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
-Northern IrelandLast reported1923OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkrainePresentOIE, 2009
Yugoslavia (former)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease not reportedOIE, 2009
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE, 2009
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathology

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The virus travels via the peripheral nerves to the spinal cord and ascends to the brain after replication within muscle cells near the site of inoculation. After reaching the brain, the virus usually travels efferently through the peripheral nerves to the salivary glands (Aiello and Mais, 1998; Singh and Grewal, 1998a).

Macroscopic findings are unremarkable, and there is no gross pathognomonic lesion for rabies. Histopathological findings are characterized by non-suppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis, with neuronal necrosis and the formation of glial nodules. Negri bodies (aggregates of viral material in the cytoplasm of neurones) are most commonly found in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum in ruminants (Radostits et al., 1999).

Diagnosis

Top of page Clinical Diagnosis

In any animal, the first sign is a change in behaviour, which may be indistinguishable from a gastrointestinal disorder, injury, foreign body in the mouth, poisoning, or an early infectious disease. Temperature change is not significant and drivelling may or may not be noted. Animals usually stop eating and drinking and may seek solitude. Frequently, the urogenital tract is irritated or stimulated as evidenced by frequent urination, erection in the male, and sexual desire. After the prodromal period of 1-3 days, animals either show signs of paralysis or become vicious. Paralysis of the cranial nerves is soon obvious and commonly results in difficulties in chewing, drinking, swallowing (dyspaghia), and evidence of drooling. Dropping of the lower jaw and strabismus can often be observed.

Signs may vary with the species affected (Kandavel et al., 1989; Aiello and Mais, 1998, Stoltenow et al., 1998; Vörös et al., 1999). Cattle with furious rabies are dangerous, attacking and pursuing man and other animals; instead of the usual placid expression there is one of alertness. A common clinical sign is a characteristic abnormal bellowing. In the paralytic form, cranial nerve paralysis, especially hind leg paresis followed by paralysis of all four legs may be observed, while excitement may be missing. Finally, recumbency and death will follow. The signs in sheep and goats resemble those in cattle. In sheep, vigorous wool pulling, tremors and sudden falling can occur; however, many sheep become quiet and anorectic. Infected goats are commonly aggressive, and continuous bleating is common. Rabid swine manifest excitement and a tendency to attack, or conversely, dullness and incoordination. Rapid chewing movements and convulsions can also be present. Paralysis and death usually occurs in pigs 12-48 hours after the onset of signs, which may be extremely variable (Hou, 1992; Kociorski, 1994).

Clinical observation may only lead to a suspicion of rabies, because symptoms of the disease are not always characteristic and may vary greatly from one animal to another.


Differential Diagnosis

Several diseases, especially those affecting the nervous system, can resemble some signs of rabies (Leupold et al., 1989). The following list includes examples for farm animals (Radostits et al., 1999).


Cattle, sheep and goats


Lead poisoning, lactation tetany, polioencephalomalacia (vitamin B1 hypovitaminosis), vitamin A deficiency, listeriosis, bacterial meningoencephalitis, pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease in cattle), enterotoxemia in sheep, pregnancy ketosis in sheep, coenurosis in sheep.


Swine


Pseudorabies, Teschen's disease, African swine fever, bacterial meningoencephalitis.

As a golden rule, in regions where the disease is present, rabies should be considered in any cases with even uncertain nervous signs or in animals found in a moribund stage or dead in outside pens or pastures, until otherwise proven.


Laboratory Diagnosis

As there is no gross pathognomonic lesion for rabies, diagnosis can only be made by laboratory techniques, preferably conducted on central nervous system (CNS) tissue previously removed from the cranium; the hippocampus (Ammon's horn) and the medulla oblongata are the tissues of choice. However, similar laboratory methods can also be applied to other organs, such as the salivary glands and cornea (Singh et al., 1999). Specimens for rabies diagnosis must be processed rapidly and sent to the laboratory under cold conditions, because rabies virus can be soon inactivated by heat (Barrat, 1992).

Diagnosis is preferably performed using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). A drop of immune serum previously conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate is added to a fixed brain tissue smear, preferably made from several parts of the brain including the hippocampus and medulla oblongata (Umoh and Blenden, 1981; Barnard and Voges, 1982; Barrat, 1992). Alternatively, antibody may be conjugated to an enzyme such as peroxidase instead of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). This conjugate may be used for direct diagnosis with the same sensitivity as FAT (Genovese and Andral, 1978). The immunoenzyme technique can provide rapid results when handling a large number of samples as part of an epidemiological survey. This is 'rapid rabies enzyme immunodiagnosis' (RREID), an ELISA test that detects rabies antigen (Perrin et al., 1986). Both FAT and RREID provide a reliable diagnosis in 98-100% of cases.

