Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sarotherodon galilaeus
(mango tilapia)

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Datasheet

Sarotherodon galilaeus (mango tilapia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sarotherodon galilaeus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • mango tilapia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sarotherodon galilaeus (mango tilapia); adult, length 25cm. Upper Egypt, August 2010.
TitleAdult
CaptionSarotherodon galilaeus (mango tilapia); adult, length 25cm. Upper Egypt, August 2010.
Copyright©Magdy A. Saleh/via Fishbase (Image can be freely copied and altered, as long as original author and source are properly acknowledged)
Sarotherodon galilaeus (mango tilapia); adult, length 25cm. Upper Egypt, August 2010.
AdultSarotherodon galilaeus (mango tilapia); adult, length 25cm. Upper Egypt, August 2010.©Magdy A. Saleh/via Fishbase (Image can be freely copied and altered, as long as original author and source are properly acknowledged)

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sarotherodon galilaeus Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • mango tilapia

Other Scientific Names

  • Chromis galilaeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Chromis lateralis Duméril, 1858
  • Chromis mircrostomus Lortet, 1883
  • Chromis pleuromelas Duméril, 1858
  • Chromis tiberiadis Lortet, 1883
  • Sarotherodon galilaeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Sarotherodon galileus galilaeus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Tilapia galilaea Linnaeus, 1758
  • Tilapia galilaea galilaea Linnaeus, 1758
  • Tilapia galilaea pleuromelas Duméril, 1858
  • Tilapia lateralis Duméril, 1858
  • Tilapia macrocentra Duméril, 1858
  • Tilapia microstoma Lortet, 1883
  • Tilapia pleuromelas Duméril, 1858

International Common Names

  • English: St. Peter's fish

Local Common Names

  • Egypt: bolti nalawi
  • Germany: Prachtmaulbrüter
  • Israel: amnon hagalil; amnun galil; nusht abiad
  • Jordan: okkar
  • Nigeria: epia; garagaza; gargaza; ifunu; karwa; mpupa; tome; tsokungi; ukuobu
  • Russian Federation: tsikhlida
  • Senegal: wass
  • USA: St. Peter's fish

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Family: Cichlidae
  •                             Genus: Sarotherodon
  •                                 Species: Sarotherodon galilaeus

Description

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Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus has 14-17 dorsal spines, 13 dorsal soft rays, 3 anal spines, and 9-12 anal soft rays (FishBase, 2004). Melanin patches are found only in occasional individuals, and the caudal is naked except at the base. Reproductive individuals are greyish dorsally and silvery ventrally. Dorsal and caudal fins are with pinkish margins. Pectoral fins usually extend to above the vent or spinous anal fin. Males have longer soft dorsal and anal fin rays.

Distribution

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Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus is found in Africa and Eurasia. It is distributed in: the Jordan system especially in lakes, the coastal rivers of Israel, the Nile system including the delta lakes and Lake Albert and Turkana, Jebel Mara, the Chad Basin, the Shari River, the Central Congo Basin, the Ubanghi and Uele Rivers, Lake Kotto, the Niger, Ogun, Volta, Corubal, Gambia, Casamance and Senegal Rivers, Draa (Morocco) and Adrar (Mauritania) (FishBase, 2004). Populations in Lake Ejagham, Cameroon are vulnerable (Baillie and Groombridge, 1996).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentNativePaugy et al. (1994)
CameroonPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
ChadPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeJohnson (1974)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeTeugels et al. (1988)
EgyptPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
EthiopiaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
GambiaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
GhanaPresentNativeTeugels et al. (1988)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeTrewavas and Teugels (1991)
KenyaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
MaliPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
MauritaniaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
MoroccoPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
NigerPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
SenegalPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
SudanPresentNativeBailey (1994)
TogoPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
UgandaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988)
IsraelPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
JordanPresentNativeJohnson (1974)
SyriaPresentNativeJohnson (1974)

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
China Africa 1981 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Congo Sudan 1953 Aquaculture (pathway cause)International organisation Yes FAO (1997)
Japan USA 1964 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownChiba and et al. (1989); Chiba et al. (1989)
South Africa Israel 1959 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Brackish

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
benthic algae/weeds
detritus Adult/Fry 54-70
periphyton Adult/Fry
phytoplankton Adult/Fry
zoobenthos Adult/Fry
zooplankton Adult/Fry

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 28

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Whole

References

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Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Bailey RG, 1994. Guide to the fishes of the River Nile in the Republic of the Sudan. J. Nat. Hist., 28:937-970.

Baillie J; Groombridge B; eds, 1996. 1996 IUCN red list of threatened animals. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 378 pp.

Chiba K; Taki Y Sakai K; Oozeki Y, 1989. Present status of aquatic organisms introduced into Japan. In: De Silva SS, ed., Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia, Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia, p 63-70, Asian Fish Soc. Spec. Publ. 3,. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fish Society.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. FAO, Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Sarotherodon galilaeus galilaeus. Main ref. Trewavas E, 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. London, UK: British Mus. Nat. Hist., 583 pp. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 10 May 2004.

Johnson RP, 1974. Synopsis of biological data on Sarotherodon galilaeus. FAO Fish. Synop. (90), 42 pp.

Klinkhardt M; Tesche M; Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, 179 pp.

Kornfield I, 1984. Descriptive genetics of cichlid fishes. In: Turner BJ, ed. Evolutionary genetics of fishes. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 591-616.

McAndrew BJ; Majumdar KC, 1983. Tilapia stock identification using electrophoretic markers. Aquaculture, 30(1/4):249-261.

Paugy D; Traoré K; Diouf PS, 1994. Faune ichtyologique des eaux douces d’Afrique de l’Ouest. In: Teugels GG, Guégan JF, Albaret JJ, eds. Biological diversity of African fresh- and brackish water fishes. Geographical overviews presented at the PARADI Symposium, Senegal, 15-20 November 1993. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool., 275:35-66.

Stiassny M, 1996. Sarotherodon galileus ssp. "Ejagham" nom. prov. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Online at www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=19912. Accessed on 25 May 2004.

Teugels GG; Lévêque C; Paugy D; Traoré K, 1988. État des connaissances sur la faune ichtyologique des bassins côtiers de Côte d’Ivoire et de l’ouest du Ghana. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop., 21(3):221-237.

Trewavas E, 1983. Tilapiine fishes of the genera Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Danakilia. London, UK: British Museum of Natural History, 583 pp.

Trewavas E; Teugels GG, 1991. Sarotherodon. In: Daget J, Gosse J-P, Teugels GG, Thys van den Audenaerde DFE, eds. Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4, 425-437.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Distribution References

Anon, 1988. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. [ed. by Welcomme R L]. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. x + 318 pp.

Bailey R G, 1994. Guide to the fishes of the River Nile in the Republic of the Sudan. Journal of Natural History. 937-970.

Johnson RP, 1974. Synopsis of biological data on Sarotherodon galilaeus. In: FAO Fish. Synop. 42 pp.

Paugy D, Traoré K, Diouf PS, 1994. (Faune ichtyologique des eaux douces d’Afrique de l’Ouest). In: Biological diversity of African fresh- and brackish water fishes. Geographical overviews presented at the PARADI Symposium, Senegal, 15-20 November 1993. Ann. Mus. R. Afr. