Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus
(rosy bitterling)

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Datasheet

Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (rosy bitterling)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rosy bitterling
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • R. o. ocellatus is considered as a pest in fish farms and competitor of juveniles of commercial species. It also acts as a vector for bivalve larvae.

    Chinese rosy bitterling...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus, the rosy bitterling, from Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. November 2007.
TitleAdult
CaptionRhodeus ocellatus ocellatus, the rosy bitterling, from Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. November 2007.
CopyrightSeotaro/Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus, the rosy bitterling, from Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. November 2007.
AdultRhodeus ocellatus ocellatus, the rosy bitterling, from Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan. November 2007.Seotaro/Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (Kner, 1866)

Preferred Common Name

  • rosy bitterling

Other Scientific Names

  • Pseudoperilampus ocellatus Kner, 1866
  • Rhodeus hwanghoensis Mori, 1928
  • Rhodeus maculatus Fowler, 1910
  • Rhodeus notatus Nichols, 1929
  • Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner, 1866)
  • Rhodeus pingi Miao, 1934
  • Rhodeus wangkinfui Wu, 1930

International Common Names

  • English: rose bitterling
  • Russian: glazchatyi gorchak

Local Common Names

  • China: gao ti páng pi
  • Germany: Hongkong-Bitterling
  • Japan: baratanago; tairiku-baratanago
  • Netherlands: Chinese bittervoorntje
  • Uzbekistan: achchiq baliq

Summary of Invasiveness

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R. o. ocellatus is considered as a pest in fish farms and competitor of juveniles of commercial species. It also acts as a vector for bivalve larvae.

Chinese rosy bitterling (R. o. ocellatus) may hybridize with the native subspecies, the Japanese rosy bitterling (R. o. kurumeus), which is endemic to the creeks and small rivers of western Japan. In 1991, R. o. kurumeus was designated as critically endangered by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (Sato et al., 2010). R. o. ocellatus is listed as one of Japan's 100 worst invasive alien species (http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index_en.html).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Rhodeus
  •                                 Species: Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus

Description

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R. o. ocellatus is a small fish with a very deep, laterally compressed body. The female has an ovipositor which elongates in the spawning period. In the breeding season the male is brightly coloured and covered with tubercles. Female and juvenile bitterlings have a black blotch on the anterior part of dorsal fin. Pharyngeal teeth in 1 row. Lateral line is incomplete, 3-11 pored scales. In Uzbekistan: D II-III 9-12, A II-III 9-12 (Makeeva and Shubnikova, 1978).

Distribution

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The native range of R. o. ocellatus is Taiwan (Welcomme, 1988). R. o. kurumeus (/smithii) is considered as an indigenous endemic to Japan (Kimura and Nagata, 1992).

Exotic distribution

R. o. ocellatus was introduced in mainland China and other Far East countries. It is distributed from Beijing in the north, through China (including Hong Kong), West Korea and Japan to North Vietnam in the south. It was also unintentionally introduced in the Aral Sea Basin and Fiji (Welcomme, 1988).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedBerg, 1949; Welcomme, 1988; Kawamura et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004Yangtze Basin (/Jinsha River basin, Chuanjiang, Minjiang River basin, Tuojiang River basin, Jialing River basin, Wujiang River basin, Daning River, Xiangxi River), Heilong (/Amur) Basin
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001Yangtze and Xin rivers
-BeijingPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2011
-ChongqingPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2011
-FujianPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001Mulan and Min rivers
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedYe, 1991Xi Jiang (/Pearl) River
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2011
-HeilongjiangPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001Heilong (/Amur) and Songhua (/Sungari) rivers
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001Yangtze and Xin rivers
-ShandongPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2011
-ShanghaiPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001Yangtze drainage
-YunnanWidespreadIntroduced1965 Invasive Junxing, 1996Most lakes and rivers
JapanWidespreadIntroduced1942 Invasive Kawamura et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004; Sato et al., 2010R. o. kurumeus is an endemic in Japan. R. o. ocellatus is considered to have been introduced accidentally from mainland China into Japan, contaminated in the seedlings of Asian carps
KazakhstanWidespreadIntroduced1958 Invasive Mitrofanov, 1967; Mitrofanov et al., 1992; Savvaitova and Petr, 1999; Mamilov Sh, 2011First introduced into Baliqchi Fish Farm, Uzbekistan. Syr Darya drainage
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedKawamura et al., 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TaiwanPresentNativeWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TurkmenistanLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Sal'nikov and Shkeda, 1990; Sal'nikov, 1998Amu Darya Basin, Sariqamish Lake
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedMakeeva, 1974; Pavlovskaya and Sal'nikov, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
VietnamPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2011Con Cuong district, Chau Khe region

Europe

GermanyPresentIntroducedGeiter et al., 2002; Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007Not established
Russian FederationPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
-Russian Far EastPresentIntroduced Invasive Bogutskaya et al., 2004Amur drainage

Oceania

FijiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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In ancient times R. o. ocellatus was introduced into eastern China. From China was introduced into the Korean Peninsula and Japan as an ornamental species. For a long time those counties were considered as the native range (Welcomme, 1988).

However, in Japan one of the subspecies,  R. o. kurumeus (/smithii), is regarded as an indigenous endemic whereas another subspecies, R. o. ocellatus, is considered to have been introduced accidentally from mainland China, as contamination of seedlings of Asian carp in 1942  (Chiba et al., 1989; Kimura and Nagata, 1992; Kawamura et al., 2001; Sato et al., 2010).

In Japan R. o. ocellatus endangers the native subspecies by ecological pressures and hybridization. The latter is now on the brink of extinction as a distinct subspecies.

In Central Asia R. o. ocellatus was unintentionally introduced along with Asian carp from the Yangtze River. It was first released into the Karametniyaz fish farm and the Kara-Kum Canal, Turkmenistan in 1958-1961. Then in 1961 it was introduced (again with larvae of Asian carp) to Uzbekistan into the Akkurgan (later Baliqchi) fish farm, in the Tashkent region.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
China Taiwan   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes
Fiji Japan 1984 Yes Unintended
Japan China   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes
Japan China 1942 Yes Unintentional (along with Asian carp)
Korea, DPR China   Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes
Turkmenistan China 1958-61 Yes Sal'nikov (1998); Sal'nikov and Reshetnikov (1991) Unintended (along with Asian carps) Karametniyaz fish farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya river)
Uzbekistan China 1961 Yes Unintended (along with Asian carp) Karametniyaz Fish farm (55 km W from Kerki, Amu Darya river)

Risk of Introduction

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The main pathway is transfer of fish seed between fish farms. R. o. ocellatus escapes from fishponds and spreads in wild via irrigation canals. To prevent spread of this species all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of R. o. ocellatus before release in ponds.

Fish fry can be transferred within bivalves and R. o. ocellatus, in turn, can be a vector for bivalves as mussels use bitterlings as hosts for their larvae (glochidia).

Another pathway of introduction is releasing by aquarium hobbyists.

Habitat

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R. o. ocellatus is a lentic species found in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, canals, and marshes, preferring lakes and the stagnant parts of rivers. It keeps to the water surface in stagnant waters.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Lakes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Ponds Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Principal habitat Natural
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of R. o. ocellatus is 2n=48, NF=76 (Vasil'ev, 1980).

Chinese rosy bitterling (R. o. ocellatus) hybridize with the native subspecies, the Japanese rosy bitterling (R. o. kurumeus), which is endemic to creeks and small rivers in western Japan (Sato et al., 2010).

A molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites of 13 populations of R. ocellatus in Japan is described in Miyake et al. (2007).

Reproductive Biology

Females mature at 24 mm SL. The breeding season extends from the middle of March to the middle of September in Japan. Spawning is fractional. The average individual fecundity is 17-69 eggs. R. o. ocellatus lays eggs inside bivalves. The larvae remain in the mantle cavity until they can swim (Asahina et al., 1980; Gultneh et al., 1984).

Longevity

The longevity of R. o. ocellatus is 3-4 years.

Population Size and Density

Abundance in the Shin Tone River, Japan, is estimated at 13,000-35,300 fish along a 36 m river shoreline (Gultneh et al., 1982).

Nutrition

In the Shin Tone River, Japan, the diet of R. o. ocellatus consists mostly on diatoms, with a smaller proportion of crustaceans and green algae (Gultneh et al., 1985):  

Natural Food Sources

Life stage

Contribution to total food intake (%)

Shin tone River, Japan

 

 

Diatoms

adult

51.3

Cladocera

adult

19.5

Green algae

adult

12.2

Blue-green algae

adult

9.7

Copepoda

adult

3.7

Rotatoria

adult

2.4

Euglena

adult

1.2

Associations

R. o. ocellatus, as with other bitterlings, have a reproductive symbiosis with bivalves. The female lays its eggs inside the mantle cavity of the mussel. The mollusc, in turn, uses the bitterlings for the distribution of its own larvae (glochidias).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
19-41

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 12 30
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -15 14

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Water pH (pH) 7 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 24 Optimum (Baensch and Fischer, 1998)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Centrocestus armatus Parasite not specific
Centrocestus taiwanense Parasite not specific
Clinostomum complanatum Parasite not specific
Clonorchis sinensis Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus chongqingensis Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus oblongus Parasite not specific
Dactylogyrus rhodeusi Parasite not specific
Echinochasmus fujianensis Parasite not specific
Echinochasmus japonicus Parasite not specific
Exorchis oviformis Parasite not specific
Haplorchis pumilio Parasite not specific
Liolope copulans Parasite not specific
Metagonimus yokogawai Parasite not specific
Stamnosoma armatum Parasite not specific

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Eggs and fry of R. o. ocellatus can be transferred within mussels in which they are developing.

Accidental Introduction

The main pathway for R. o. ocellatus is the transfer of fish seed between fish farms. Bitterlings then escape from fishponds into the wild.

Intentional Introduction

Outside of its native area R. o. ocellatus has been introduced as an ornamental species. This species is easy to keep in captivity, and this along with the bright colours of males and unusual reproduction behaviour, make it an attractive fish for aquarium culture.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes
Pet trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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R. o. ocellatus is considered as a pest in fish farms and competitor of juveniles of commercial species. It has been reported from fish farms and reservoirs that it feed on their eggs and fry of other fish.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

In Japan, R. o. ocellatus endangers the native subspecies R. o. kurumeus (/smithii) by ecological pressures and hybridization. The latter is now on the brink of extinction as a distinct subspecies (Kimura and Nagata, 1992; Kawamura et al., 2001; Sato et al., 2010).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeusEN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)JapanHybridizationKawamura et al., 2001; Kimura and Nagata, 1992; Sato et al., 2010
Rhodeus smithii (Nippon Baratanago)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered)JapanHybridizationIUCN, 2010

Social Impact

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Mollusc shells, transferred with R. o. ocellatus, become traumatic agents in water bodies.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

R. o. ocellatus can be cultured as ornamental fish.

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade

Diagnosis

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Chinese rosy bitterling (R. o. ocellatus) and Japanese rosy bitterling (R. o. kurumeus) are morphologically very similar (more on the morphological characters can be found in the Detection and Inspection text section). They can be distinguished by RFLP analysis of mtDNA and RAPD-PCR analysis of genomic DNA (Kawamura et al., 2001).

Detection and Inspection

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R. o. ocellatus is easily distinguishable from the native species by the strong spine in the dorsal fin, the elongate anal fin and the curved lateral line, which goes downward behind the head and then parallels the lower body margin, at the anal fin it curves upward and extends along the middle part of the caudal peduncle.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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R. o. ocellatus can be confused with the other Rhodeus species e.g. R. sericeus.R. o. ocellatus is distinguished from R. sericeus by larger dorsal and anal fins (Makeeva and Shubnikova, 1978). R. o. ocellatus is distinguished from R. amarus by having 10-12.5 branched dorsal rays (vs. 9.5, 10.5 in R. amarus); females and juveniles have a black blotch in the anterior part of dorsal fin (vs. no blotch) (Kottelat and Freyhof, 2007).

Japanese rosy bitterling (R. o. kurumeus) and Chinese rosy bitterling (R. o. ocellatus) are morphologically very similar. R. o. ocellatus primarily differs from R. o. kurumeus by the presence of white colouration along the anterior margin of the pelvic fins (Kawamura et al., 2001).

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

SPS measures

To prevent spread all transported fish seed should be properly checked for the presence of R. o. ocellatus before release into ponds. The keeping and release of rosy bitterling is regulated in Shiga and Saga Prefectures in Japan (http://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index_en.html).

 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Data on environmental requirements of R. o. ocellatus and its interaction with native species are insufficient.

References

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Asahina K; Iwashita I; Hanyu I, 1980. Annual reproductive cycle of a bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish, 46(3):299-305.

Baensch HA; Fischer GW, 1998. Aquarien Atlas., Germany: Mergus.

Berg LS, 1949. Freshwater fishes of the U.S.S.R. and adjacent countries. Moscow, Russia: USSR Academy of Sciences.

Bogutskaya NG; Naseka AM, 2004. Catalogue of agnathans and fishes of fresh and brackish waters of Russia with comments on nomenclature and taxonomy. Moscow, Russia: KMK Scientific Press Ltd., 389 pp.

Chiba K; Taki Y Sakai K; Oozeki Y, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. In: De Silva SS, ed., Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia, Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia, p 63-70, Asian Fish Soc. Spec. Publ. 3,. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fish Society.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2011. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

GBIF, 2011. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org/species/

Geiter O; Homma S; Kinzelbach R, 2002. [English title not available]. (Bestandsaufnahme und Bewertung von Neozoen in Deutschland.) Texte des Umweltbundesamtes, 25. 174 +36 +31 +52 S.

