Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

rabies virus

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Datasheet

rabies virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabies virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
SymptomsRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
SymptomsRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabies virus

Other Scientific Names

  • rhabdovirus

International Common Names

  • English: rabies virus serotype 1

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Lyssavirus
  •                         Species: rabies virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BeninPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ChadPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MalawiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MozambiquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TanzaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
AzerbaijanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IranPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresentCABI (Undated)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NepalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-OntarioPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-AlaskaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-TexasPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

BoliviaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Six distinct genetic lineages can be distinguished within the genus Lyssavirus by cross-protection tests (Smith et al., 1973; Baer, 1991), namely the true rabies virus itself (serotype 1), Lagos bat virus (serotype 2), Mokola rhabdovirus (serotype 3), and Duvenhage rhabdovirus (serotype 4). The European bat lyssaviruses (EBL), subdivided into two biotypes, EBL1 and EBL2, are also members of the Lyssavirus genus, but are not yet classified into serotypes. Viruses of serotypes 2-4 and EBL are known as rabies-related viruses. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against viral nucleocapsid or glycoprotein antigens, and the sequencing of defined genomic areas has made possible the definition of numerous subtypes within each serotype.

The identification of the agent can be made in specialized laboratories by identifying variant virus strains through the use of monoclonal antisera, specific nucleic acid probes, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Such techniques can distinguish between field and vaccine strains, and may possibly identify the geographical origin of the field strains (Diaz et al., 1994; Roehe et al., 1997).

Rabies virus is destroyed rapidly at temperatures >50°C, survives no more than a few hours at room temperature, and can be destroyed by conventional disinfectants. However, the virus can persist for weeks in brain tissue in carcasses and for years in frozen tissues.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Alces alcesWild host
Alopex lagopusWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host, Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host, Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis aureus
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host, Wild host
Canis latrans (Coyote)Wild host
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs)Wild host
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)Wild host
Canis simensis
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capreolus capreolusDomesticated host, Wild host
Castor fiberWild host
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)
Chiroptera
Conepatus mesoleucusWild host
CricetinaeDomesticated host
DesmodontinaeWild host
Desmodus rotundus
Equus
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Felis
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
Felis silvestrisWild host
Herpestes auropunctatusWild host
Homo sapiensWild host
HyaenaWild host
Lepus (hare)Wild host
Lutra lutraWild host
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)Wild host
Lynx rufusWild host
Marmota monaxWild host
Martes foinaWild host
Martes martesWild host
Meles melesWild host
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)Wild host
Mesocricetus auratus
MicrochiropteraWild host
MicrotinaeWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Wild host
MustelaWild host
Mustela nivalisWild host
Mustela putoriusDomesticated host, Wild host
Mustela putorius furo (ferret)Domesticated host, Wild host
Neovison vison (American mink)
Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)Wild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Wild host
Procyon lotor (raccoon)Wild host
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer)Domesticated host, Wild host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
SciurusWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host
Vulpes cinereoargenteusWild host
Vulpes corsacWild host
Vulpes macrotisWild host
Vulpes rueppelliiWild host
Vulpes veloxWild host
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Canis familiarisOther
DesmodontinaeOtherSouth America
Felis catusOtherWorld
Vulpes vulpesOtherEurope

References

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Baer GM, 1991. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition., 620 pp.; many ref.

Diaz AM; Papo S; Rodriguez A; Smith JS, 1994. Antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(3):153-160; 11 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Roehe PM; Pantoja LD; Shaefer R; Nardi NB; King AA, 1997. Analysis of Brazilian rabies virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies to Lyssavirus antigens. Revista de Microbiologia, 28(4):288-292; 27 ref.

Smith JS; Yager PA; Baer GC, 1973. A rapid reproducible test for determining rabies neutralizing antibody. Bulletin of WHO, 48:535-541.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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