Histological tests can be used to demonstrate infected neuronal cells. These traditional procedures will reveal aggregates of viral material (the Negri bodies) in the cytoplasm of neurones. Nevertheless, this method does not always detect the virus (Singh and Grewal, 1998b), and the sensitivity of histological techniques depends on the degree of autolysis of the specimen; up to 15% false-negative results are observed on putrefied specimens. As a single negative test on fresh material does not rule out the possibility of infection, inoculation tests should be carried out simultaneously. Newborn mice or 3-4-week-old mice are inoculated intracerebrally with a suspension of hippocampal tissue, or a pool of several CNS tissues, and then kept under observation for 28 days. For any mouse that dies between 5 and 28 days, the cause of death should be confirmed by FAT. A neuroblastoma cell line, identified CCL131 in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), is used as a cell culture test for routine diagnosis of rabies. This cell line is sensitive to street isolates, but should be checked for susceptibility to locally predominant virus variants before use. Replication of rabies virus in the cells is revealed by FAT (Barrat et al., 1986). This test is as sensitive as the mouse inoculation test, but it is much cheaper and gives a more rapid result.

Serological evidence of infection is rarely obtained because of the high mortality rate of host species, although such evidence may be used in some epidemiological surveys. However, serological tests are used to assess the potency of vaccines against rabies; these are the virus neutralization test and the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) tests (Smith et al., 1973; Zalan et al., 1979; Perrin et al., 1985).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Fecal incontinence Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Grinding teeth, bruxism, odontoprisis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Inability to open (trismus) and / or close jaw, mouth Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Pica, depraved appetite Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Prolapsed rectum, rectal eversion Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue protrusion Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Tongue weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Dehydration Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Forelimb weakness, paresis, paralysis front leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, paresis, paralysis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hypothermia, low temperature Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Neck weakness, paresis, paralysis, limp, ventroflexion Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Sweating excessively, hyperhidrosis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Poultry:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Tail weakness, paresis, paralysis sacrococcygeal region Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Tetraparesis, weakness, paralysis all four limbs Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Weakness of one hindlimb, paresis paralysis rear leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Weight loss Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Poultry:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Forelimb spasms, myoclonus Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Musculoskeletal Signs / Hindlimb spasms, myoclonus Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Abnormal anal, perineal, tail reflexes, increased or decreased Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Abnormal forelimb reflexes, increased or decreased Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Abnormal hindlimb reflexes, increased or decreased Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Abnormal panniculus reflex, increased or decreased Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Back hypoesthesia, anesthesia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Circling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Constant or increased vocalization Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Disoriented, memory loss Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Excitement, delirium, mania Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Forelimb hypoesthesia, anesthesia front leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Head pressing Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Head shaking, headshaking Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Head tilt Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Hindlimb hypoesthesia, anesthesia rear leg Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Propulsion, aimless wandering Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Tail, anal hypoesthesia, anesthesia perineum, anus Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Tremor Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Mydriasis, dilated pupil Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Prolapsed third eyelid, protrusion nictitating membrane Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Strabismus Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, neck, cervical, throat Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow,Sheep & Goats:Mature female Sign
Reproductive Signs / Paraphimosis or priapism, inability to retract penis Cattle & Buffaloes:Bull,Sheep & Goats:Breeding male Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal breathing sounds of the upper airway, airflow obstruction, stertor, snoring Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Change in voice, vocal strength Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Pruritus, itching skin Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Urinary Signs / Dysuria, difficult urination, stranguria Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Diagnosis
Urinary Signs / Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Urinary Signs / Increased frequency of urination, pollakiuria Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign
Urinary Signs / Urinary incontinence, dribbling urine Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages,Other:All Stages,Pigs:All Stages,Sheep & Goats:All Stages Sign

Disease Course

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The incubation period of naturally occurring cases is usually about 3 weeks, but can vary from 2 weeks to several months. Rabid animals of all species exhibit typical signs of central nervous system (CNS) disturbance, with minor variations peculiar to carnivores, ruminants, bats, and humans. The clinical course, particularly in dogs, can be divided into three phases: the prodromal, the excitative, and the paralytic. The term 'furious rabies' refers to animals in which the excitative phase is predominant, and 'dumb' or 'paralytic rabies' to those in which the excitative phase is extremely short or absent and the disease progresses quickly to the paralytic phase. The disease progresses rapidly after the onset of paralysis; death usually occurs within 3-6 days and is virtually certain within 10 days of the first signs (Tanyi et al., 1988; Schulz, 1989).

Epidemiology

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The source of infection is always an infected animal, and the method of spread is almost always by the bite of an infected animal, although contamination of skin wounds by fresh saliva may result in infection. Aerosol transmission can occur under special circumstances, for example, in bat caves or in laboratories manipulating the virus. The virus may appear in the milk of infected animals, but spread by this means is not very likely. Animal vectors are numerous and their role differs according to region. Traditionally the dog, and to a lesser extent the cat, have been the main sources of infection in domestic settings. The native fauna provide the major sources of infection in countries where domestic or feral carnivores are well controlled (Muller et al., 1999). Cattle are rarely a source of infection, although transmission to humans may occur when manipulating the mouth of a rabid animal, for example, during treatment or examination (Tariq et al., 1991; Radostits et al., 1999).

