Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

rabies virus

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Datasheet

rabies virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • rabies virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.
SymptomsRabies virus; Here, two dogs are afflicted with dumb rabies, manifested as depression and an attempt at self-imposed isolation. Domesticated animals afflicted with dumb rabies may become increasingly depressed, and try to hide in isolated places, while wild animals seem to lose their fear of human beings, often appearing unusually friendly.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963
Rabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.
SymptomsRabies virus; close up of a dog's face, showing symptoms of late paralytic rabies. USA. 1963.Public Domain - Released by the Centre for Disease Controls (CDC)/Barbara Andrews-1963

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • rabies virus

Other Scientific Names

  • rhabdovirus

International Common Names

  • English: rabies virus serotype 1

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Lyssavirus
  •                         Species: rabies virus

Diseases Table

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaPresent
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalPresent
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JordanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
Malaysia
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MongoliaPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TajikistanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
EstoniaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GermanyPresent
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizePresent
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresent
-AlaskaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaPresent
ParaguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Pathogen Characteristics

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Six distinct genetic lineages can be distinguished within the genus Lyssavirus by cross-protection tests (Smith et al., 1973; Baer, 1991), namely the true rabies virus itself (serotype 1), Lagos bat virus (serotype 2), Mokola rhabdovirus (serotype 3), and Duvenhage rhabdovirus (serotype 4). The European bat lyssaviruses (EBL), subdivided into two biotypes, EBL1 and EBL2, are also members of the Lyssavirus genus, but are not yet classified into serotypes. Viruses of serotypes 2-4 and EBL are known as rabies-related viruses. The use of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against viral nucleocapsid or glycoprotein antigens, and the sequencing of defined genomic areas has made possible the definition of numerous subtypes within each serotype.

The identification of the agent can be made in specialized laboratories by identifying variant virus strains through the use of monoclonal antisera, specific nucleic acid probes, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. Such techniques can distinguish between field and vaccine strains, and may possibly identify the geographical origin of the field strains (Diaz et al., 1994; Roehe et al., 1997).

Rabies virus is destroyed rapidly at temperatures >50°C, survives no more than a few hours at room temperature, and can be destroyed by conventional disinfectants. However, the virus can persist for weeks in brain tissue in carcasses and for years in frozen tissues.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Alces alcesWild host
Alopex lagopusWild host
Axis axis (Indian spotted deer)
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos mutus (yaks, wild)Domesticated host; Wild host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis aureus
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Canis latrans (Coyote)Wild host
Canis lupus familiaris (dogs)Wild host
Canis mesomelas (black-backed jackal)Wild host
Canis simensis
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Capreolus capreolusDomesticated host; Wild host
Castor fiberWild host
Cavia porcellus (domesticated guinea pig)
Chiroptera
Conepatus mesoleucusWild host
CricetinaeDomesticated host
DesmodontinaeWild host
Desmodus rotundus
Equus
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Felis
Felis catus (cat)Domesticated host
Felis silvestrisWild host
Herpestes auropunctatusWild host
Homo sapiensWild host
HyaenaWild host
Lepus (hare)Wild host
Lutra lutraWild host
Lycaon pictus (African wild dog)Wild host
Lynx rufusWild host
Marmota monaxWild host
Martes foinaWild host
Martes martesWild host
Meles melesWild host
Mephitis mephitis (striped skunk)Wild host
Mesocricetus auratus
MicrochiropteraWild host
MicrotinaeWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Wild host
MustelaWild host
Mustela nivalisWild host
Mustela putoriusDomesticated host; Wild host
Mustela putorius furo (ferret)Domesticated host; Wild host
Neovison vison (American mink)
Nyctereutes procyonoides (raccoon dog)Wild host
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)Domesticated host
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis aries musimon (European mouflon)Wild host
Procyon lotor (raccoon)Wild host
Rangifer tarandus (reindeer)Domesticated host; Wild host
Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Wild host
SciurusWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host
Vulpes cinereoargenteusWild host
Vulpes corsacWild host
Vulpes macrotisWild host
Vulpes rueppelliiWild host
Vulpes veloxWild host
Vulpes vulpes (red fox)Wild host

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Canis familiarisOther
DesmodontinaeOtherSouth America
Felis catusOtherWorld
Vulpes vulpesOtherEurope

References

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Baer GM, 1991. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition. The natural history of rabies. 2nd Edition., 620 pp.; many ref.

Diaz AM; Papo S; Rodriguez A; Smith JS, 1994. Antigenic analysis of rabies-virus isolates from Latin America and the Caribbean. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(3):153-160; 11 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Roehe PM; Pantoja LD; Shaefer R; Nardi NB; King AA, 1997. Analysis of Brazilian rabies virus isolates with monoclonal antibodies to Lyssavirus antigens. Revista de Microbiologia, 28(4):288-292; 27 ref.

Smith JS; Yager PA; Baer GC, 1973. A rapid reproducible test for determining rabies neutralizing antibody. Bulletin of WHO, 48:535-541.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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