Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

rabies virus

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Datasheet

rabies virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabies virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
SymptomsRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
SymptomsRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabies virus

Other Scientific Names

  • rhabdovirus

International Common Names

  • English: rabies virus serotype 1

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Lyssavirus
  •                         Species: rabies virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be present
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported1956OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1953OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported1959OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-OntarioPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-AlaskaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-CaliforniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TexasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CaribbeanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayLast reported1968OIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandLast reported1903OIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinLast reported1986OIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalLast reported1984OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenLast reported1886OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1923OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaLast reported1867OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Six distinct genetic lineages can be distinguished within the genus Lyssavirus by cross-protection tests (Smith et al., 1973; Baer, 1991), namely the true rabies virus itself (serotype 1), Lagos bat virus (serotype 2), Mokola rhabdovirus (serotype 3), and Duvenhage rhabdovirus (serotype 4). The European bat lyssaviruses (EBL), subdivided into two biotypes, EBL1 and EBL2, are also members of the Lyssavirus genus, but are not yet classified into serotypes. Viruses of serotypes 2-4 and EBL are known as rabies-related viruses. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against viral nucleocapsid or glycoprotein antigens, and the sequencing of defined genomic areas has made possible the definition of numerous subtypes within each serotype.

The identification of the agent can be made in specialized laboratories by identifying variant virus strains through the use of monoclonal antisera, specific nucleic acid probes, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Such techniques can distinguish between field and vaccine strains, and may possibly identify the geographical origin of the field strains (Diaz et al., 1994; Roehe et al., 1997).

Rabies virus is destroyed rapidly at temperatures >50°C, survives no more than a few hours at room temperature, and can be destroyed by conventional disinfectants. However, the virus can persist for weeks in brain tissue in carcasses and for years in frozen tissues.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Canis familiarisOther
DesmodontinaeOtherSouth America
Felis catusOtherWorld
Vulpes vulpesOtherEurope

References

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Baer GM, 1991. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition., 620 pp.; many ref.

Diaz AM; Papo S; Rodriguez A; Smith JS, 1994. Antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(3):153-160; 11 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Roehe PM; Pantoja LD; Shaefer R; Nardi NB; King AA, 1997. Analysis of Brazilian rabies virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies to Lyssavirus antigens. Revista de Microbiologia, 28(4):288-292; 27 ref.

Smith JS; Yager PA; Baer GC, 1973. A rapid reproducible test for determining rabies neutralizing antibody. Bulletin of WHO, 48:535-541.

Distribution Maps

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