Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

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Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rift Valley fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
TitleHistology
CaptionA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
CopyrightF. Glyn Davies
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
HistologyA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.F. Glyn Davies

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rift Valley fever virus

English acronym

  • RVFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Phlebovirus
  •                         Species: Rift Valley fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)
BurundiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChadAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosPresentJan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaPresentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaPresentJul-Dec-2020
MadagascarAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MaliAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MauritaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MayotteAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigeriaPresentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresentJul-Dec-2020
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SenegalPresentJul-Dec-2020; in wild animals only
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South SudanPresentJul-Dec-2020
SudanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2020
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2020
ZambiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabweAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ArmeniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Tamil NaduPresent
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PakistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SyriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
YemenAbsentJan-Jun-2020

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Timor-LesteAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

Pathogen Characteristics

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The virus is a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebotomus. The virus is 90-110 nm in diameter, with an internal core of single stranded RNA surrounded by an envelope. It is inactivated by lipid solvents, sodium deoxycholate and formalin. Major polypeptides are G1,G2 and N. Other members of the Phlebotomus fever group show cross relationships with RVF virus on complement fixation, haemagglutination, ELISA or indirect fluorescent antibody tests, and pose potential problems in diagnosis. The virus serum neutralisation tests are specific. One Phlebovirus, which presents a practical diagnostic problem, is sandfly fever, which may overlap in its range with RVF in North Africa. The other related viruses, which exist in South America and elsewhere, should not pose diagnostic problems.


Strain variation


All the strains of RVF virus thus far isolated have been shown to be immunologically and serologically identical. An analysis of strains isolated during epizootics in many parts of Africa and in Egypt has shown few differences when analysed with some 59 monoclonal antibodies and by electrophoretic migration patterns of the structural and non structural proteins. They were all remarkably similar. Fingerprinting and sequencing of isolates have demonstrated some differences, which may be of value in epidemiological mapping. All the isolates identified in Kenya over 30 years have shown similar pathogenicity.

Most strains of pantropic RVF, that have been isolated from many parts of Africa have shown similar levels of virulence when expressed in the same host genotype. Some variation in the pathogenicity of the viscerotropic RVF virus strains has, however, been reported, but this may reflect their passage history and the genotype of the host species exposed in the field and in the laboratory. The Wistar–Furth strain of inbred rats shows differences in the pathogenicity of the Egyptian isolates compared with others from sub-Saharan Africa. The Egyptian isolates are highly pathogenic for these rats, all die within 48 h. The susceptibility was associated with the presence or absence of a particular gene. When other inbred strains of rats (LEW & MAXX) were inoculated with the same virus strains, they were comparatively resistant to the fatal liver disease, but some developed a necrotizing encephalitis. Strains such as the Lunyo from Uganda and Smithburn (SNS), and several other cell or mouse adapted isolates, show differences in pathogenicity compared with field isolates. The SNS has been neuro-adapted by passage in infant mouse brain, which has resulted in a loss in pathogenicity for the disease hosts. Similar loss of pathogenicity has been demonstrated by cell passage and by exposure of the virus to mutant inducers. The MP 12 strain shows a mutagen-induced reduction in virulence with great potential as a modified live virus vaccine. The C-13 strain (74HB59) has been described as a naturally occurring low virulence strain of RVF, originally classified as Zinga virus, but subsequently shown to be RVF.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host; Wild host
Chiroptera
Homo sapiensWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host; Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Experimental settings

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsect
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes aegypti formosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes africanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes ambreensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes argenteopunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caballusInsect
Aedes canadensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes cantatorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caspiusInsect
Aedes circumluteolusInsect
Aedes cumminsiiInsect
Aedes cumminsii cumminsiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes dalzieliInsect
Aedes dentatusInsect
Aedes durbanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes excruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fowleriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes furciferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes juppiInsect
Aedes lineatopennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes luteocephalusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes mcintoshiInsect
Aedes metallicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes quasiunivittatusInsect
Aedes sollicitansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes sudanensisInsect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes tayloriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes triseriatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes unidentatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexansInsect
Anopheles bradleyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles coustaniInsect
Anopheles cruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeInsect
Anopheles merusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles multicolorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles pharoensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles tenebrosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
CoquillettidiaInsect
Culex antennatusInsect
Culex decensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex duttoniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex neaveiInsect
Culex perexiguusInsect
Culex pipiensInsect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex poicilipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex salinariusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex territansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex thalassiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex theileriInsect
Culex tigripesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex univittatusInsect
Culex zombaensisInsect
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Eretmapodites chrysogasterInsect
Eretmapodites quinquevittatusInsect
Hyalomma dromedariiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma impeltatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum marginatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma truncatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lutzomyia longipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia africanaInsect
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia. Serological findings (follow-up report No. 1: end of the outbreak). Disease Information, 17(49).

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Distribution Maps

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