Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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rabies virus

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Datasheet

rabies virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabies virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
SymptomsRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
SymptomsRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabies virus

Other Scientific Names

  • rhabdovirus

International Common Names

  • English: rabies virus serotype 1

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Lyssavirus
  •                         Species: rabies virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaPresentJul-Dec-2018
BeninPresentJan-Jun-2019
BotswanaPresentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BurundiPresentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of theAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
EritreaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniPresentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauPresentJul-Dec-2019
KenyaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
LesothoPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
LiberiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarPresentJan-Jun-2019
MalawiPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
MaliPresentJul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaPresentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MoroccoPresentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeonePresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaPresentJul-Dec-2019
South SudanAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SudanPresentJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TogoPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabwePresentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanPresentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CambodiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
GeorgiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
JordanPresentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanPresentJul-Dec-2020
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanPresentJan-Jun-2019
LaosPresentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonPresentJul-Dec-2020
MalaysiaPresentJul-Dec-2020
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaPresentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarPresentJan-Jun-2020
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesPresentJul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaPresentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanPresentJul-Dec-2019; in wild animals only
TajikistanPresentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresentJan-Jun-2020
TurkeyPresentJul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanPresentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamPresentJul-Dec-2019
YemenPresentJan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BelarusPresentJul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentJul-Dec-2020
BulgariaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FrancePresentJan-Jun-2020
GermanyAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MoldovaPresentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PolandPresentJan-Jun-2019; in wild animals only
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2018
RussiaPresentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkrainePresentJul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizePresentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresentJul-Dec-2019
-OntarioPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaPresentJul-Dec-2019
CubaPresentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresentJan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandPresentJul-Dec-2018; in wild animals only
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaPresentJan-Jun-2019
HaitiPresentJul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsentJul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaPresentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsentJan-Jun-2018
United StatesPresentJul-Dec-2019
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
Papua New GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaPresentJan-Jun-2019
BrazilPresentJul-Dec-2019
ChilePresentJan-Jun-2019; in wild animals only
ColombiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
EcuadorPresentJul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
PeruPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsentJan-Jun-2019
UruguayPresentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaPresentJan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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Six distinct genetic lineages can be distinguished within the genus Lyssavirus by cross-protection tests (Smith et al., 1973; Baer, 1991), namely the true rabies virus itself (serotype 1), Lagos bat virus (serotype 2), Mokola rhabdovirus (serotype 3), and Duvenhage rhabdovirus (serotype 4). The European bat lyssaviruses (EBL), subdivided into two biotypes, EBL1 and EBL2, are also members of the Lyssavirus genus, but are not yet classified into serotypes. Viruses of serotypes 2-4 and EBL are known as rabies-related viruses. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against viral nucleocapsid or glycoprotein antigens, and the sequencing of defined genomic areas has made possible the definition of numerous subtypes within each serotype.

The identification of the agent can be made in specialized laboratories by identifying variant virus strains through the use of monoclonal antisera, specific nucleic acid probes, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Such techniques can distinguish between field and vaccine strains, and may possibly identify the geographical origin of the field strains (Diaz et al., 1994; Roehe et al., 1997).

Rabies virus is destroyed rapidly at temperatures >50°C, survives no more than a few hours at room temperature, and can be destroyed by conventional disinfectants. However, the virus can persist for weeks in brain tissue in carcasses and for years in frozen tissues.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Alces alcesWild host
Alopex lagopusWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis aureus
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Canis latrans (Coyote)Wild host
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs)Wild host
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)Wild host
Canis simensis
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capreolus capreolusDomesticated host; Wild host
Castor fiberWild host
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)
Chiroptera
Conepatus mesoleucusWild host
CricetinaeDomesticated host
DesmodontinaeWild host
Desmodus rotundus
Equus
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Felis
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
Felis silvestrisWild host
Herpestes auropunctatusWild host
Homo sapiensWild host
HyaenaWild host
Lepus (hare)Wild host
Lutra lutraWild host
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)Wild host
Lynx rufusWild host
Marmota monaxWild host
Martes foinaWild host
Martes martesWild host
Meles melesWild host
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)Wild host
Mesocricetus auratus
MicrochiropteraWild host
MicrotinaeWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Wild host
MustelaWild host
Mustela nivalisWild host
Mustela putoriusDomesticated host; Wild host
Mustela putorius furo (ferret)Domesticated host; Wild host
Neovison vison (American mink)
Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)Wild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Wild host
Procyon lotor (raccoon)Wild host
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer)Domesticated host; Wild host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
SciurusWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Vulpes cinereoargenteusWild host
Vulpes corsacWild host
Vulpes macrotisWild host
Vulpes rueppelliiWild host
Vulpes veloxWild host
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Canis familiarisOther
DesmodontinaeOtherSouth America
Felis catusOtherWorld
Vulpes vulpesOtherEurope

References

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Baer GM, 1991. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition., 620 pp.; many ref.

Diaz AM; Papo S; Rodriguez A; Smith JS, 1994. Antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(3):153-160; 11 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Roehe PM; Pantoja LD; Shaefer R; Nardi NB; King AA, 1997. Analysis of Brazilian rabies virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies to Lyssavirus antigens. Revista de Microbiologia, 28(4):288-292; 27 ref.

Smith JS; Yager PA; Baer GC, 1973. A rapid reproducible test for determining rabies neutralizing antibody. Bulletin of WHO, 48:535-541.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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