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Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

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Datasheet

Rift Valley fever virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rift Valley fever virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Bunyaviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
TitleHistology
CaptionA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
CopyrightF. Glyn Davies
A fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.
HistologyA fluorescin isethiocyanate/RVF antibody stained preparation of an RVF virus infected cell in tissue culture.F. Glyn Davies

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rift Valley fever virus

English acronym

  • RVFV

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Bunyaviridae
  •                     Genus: Phlebovirus
  •                         Species: Rift Valley fever virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentNativeOIE, 2004; OIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
East AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
EgyptLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaSerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueLast reported1963OIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanLast reported1973OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
West AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZambiaLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USADisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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The virus is a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebotomus. The virus is 90-110 nm in diameter, with an internal core of single stranded RNA surrounded by an envelope. It is inactivated by lipid solvents, sodium deoxycholate and formalin. Major polypeptides are G1,G2 and N. Other members of the Phlebotomus fever group show cross relationships with RVF virus on complement fixation, haemagglutination, ELISA or indirect fluorescent antibody tests, and pose potential problems in diagnosis. The virus serum neutralisation tests are specific. One Phlebovirus, which presents a practical diagnostic problem, is sandfly fever, which may overlap in its range with RVF in North Africa. The other related viruses, which exist in South America and elsewhere, should not pose diagnostic problems.


Strain variation


All the strains of RVF virus thus far isolated have been shown to be immunologically and serologically identical. An analysis of strains isolated during epizootics in many parts of Africa and in Egypt has shown few differences when analysed with some 59 monoclonal antibodies and by electrophoretic migration patterns of the structural and non structural proteins. They were all remarkably similar. Fingerprinting and sequencing of isolates have demonstrated some differences, which may be of value in epidemiological mapping. All the isolates identified in Kenya over 30 years have shown similar pathogenicity.

Most strains of pantropic RVF, that have been isolated from many parts of Africa have shown similar levels of virulence when expressed in the same host genotype. Some variation in the pathogenicity of the viscerotropic RVF virus strains has, however, been reported, but this may reflect their passage history and the genotype of the host species exposed in the field and in the laboratory. The Wistar–Furth strain of inbred rats shows differences in the pathogenicity of the Egyptian isolates compared with others from sub-Saharan Africa. The Egyptian isolates are highly pathogenic for these rats, all die within 48 h. The susceptibility was associated with the presence or absence of a particular gene. When other inbred strains of rats (LEW & MAXX) were inoculated with the same virus strains, they were comparatively resistant to the fatal liver disease, but some developed a necrotizing encephalitis. Strains such as the Lunyo from Uganda and Smithburn (SNS), and several other cell or mouse adapted isolates, show differences in pathogenicity compared with field isolates. The SNS has been neuro-adapted by passage in infant mouse brain, which has resulted in a loss in pathogenicity for the disease hosts. Similar loss of pathogenicity has been demonstrated by cell passage and by exposure of the virus to mutant inducers. The MP 12 strain shows a mutagen-induced reduction in virulence with great potential as a modified live virus vaccine. The C-13 strain (74HB59) has been described as a naturally occurring low virulence strain of RVF, originally classified as Zinga virus, but subsequently shown to be RVF.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host, Wild host
Chiroptera
Homo sapiensWild host
Mus musculus (house mouse)Experimental settings
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host, Wild host
Rattus rattus (black rat)Experimental settings

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aedes aegyptiInsect
Aedes aegypti aegyptiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes aegypti formosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes africanusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes albopictusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes ambreensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes argenteopunctatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caballusInsect
Aedes canadensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes cantatorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes caspiusInsect
Aedes circumluteolusInsect
Aedes cumminsiiInsect
Aedes cumminsii cumminsiiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes dalzieliInsect
Aedes dentatusInsect
Aedes durbanensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes excruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes fowleriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes furciferMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes juppiInsect
Aedes lineatopennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes luteocephalusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes mcintoshiInsect
Aedes metallicusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes quasiunivittatusInsect
Aedes sollicitansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes sudanensisInsect
Aedes taeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes tayloriMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes triseriatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes unidentatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Aedes vexansInsect
Anopheles bradleyiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles coustaniInsect
Anopheles cruciansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles gambiaeInsect
Anopheles merusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles multicolorMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles pharoensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles stephensiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Anopheles tenebrosusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Boophilus microplusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
CoquillettidiaInsect
Culex antennatusInsect
Culex decensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex duttoniMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex neaveiInsect
Culex perexiguusInsect
Culex pipiensInsect
Culex pipiens pipiensMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex poicilipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex quinquefasciatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex salinariusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tarsalisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex territansMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex thalassiusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex theileriInsect
Culex tigripesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex tritaeniorhynchusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Culex univittatusInsect
Culex zombaensisInsect
Culicoides variipennis variipennisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Eretmapodites chrysogasterInsect
Eretmapodites quinquevittatusInsect
Hyalomma dromedariiMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma impeltatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum marginatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma marginatum rufipesMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Hyalomma truncatumMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Lutzomyia longipalpisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Mansonia africanaInsect
Mansonia uniformisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0
Rhipicephalus appendiculatusMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Tick
Stomoxys calcitransMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0Insect
Toxorhynchites amboinensisMINED DATA; 16/11/01 14:00:0

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia. Serological findings (follow-up report No. 1: end of the outbreak). Disease Information, 17(49).

Distribution Maps

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