Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma (apple rubbery wood)
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma
Preferred Common Name
- apple rubbery wood
Other Scientific Names
- apple rubbery wood disease
- Apple rubbery wood MLO
- Apple rubbery wood virus
- Pyrusvirus molliens
- Quince bark necrosis virus
- Quince yellow blotch agent
- Quince yellow blotch virus
International Common Names
- English: pear rubbery wood disease; quince chlorotic blotch
- French: bois caoutchouc; bois souple du pommier
Local Common Names
- Germany: Gummiholzkrankheit der Birne; Gummiholzkrankheit des Apfels
- ARW000 (Apple rubbery wood agent)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Bacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Mollicutes
- Order: Acholeplasmatales
- Family: Acholeplasmataceae
- Genus: Phytoplasma
- Species: Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Stems / distortion|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Stems / stunting or rosetting|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
ReferencesTop of page
Beakbane AB; Thompson EC, 1945. Abnormal lignification in the wood of some apple trees. Nature, 156:145-146.
Beakbane BA; Mishra MD; Posnette AF, 1971. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with chat fruit and rubbery wood disease of apple, Malus domestica (Borkh.), compared with those in strawberry with green petal disease. Journal of General Microbiology, 66:55-62.
Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Janeckova M; Franova-Honetslegrova, 1997. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas in apple with rubbery wood symptoms in the Czech republic. In: Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on virus and virus like diseases of temperate fruit crops. June 23-27. Bethseda, Maryland, USA, 102-103.
Chamberlain EE; Atkinson JD; Wood GA; Hunter JA, 1971. Apple Rubbery Wood Virus. New Zealand J. Agric. Research, 14:707-719.
Cropley R, 1963. Apple Rubbery Wood. In: Posnette AF, ed. Virus Diseases of Apples and Pears, CAB. Technical Communication No. 30, 71-71.
Desvignes JC, 1999. Apple Rubbery Wood - Flat Limb. In: Virus diseases of fruit trees. +ditions centre technique interprofessionnel des fruits et lTgumes, Paris, France, 136-138.
Desvignes JC; BoyT R; Cornaggia D; Grasseau N, 1992. Quick detection of the principal apple and pear virus diseases. Acta Horticulturae, 309:377-384.
Dhingra KL; Ahlawat YS, 1973. Apple rubbery-wood virus in Simla Hills. Indian Phytopathology, 26:343-346.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fialova R; Navratil M; Podsednikova R, 2000. Histological manifestation of rubbery wood symptoms in apple trees. Programme 18th International Symposium Virus & Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruits Crops. July 9-15, 2000, Canterbury and HRI, East Malling, England.
Fialová R; Navrátil M; Válová P, 2003. Phytoplasma occurrence in apple trees in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science, 39(1):7-12.
Guerra L; Kirkpatrick B, 1999. Attempts to confirm that phytoplasmas are the causal agent of apple rubbery wood diseases. Davis, CA, USA: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California. World Wide Web page at http://www.nrsp5.wsu.edu/nrsparwp.html.
Lemoine J, 1986. Rubbery Wood-Bois caoutchouc. Phytoma, DTfense des cultures, December 1986, 31-32.
Lemoine J, 2000. Apple Rubbery Wood (Bois caoutchouc du Pommier). World Wide Web page at http://www.inra.fr/Internet/Centres/Angers/result/fichvir8.html.
Minoiu N, 1976. Chemotherapy of some fruit tree viruses. Acta Hort., 67:103-108.
Minoiu N; Craciun C, 1982. Electron microscopy detection of apple rubbery wood pathogens and cobalt-therapy of infected fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 130:313-315.
Minoiu N; Isac M; Pattantyus K; Stirban M; Craciun C; Straulea M, 1980. Experimental results concerning the apple rubbery wood mycoplasma in Romania. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:267-271
Seemnller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26.
Seliskar CE; Wilson CL, 1981. Yellows Diseases of Trees. In: Maramorosch K, Raychaudhuri SP, eds. Mycoplasma Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Academic Press, 35-96.
Trifonov D, 1969. Apple Rubbery Wood. I. Detection and study of infection on some Bulgarian varieties and rootstocks. Grad. loz. Nauka, 6:19-24.
Waterworth HE; Fridlund PR, 1989. Apple Rubbery Wood. In: Fridlund PR, ed. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Non-infectious Disorders. Washington State University Press, 118-126.
Welsh MF, 1960. Rubbery wood (virus). 39th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1959. Compiled by Creelman DW, p. 70.
Wood GA, 1997. Viruses and phytoplasma in European pear trees in New Zealand and the role of these pathogens in the compatibility of pear with quince rootstocks. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(4):333-340; 49 ref.
Zawadzka B, 1988. The influence of virus and mycoplasma diseases on frost damage of apple trees. Acta Horticulturae, 235:59-67.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Guerra L, Kirkpatrick B, 1999. Attempts to confirm that phytoplasmas are the causal agent of apple rubbery wood diseases., Davis, CA, USA: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California. World Wide Web. http://www.nrsp5.wsu.edu/nrsparwp.html
Welsh MF, Creelman DW, 1960. Rubbery wood (virus). In: 39th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1959, 70.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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