Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apple stem grooving virus

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Datasheet

Apple stem grooving virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apple stem grooving virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Tymovirales
  •         Family: Betaflexiviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stem grooving of Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia Crab and union necrosis at the graft junction of the Virginia Crab scion and apple seedling rootstock, caused by apple stem grooving virus infection..
TitleStem grooving on Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia Crab
CaptionStem grooving of Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia Crab and union necrosis at the graft junction of the Virginia Crab scion and apple seedling rootstock, caused by apple stem grooving virus infection..
CopyrightDelano James
Stem grooving of Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia Crab and union necrosis at the graft junction of the Virginia Crab scion and apple seedling rootstock, caused by apple stem grooving virus infection..
Stem grooving on Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia CrabStem grooving of Malus sylvestris cv. Virginia Crab and union necrosis at the graft junction of the Virginia Crab scion and apple seedling rootstock, caused by apple stem grooving virus infection..Delano James

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apple stem grooving virus

Other Scientific Names

  • Apple brown line virus
  • Apple dark green epinasty virus
  • Apple E36 virus
  • Apple latent virus type 2
  • Apple stem grooving capillovirus
  • apple topworking disease
  • brown line virus disease
  • Chenopodium dark green epinasty virus
  • Citrange stunt virus
  • Citrus tatter leaf virus
  • Virginia crab apple decline
  • Virginia crab stem grooving virus

International Common Names

  • Spanish: madera asurcada del manzano
  • French: bois cannelé
  • Portuguese: sulcos do lenho da macieira

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Stammfurchung
  • Belgium: bois rainuré
  • Germany: Stammfurchung
  • Greece: avlakosi kormou milias
  • Hungary: alma törzsbarázdáltság
  • Italy: scanalature del tronco del melo
  • Mexico: madera estriada del manzano
  • Netherlands: houtgroef
  • Sweden: räfflad ved
  • Switzerland: bois silloné du pommier; Virginia crab Verfall

English acronym

  • ASGV

EPPO code

  • ASGV00 (Apple stem grooving capillovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Tymovirales
  •                 Family: Betaflexiviridae
  •                     Genus: Capillovirus
  •                         Species: Apple stem grooving virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadWaterworth, 1972; Howell et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentYue et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentWaterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Anuradha et al., 2010; Brakta et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentAnuradha et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresentNémeth, 1986; Howell et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentNémeth, 1986; Yanase, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
JordanPresentSalem et al., 2005
Korea, DPRPresentWaterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentKoizumi, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentEPPO, 2014
NepalPresentHowell et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentHowell et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentAl-Jebr et al., 2005
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesSu and Cheon, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
VietnamAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentEPPO, 2014
EthiopiaPresentLemma et al., 2016
MoroccoPresentEPPO, 2014
South AfricaRestricted distributionNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentNémeth, 1986; WELSH and KEANE, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Netherlands AntillesPresentMeer, 1976; Németh, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

South America

BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentLovisolo et al., 2003

Europe

AlbaniaPresentMyrta et al., 2004
AustriaPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentNémeth, 1986; Waterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentLolic et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaPresentBorisova, 2008
CroatiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNémeth, 1986
DenmarkPresentNémeth, 1986; Waterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentMarenaud & Keramidas, 1969; Németh, 1986; Waterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentPu¯pola et al., 2011; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentKviklys et al., 2006
NetherlandsPresentNémeth, 1986; Van der Meer, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentNémeth, 1986; Waterworth, 1971; Waterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwedenPresentNémeth, 1986; Ryden, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentNémeth, 1986; de Sequeira, 1967; Waterworth, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNémeth, 1986
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2000

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionNémeth, 1986; Waterworth, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentNémeth, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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1991. Certification scheme. Pathogen-tested material of carnation. Bulletin OEPP, 21(2):279-290

Al-Jebr K; Ismaeil F; Mando MJ; Al-Saadoun E; Al-Chaabi S, 2005. First record of pome fruit viruses in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 87(3):243.

Anuradha Negi; Tanuja Rana; Yogesh Kumar; Raja Ram; Vipin Hallan; Zaidi AA, 2010. Analysis of the coat protein gene of Indian strain of Apple stem grooving virus. Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 19(1):91-94. http://www.iospress.nl

Borisova A, 2008. Spread of ACLSV in pome and stone fruit species in Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita, 47(5):23-25. http://www.plant-protection.com

Brakta A; Thakur PD; Handa A, 2013. First report of apple top working disease caused by viruses (Apple stem grooving virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, and Apple stem pitting virus) in apple in India. Plant Disease, 97(7):1001-1002. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Apple stem grooving capillovirus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 810. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CieSlinska M; Zawadzka B, 1999. Preliminary results of investigation on elimination of viruses from apple, pear and raspberry using thermotherapy and chemotherapy in vitro. Phytopathologia Polonica, No. 17:41-48; 16 ref.

Crossley SJ; Jacobi V; Adams AN, 1998. IC-PCR amplification of apple stem grooving virus isolates and comparison of polymerase and coat protein gene sequences. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:113-117; 7 ref.

Daniels J; Marinho VLA; Kummert J; Lepoivre P, 1998. Development of colorimetric RT-PCR tests for apple stem grooving virus detection in apple trees. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:105-111; 17 ref.

de Sequeira OA, 1967. Studies on a virus causing stem grooving and graft union abnormalities in Virginia Crab apple. Annals of Applied Biology, 60:59-66.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fridlund PR, 1980. The IR-2 program for obtaining virus-free fruit trees. Plant Disease, 64(9):826-830

Howell WE; Burgess J; Mink GI; Zhang YP; Skrzeczkowski LJ, 1998. Elimination of apple fruit and bark deforming agents by heat therapy. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:641-646; 21 ref.

Howell WE; Mink GI; Hurtt SS; Foster JA; Postman JD, 1996. Select Malus clones for rapid detection of apple stem grooving virus. Plant Disease, 80(10):1200-1202; 6 ref.

Inouye N; Mpda T; Mitsuhata K, 1979. Citrus tatter leaf virus isolated from lily. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 45(5):712-720

James D, 1999. A simple and reliable protocol for the detection of apple stem grooving virus by RT-PCR and in a multiplex PCR assay. Journal of Virological Methods, 83(1/2):1-9; 20 ref.

James D, 1999. Factors affecting the detection of apple stem grooving virus by PCR analysis. Acta Horticulturae, 472:119-124.

James D, 2008. Apple stem grooving virus. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of plant viruses. Volume 2: horticultural crops [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Myrta, A.\Ling, K. S.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 37-53.

James D; Trytten PA; MacKenzie DJ; Towers GHN; French CJ, 1997. Elimination of apple stem grooving virus by chemotherapy and development of an immunocapture RT-PCR for rapid sensitive screening. Annals of Applied Biology, 131(3):459-470; 30 ref.

Jelkmann W, 1995. Cherry virus A: cDNA cloning of dsRNA, nucleotide sequence analysis and serology reveal a new plant capillovirus in sweet cherry. Journal of General Virology, 76(8):2015-2024; 38 ref.

Kinard GR; Scott SW; Barnett OW, 1996. Detection of apple chlorotic leaf spot and apple stem grooving viruses using RT-PCR. Plant Disease, 80(6):616-621; 31 ref.

Knapp E; Camara Machado A da; Puhringer H; Wang Q; Hanzer V; Weiss H; Weiss B; Katinger H; Camara Machado MLda, 1995. Localization of fruit tree viruses by immuno-tissue printing in infected shoots of Malus sp. and Prunus sp. Journal of Virological Methods, 55(2):157-173

Koizumi M, 1989. Citrus diseases in Japan: their control and possible outbreaks in the rest of Asia. Extension Bulletin - ASPAC, Food & Fertilizer Technology Center, No. 284:1-6

Kviklys D; Stankiene J; Kemp H, 2006. Effect of health status of planting material on apple tree growth and yield. (Sodinamosios medziagos sveikumo itaka obelu augimui ir derliui.) Sodininkyste ir Darzininkyste, 25(4):62-71. http://www.LSDI.lt

Lemma B; Xing F; Li SF; Zhang ZX, 2016. First report of Apple stem grooving virus, Apple stem pitting virus, and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus in apple trees from Chencha, Ethiopia. Plant Disease, 100(12):2540-2541. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lister RM, 1970. Apple stem grooving virus. CMI/AAB Description of Plant Viruses. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, No. 31, 4 pp.

Lister RM; Bar-Joseph M, 1981. Closteroviruses. In: E. Kurstak, ed. Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparative Diagnosis. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 809-844.

Lolic B; Myrta A; Ðuric G; Krstic B, 2007. Pome fruit viruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. (Virusi jabucastih vocaka u Bosni i Hercegovini.) Pesticidi i Fitomedicina, 22(2):165-172.

Lovisolo O; Accotto GP; Masenga V; Colariccio A, 2003. An isolate of Apple stem grooving virus associated with Cleopatra mandarin fruit intumescence. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(1):54-58. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n1/15779.pdf

MacKenzie DJ; McLean MA; Mukerji S; Green M, 1997. Improved RNA extraction from woody plants for the detection of viral pathogens by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease, 81(2):222-226; 22 ref.

Magome H; Yoshikawa N; Takahashi T, 1999. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of apple stem grooving capillovirus sequence variants. Phytopathology, 89(2):136-140; 22 ref.

Magome H; Yoshikawa N; Takahashi T; Ito T; Miyakawa T, 1997. Molecular variability of the genomes of capilloviruses from apple, Japanese pear, European pear, and citrus trees. Phytopathology, 87(4):389-396; 31 ref.

Marais LJ; Lee RF, 1986. Citrange stunt virus associated with decline of Shamouti on Swingle citrumelo rootstock in South Africa. Plant Disease, 70(9):892

Marenaud G; Kreamidas C, 1969. Separation par thermotherapie du Virginia decline et de six autres infections virales du Pommier. Annals of Phytopathology, 1:645-653.

Marinho VLA; Kummert J; Rufflard G; Colinet D; Lepoivre P, 1998. Detection of apple stem grooving virus in dormant apple trees with crude extracts as templates for one-step RT-PCR. Plant Disease, 82(7):785-790; 26 ref.

Martelli GP et al., 2000. Genus Capillovirus. In: Regenmortel MHV van, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J;, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB, eds. Virus Taxonomy; Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 952-956.

Myrta A; Terlizzi Bdi; Stamo B; Al-Rwahnih M; Savino V; Carraro L, 2004. A preliminary account of the presence of pome fruit viruses in Albania. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops: Fruit Tree Diseases, Valencia, Spain, 21-25 July, 2003.], No.657:55-58. http://www.actahort.org

Németh M, 1986. In: Virus, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia Diseases of Fruit Trees Dordrecht, : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 463-479.

OEPP/EPPO, 1992. Certification schemes. Virus-free and virus-tested material of fruit trees and rootstocks. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21:267-278; 22:253-284.

Pu¯pola N; Morocko-Bicevska I; Ka¯le A; Zeltins A, 2011. Occurrence and diversity of pome fruit viruses in apple and pear orchards in Latvia. Journal of Phytopathology, 159(9):597-605. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Ryden K, 1976. Virginia decline as latent infection in Swedish apple trees. Mitteillungen der Biologische Bundesanst fnr Land- und Forstwirtschaft, 170:83-88.

Salazar LF; Harrison BD, 1978. Host range, purification and properties of potato virus T. Annals of Applied Biology, 89(2):223-235

Salem N; Mansour A; Al-Musa A, 2005. Viruses of pome fruit trees in Jordan. Journal of Plant Pathology, 87(2):123-126.

Semancik JS; Weathers LG, 1965. Partial purification of a mechanically transmissible virus associated with tatter leaf of citrus. Phytopathology, 55:1354-1358.

Su HJ; Cheon JU, 1984. Occurrence and distribution of tatter-leaf citrange stunt complex on Taiwanese citrus. NTU Phytopathologist & Entomologist, 11:42-48

Uyemoto JK; Gilmer RM, 1971. Apple stem-grooving virus: propagating hosts and purification. Annals of Applied Biology, 69:17-21.

Van der Meer FA, 1976. Observations on apple stem grooving virus. Acta Horticulturae, 67:293-304.

Wallace JM; Drake RJ, 1962. Tatter leaf, a previously undescribed virus effect on citrus. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:211-212.

Wang Q; Shi Y; Yang J; Sun Q, 1998. Detection of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus by dot-immunobinding assay. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:51-54; 12 ref.

Waterworth HE, 1971. Virginia Crab apple as an indicator for a widespread latent virus of pear. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:983-985.

Waterworth HE, 1972. Virginia Crab apple decline. Phytopathology, 62:695-699.

Waterworth HE; Gilmer RM, 1969. Dark green epinasty of Chenopodium quinoa, a syndrome induced by a virus latent in apple and pear. Phytopathology, 59:334-338.

WELSH MF; KEANE FWL, 1961. Diseases of Apple in British Columbia that are caused by viruses or have characteristics of virus diseases. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 41(3):123-147 pp.

Welsh MF; Van der Meer FA, 1989. Apple stem grooving. In: Virus and Viruslike Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Noninfectious Disorders. Cooperative Extension, Washington State University, Washington, Pullman, 127.

Xue GR; Yang ZY; Hong Y; Shi YZ; Xue GG; Yang ZY; Hong Y; Shi YZ, 1996. Study on techniques for eliminating pear viruses by shoot tip culture. China Fruits, 3:9-11.

Yanase H, 1983. Back-transmission of apple stem grooving virus to apple seedlings and induction of symptoms of apple topworking disease in Mitsuba Kiado (Malus sieboldii) and Kobano zumi (Malus sieboldii var arborescens) rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae, 130:117-122.

Yanase H; Mink GI; Sawamura K; Yamaguchi A, 1990. Apple topworking disease. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS, eds. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St. Paul, USA: APS Press, 74.

Yoshikawa N; Sasaki E; Kato M; Takahashi T, 1992. The nucleotide sequence of apple stem grooving capillovirus genome. Virology (New York), 191(1):98-105; 41 ref.

Yoshikawa N; Takahashi T, 1988. Properties of RNAs and proteins of apple stem grooving and apple chlorotic leaf spot viruses. Journal of General Virology, 69(1):241-245

Yoshikawa N; Takahashi T, 1992. Evidence for translation of apple stem grooving capillovirus genomic RNA. Journal of General Virology, 73(5):1313-1315

Yue HN; Wu YF; Wei T; Hou W; Li YR; Wu KK, 2008. A new Chinese isolate of apple stem grooving virus from apples. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(1):146. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Distribution Maps

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