Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma
(apple rubbery wood)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma (apple rubbery wood)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple rubbery wood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma

Preferred Common Name

  • apple rubbery wood

Other Scientific Names

  • apple rubbery wood disease
  • Apple rubbery wood MLO
  • Apple rubbery wood virus
  • Pyrusvirus molliens
  • Quince bark necrosis virus
  • Quince yellow blotch agent
  • Quince yellow blotch virus

International Common Names

  • English: pear rubbery wood disease; quince chlorotic blotch
  • French: bois caoutchouc; bois souple du pommier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Gummiholzkrankheit der Birne; Gummiholzkrankheit des Apfels

English acronym

  • ARW

EPPO code

  • ARW000 (Apple rubbery wood agent)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Apple rubbery wood phytoplasma

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresent, LocalizedDhingra and Ahlawat (1973); EPPO (2020)
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentBertaccini et al. (1998); Fialová et al. (2003)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1975)
FrancePresentLemoine and Michelesi (1990)
GermanyPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
MoldovaPresentKrasnova et al. (1981)
NetherlandsPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
PolandPresentZawadzka et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Minioiu et al., 1980
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentKrasnova et al. (1981)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedWelsh and Creelman (1960); UK, CAB International (1975); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentGuerra and Kirkpatrick (1999)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentEPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentEPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentGuerra and Kirkpatrick (1999)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Stems / distortion
Stems / necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

Top of page

Beakbane AB; Thompson EC, 1945. Abnormal lignification in the wood of some apple trees. Nature, 156:145-146.

Beakbane BA; Mishra MD; Posnette AF, 1971. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with chat fruit and rubbery wood disease of apple, Malus domestica (Borkh.), compared with those in strawberry with green petal disease. Journal of General Microbiology, 66:55-62.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Frßnovß-Honetslegrovß J; Janeckovß M, 1998. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas in apple with rubbery wood symptoms. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:693-700; 22 ref.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Janeckova M; Franova-Honetslegrova, 1997. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas in apple with rubbery wood symptoms in the Czech republic. In: Proceedings of the 17th Symposium on virus and virus like diseases of temperate fruit crops. June 23-27. Bethseda, Maryland, USA, 102-103.

CHAMBERLAIN EE; ATKINSON JD; HUNTER JA; WOOD GA, 1969. Apple rubbery wood on Golden Delicious in N.Z. Orchardist of New Zealand, 42(8):252-255.

Chamberlain EE; Atkinson JD; Wood GA; Hunter JA, 1971. Apple Rubbery Wood Virus. New Zealand J. Agric. Research, 14:707-719.

CMI, 1975. Apple rubbery wood virus Prentice. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Map No. 305, Edition 3. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cropley R, 1963. Apple Rubbery Wood. In: Posnette AF, ed. Virus Diseases of Apples and Pears, CAB. Technical Communication No. 30, 71-71.

Davies DL; Adams AN; Glenister M, 1985. Mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in pears and apples. Report East Malling Research Station for 1984 Maidstone, Kent, United Kingdom, 151

Desvignes JC, 1999. Apple Rubbery Wood - Flat Limb. In: Virus diseases of fruit trees. +ditions centre technique interprofessionnel des fruits et lTgumes, Paris, France, 136-138.

Desvignes JC; BoyT R; Cornaggia D; Grasseau N, 1992. Quick detection of the principal apple and pear virus diseases. Acta Horticulturae, 309:377-384.

Dhingra KL; Ahlawat YS, 1973. Apple rubbery-wood virus in Simla Hills. Indian Phytopathology, 26:343-346.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fialova R; Navratil M; Podsednikova R, 2000. Histological manifestation of rubbery wood symptoms in apple trees. Programme 18th International Symposium Virus & Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruits Crops. July 9-15, 2000, Canterbury and HRI, East Malling, England.

Fialová R; Navrátil M; Válová P, 2003. Phytoplasma occurrence in apple trees in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science, 39(1):7-12.

Guerra L; Kirkpatrick B, 1999. Attempts to confirm that phytoplasmas are the causal agent of apple rubbery wood diseases. Davis, CA, USA: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California. World Wide Web page at http://www.nrsp5.wsu.edu/nrsparwp.html.

Krasnova KM; Ponomareva VS; Sadlyak AM; Bruskova TN, 1981. The investigation of rubbery wood disease. Zashchita Rastenii, No.6:36-37

Kuprii AV, 1979. Distribution and harmfulness of gutta-percha disease in the Ukraine. Latvijas Lauksaimniecibas Akademijas Raksti, No.176:138-142

Lemoine J, 1986. Rubbery Wood-Bois caoutchouc. Phytoma, DTfense des cultures, December 1986, 31-32.

