Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

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Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rift Valley fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
TitleHistology
CaptionA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
CopyrightF. Glyn Davies
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
HistologyA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.F. Glyn Davies

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rift Valley fever virus

English acronym

  • RVFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Phlebovirus
  •                         Species: Rift Valley fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChadAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqPresent, Serological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LebanonAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeOIE Handistatus (2005); CABI (Undated)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
YemenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
AustriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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The virus is a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebotomus. The virus is 90-110 nm in diameter, with an internal core of single stranded RNA surrounded by an envelope. It is inactivated by lipid solvents, sodium deoxycholate and formalin. Major polypeptides are G1,G2 and N. Other members of the Phlebotomus fever group show cross relationships with RVF virus on complement fixation, haemagglutination, ELISA or indirect fluorescent antibody tests, and pose potential problems in diagnosis. The virus serum neutralisation tests are specific. One Phlebovirus, which presents a practical diagnostic problem, is sandfly fever, which may overlap in its range with RVF in North Africa. The other related viruses, which exist in South America and elsewhere, should not pose diagnostic problems.


Strain variation


All the strains of RVF virus thus far isolated have been shown to be immunologically and serologically identical. An analysis of strains isolated during epizootics in many parts of Africa and in Egypt has shown few differences when analysed with some 59 monoclonal antibodies and by electrophoretic migration patterns of the structural and non structural proteins. They were all remarkably similar. Fingerprinting and sequencing of isolates have demonstrated some differences, which may be of value in epidemiological mapping. All the isolates identified in Kenya over 30 years have shown similar pathogenicity.

Most strains of pantropic RVF, that have been isolated from many parts of Africa have shown similar levels of virulence when expressed in the same host genotype. Some variation in the pathogenicity of the viscerotropic RVF virus strains has, however, been reported, but this may reflect their passage history and the genotype of the host species exposed in the field and in the laboratory. The Wistar–Furth strain of inbred rats shows differences in the pathogenicity of the Egyptian isolates compared with others from sub-Saharan Africa. The Egyptian isolates are highly pathogenic for these rats, all die within 48 h. The susceptibility was associated with the presence or absence of a particular gene. When other inbred strains of rats (LEW & MAXX) were inoculated with the same virus strains, they were comparatively resistant to the fatal liver disease, but some developed a necrotizing encephalitis. Strains such as the Lunyo from Uganda and Smithburn (SNS), and several other cell or mouse adapted isolates, show differences in pathogenicity compared with field isolates. The SNS has been neuro-adapted by passage in infant mouse brain, which has resulted in a loss in pathogenicity for the disease hosts. Similar loss of pathogenicity has been demonstrated by cell passage and by exposure of the virus to mutant inducers. The MP 12 strain shows a mutagen-induced reduction in virulence with great potential as a modified live virus vaccine. The C-13 strain (74HB59) has been described as a naturally occurring low virulence strain of RVF, originally classified as Zinga virus, but subsequently shown to be RVF.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host, Wild host
Chiroptera
Homo sapiensWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Experimental settings

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsect
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes aegypti formosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes africanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes ambreensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes argenteopunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caballusInsect
Aedes canadensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes cantatorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caspiusInsect
Aedes circumluteolusInsect
Aedes cumminsiiInsect
Aedes cumminsii cumminsiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes dalzieliInsect
Aedes dentatusInsect
Aedes durbanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes excruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fowleriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes furciferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes juppiInsect
Aedes lineatopennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes luteocephalusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes mcintoshiInsect
Aedes metallicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes quasiunivittatusInsect
Aedes sollicitansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes sudanensisInsect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes tayloriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes triseriatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes unidentatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexansInsect
Anopheles bradleyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles coustaniInsect
Anopheles cruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeInsect
Anopheles merusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles multicolorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles pharoensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles tenebrosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
CoquillettidiaInsect
Culex antennatusInsect
Culex decensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex duttoniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex neaveiInsect
Culex perexiguusInsect
Culex pipiensInsect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex poicilipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex salinariusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex territansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex thalassiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex theileriInsect
Culex tigripesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex univittatusInsect
Culex zombaensisInsect
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Eretmapodites chrysogasterInsect
Eretmapodites quinquevittatusInsect
Hyalomma dromedariiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma impeltatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum marginatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma truncatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lutzomyia longipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia africanaInsect
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia. Serological findings (follow-up report No. 1: end of the outbreak). Disease Information, 17(49).

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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