Gultneh S; Katsumi M; Shimizu M; Nose Y, 1982. The fluctuation and distrsbution of the population density and fish movement of Rose bitterling in Shin Tone River. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish, 48(1):1-9.

Gultneh S; Katsumi M; Shimizu M; Nose Y, 1984. The reproduction and condition factor of Rose bitterling in Shin Tone River. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish, 50(7):1095-1103.

Gultneh S; Shimizu M; Yukio N, 1985. The feeding habits of rose bitterling in the Shin Tone river. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 51 (5): 711-716.

IUCN, 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. http://www.iucnredlist.org

Junxing Y, 1996. The Alien and Indigenous Fishes of Yunnan: A Study on Impact Ways, Degrees and Relevant Issues. In: Conserving China's Biodiversity (II) [ed. by Schei, P. J. \Sung, W. \Yan, X.]. Beijing, China: China Environmental Science Press, 157-168.

Kawamura K; Ueda T; Arai R; Nagata Y; Saitoh K; Ohtaka H; Kanoh Y, 2001. Genetic introgression by the rose bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus, into the Japanese rose bitterling, R. o. kurumeus (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zoological Science, 18(7):1027-1039.

Kimura S; Nagata Y, 1992. Scientific name of Nipponbaratanago, Japanese bitterling of the genus Rhodeus. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 38:425-429.

Kottelat M; Freyhof J, 2007. Handbook of European Freshwater Fishes. Cornol, Switzerland: Publications Kottelat, 646 pp.

Makeeva AP, 1974. Finding in water bodies of Central Asia bitterling Rhodeus ocellatus ocellatus (Kner) and characteristic its development. Biological Basis of Fisheries in Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Ashgabat, Ylym, Turkmenistan 56-57.

Makeeva AP; Shubnikova NO, 1978. Rhodeus ocellatus (Kner), a new for the USSR species of the bitterling. Zoological Journal, 57(1):94-99.

Mamilov Sh N, 2011. Modern diversity of alien fish species in Chu and Talas river basins. Russian Journal of Biological Invasions, 4(1):65-76.

Mitrofanov VP, 1967. Characteristics of fish fauna of water bodies of the inundation area of Kapchagai reservoir. In: Biological Basis of Fisheries in Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Balkhash, Kazakhstan 193-195.

Mitrofanov VP; Dukravets GM; Sidorova AF, 1992. Fishes of Kazakhstan. Vol. 5. Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan: Gylym.

Miyake T; Kawamura K; Hosoya K; Okazaki T; Kitogawa T, 2007. Discovery of the Japanese rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus kurumeus, in Nara prefecture. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology, 54(2):139-148.

Pavlovskaya LP; Sal'nikov VB, 1990. Features of the formation and development of fish community in reservoir storages of drainage water (Sarykamysh lake case study). Hydrobiological Journal, 26(1):39-47.

Sal'nikov VB, 1998. Anthropogenic Migration of Fish in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 38(8):591-602.

Sal'nikov VB; Reshetnikov YuS, 1991. Formation of fish community of manmaid reservoirs in Turkmenistan. Journal of Ichthyology, 31(4):565-575.

Sal'nikov VB; Shkeda AM, 1990. Pseudoperilampus (Rhodeus) ocellatus Kner, 1867 (Cyprinidae family) - a new species of ichthyofauna of water bodies of Turkmenistan. Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR (Biological Sciences Series), 6:63-66.

Sato M; Kawaguchi Y; Nakajima J; Mukai T; Shimatani Y; Onikura N, 2010. A review of the research on introduced freshwater fishes: new perspectives, the need for research, and management implications. Landscape Ecology, 6:99-108.

Savvaitova KA; Petr T, 1999. Fish and fisheries in Lake Issyk-Kul (Tien Shan), River Chu and Pamir lakes. In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia [ed. by Petr, T.]. Rome, Italy: FAO, 279-304. [FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.]

Vasil'ev VP, 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. J. Ichthyol, 20(3):1-38.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Ye F, 1991. Acheilognathinae. In: The freshwater fishes of Guangdong Province [ed. by Pan, J. -. H.]. Guangzhou, China: Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 123-136.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
FAO Fisheries Departmenthttp://www.fao.org/fi/default.asp
Fishes of Uzbekistanhttp://uznix.narod.ru/sci/fkey/rhodeus.html
Invasive Species of Japanhttp://www.nies.go.jp/biodiversity/invasive/index_en.htmlNational Institue for Environmental Studies (NIES), Japan

Contributors

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31/08/11 Original text by:

Ernest Khurshut, Institute of Zoology, Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Reviewers' names are available on request.

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