Lemoine J, 1990. Diseases of decline. Arboriculture Fruitiere, No. 434:38-48

Lemoine J, 2000. Apple Rubbery Wood (Bois caoutchouc du Pommier). World Wide Web page at http://www.inra.fr/Internet/Centres/Angers/result/fichvir8.html.

Lemoine J; Michelesi JC, 1990. Effects of three virus diseases on three pear cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 44(1-2):69-81

Minoiu N, 1976. Chemotherapy of some fruit tree viruses. Acta Hort., 67:103-108.

Minoiu N; Craciun C, 1982. Electron microscopy detection of apple rubbery wood pathogens and cobalt-therapy of infected fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, 130:313-315.

Minoiu N; Isac M; Pattantyus K; Stirban M; Craciun C; Straulea M, 1980. Experimental results concerning the apple rubbery wood mycoplasma in Romania. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 15:267-271

Németh M, 1986. In: Virus, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia Diseases of Fruit Trees Dordrecht, : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 463-479.

Poggi Pollini C; Giunchedi L; Filippini G; Seemnller E; Vindimian G, 1995. Etiological studies of apple rubbery wood disease. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:503-505; 12 ref.

Seemnller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26.

Seliskar CE; Wilson CL, 1981. Yellows Diseases of Trees. In: Maramorosch K, Raychaudhuri SP, eds. Mycoplasma Diseases of Trees and Shrubs. Academic Press, 35-96.

Trifonov D, 1969. Apple Rubbery Wood. I. Detection and study of infection on some Bulgarian varieties and rootstocks. Grad. loz. Nauka, 6:19-24.

Waterworth HE; Fridlund PR, 1989. Apple Rubbery Wood. In: Fridlund PR, ed. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Pome Fruits and Simulating Non-infectious Disorders. Washington State University Press, 118-126.

Welsh MF, 1960. Rubbery wood (virus). 39th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1959. Compiled by Creelman DW, p. 70.

Wood GA, 1997. Viruses and phytoplasma in European pear trees in New Zealand and the role of these pathogens in the compatibility of pear with quince rootstocks. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(4):333-340; 49 ref.

Wood GA; Cassidy DC, 1978. Effect of rubbery wood disease on growth and yield of Golden Delicious apple trees. Orchardist of New Zealand, 51(2):66-67

Zawadzka B, 1977. The results of preliminary investigation on apple rubbery wood disease in Poland. Fruit Science Reports, 4(4):15-23

Zawadzka B, 1988. The influence of virus and mycoplasma diseases on frost damage of apple trees. Acta Horticulturae, 235:59-67.

Zawadzka BJ; Rebandel Z; Wierszyllowski J, 1979. Effect of apple rubbery wood disease on the bud take and growth of trees in the nursery. Fruit Science Reports, 6(1):19-25

Distribution References

Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Fránová-Honetšlegrová J, Janečková M, 1998. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas in apple with rubbery wood symptoms. Acta Horticulturae. 693-700.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dhingra K L, Ahlawat Y S, 1973. Apple rubbery-wood virus in Simla Hills. Indian Phytopathology. 26 (2), 343-346.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fialová R, Navrátil M, Válová P, 2003. Phytoplasma occurrence in apple trees in the Czech Republic. Plant Protection Science. 39 (1), 7-12.

Guerra L, Kirkpatrick B, 1999. Attempts to confirm that phytoplasmas are the causal agent of apple rubbery wood diseases., Davis, CA, USA: Department of Plant Pathology, University of California. World Wide Web. http://www.nrsp5.wsu.edu/nrsparwp.html

Krasnova K M, Ponomareva V S, Sadlyak A M, Bruskova T N, 1981. The investigation of rubbery wood disease. (Izuchaetsya guttaperchevost'.). Zashchita Rastenii. 36-37.

Lemoine J, Michelesi J C, 1990. Effects of three virus diseases on three pear cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae. 44 (1-2), 69-81. DOI:10.1016/0304-4238(90)90018-A

UK, CAB International, 1975. Apple rubbery wood virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 305.

Welsh MF, Creelman DW, 1960. Rubbery wood (virus). In: 39th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1959, 70.

Zawadzka B J, Rebandel Z, Wierszyllowski J, 1979. Effect of apple rubbery wood disease on the bud take and growth of trees in the nursery. Fruit Science Reports. 6 (1), 19-25.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map