Impact: Economic

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Losses from diseased animals (which invariably all die) are relatively low (Borowka, 1994). Of more significance is the value of condemned milk from infected or possibly infected cows and the expenses of preventive vaccination of animals (World Health Organization, 1989, Dufour et al., 1989), and post-infection vaccination of people (Anon., 1999; Zeller et al., 1989).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

Top of page Zoonoses

Rabies is transmissible to humans by the inoculation (via bites, mainly from carnivores, or wounds contaminated with saliva) or inhalation (from bats) of infectious virus. Rabies in humans produces very grave central nervous system (CNS) clinical signs (Krebs et al., 1999), and has a fatal outcome in nearly all cases. This very severe illness requires skilful intensive care with attention to the airway, maintenance of oxygenation, and control of seizures.

Post-infection control of the disease should be done by vigorous first aid for bite wounds and post-exposure immunization (Zeller et al., 1989; Ostrowska and Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, 1997). Therefore, local health authorities must be consulted in all cases of suspected exposure.

Transmission in Food

The milk and meat of infected animals should be condemned. People that have accidentally consumed infected products should be vaccinated against rabies; this may be an expensive operation (Borowka, 1994; Anon., 1999).

Disease Treatment

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No treatment should be attempted after clinical signs are evident. Euthanasia of suspect animals must be avoided, particularly if human exposure has occurred, since the development of the disease in animals is necessary to establish a diagnosis (Radostits et al., 1999). In several countries, cases of rabies in farm animals are notifiable to the animal health and disease regulatory bodies.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Immunization and Vaccines

Rabies vaccines for use in animals contain either live virus attenuated for the target species (for example, Flury low egg passage, Flury high egg passage, Street-Alabama-Dufferin or Kelev), or virus inactivated by chemical or physical means, or recombinant vaccines.

Subtypes of rabies virus may vary considerably in their pathogenicity. They can be classified according to origin as vulpine, canine, etc. However, with the exception of serotype 3, their immunogenicity provides almost complete cross-protection. For animals, live vaccines are also effective by the oral route and can be distributed in baits in order to immunize wild (or domestic) animals (Kieny et al., 1984, Krebs et al., 1999). Live recombinant vaccine (for example, vaccinia rabies-glycoprotein recombinant) has also proved to be effective.

Both live and inactivated vaccines have their advantages and disadvantages (Baer, 1991), but both can be used to immunize animals for periods of between 1 and 3 years (Sihvonen et al., 1994; Basheer et al., 1997; Jenkins, 1998). They are not to be relied on to protect previously unvaccinated animals that have been exposed to infection (Blancou et al., 1991).

In addition to vaccination, prevention of exposure should be encouraged whenever is possible by vaccinating vector animals, and keeping farm animals indoors. A promising widespread oral vaccination technique distributed in baits has been used with promising results in Canada, in the USA and in Europe (World Health Organization, 1989; Krebs et al., 1999; Pastoret and Brochier, 1999).


Control of Vectors


The chemicals warfarin and diphenadione have been used to control vampire bats in South America (Delpietro et al., 1991; Sald and Flores-Crespo, 1991).


National and International Control Policy

Rabies is included on the list of notifiable diseases by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Strict quarantine regulation is and should be performed in countries and regions that are currently free from disease. Control of rabies is internationally organized by OIE.

References

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
CDC Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, 2008http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5702.pdf
Global Alliance for Rabies Controlhttp://www.rabiescontrol.net/
OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animalshttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/The Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual) aims to facilitate international trade in animals and animal products and to contribute to the improvement of animal health services world-wide. The principal target readership is laboratories carrying out veterinary diagnostic tests and surveillance, plus vaccine manufacturers and regulatory authorities in Member Countries. The objective is to provide internationally agreed diagnostic laboratory methods and requirements for the production and control of vaccines and other biological products.
OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Codehttp://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-code/access-online/The OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code sets out standards for the improvement of terrestrial animal health and welfare and veterinary public health worldwide, including through standards for safe international trade in terrestrial animals and their products. The health measures in the Terrestrial Code should be used by the veterinary authorities of importing and exporting countries to provide for early detection, reporting and control agents pathogenic to terrestrial animals and, in the case of zoonoses, for humans, and to prevent their transfer via international trade in terrestrial animals and terrestrial animal products, while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers to trade.
Prof. Dr W Kleehttp://www.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de/med2/home.htmlMedizinische Tierlinik, LMU, Munich, Germany, Lehrmaterialen für Erkrankungen der Wiederkauern
Rabies - What You Need To Knowhttp://www.cfainc.org/articles/rabies.html
Rabies Information for Travellershttp://www.cdc.gov/travel/rabies.htm
Rabnet, WHOhttp://oms2.b3e.jussieu.fr/rabnet/
WHO Collaborating Centres on Rabieshttp://www.who.int/emc/diseases/zoo/rabcollabcentre.html
WHO Database on Rabieshttp://www.who.int/emc/diseases/zoo/rabies.html
WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies - 2005http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_931_eng.pdf
World Health Organizationhttp://www.who.int

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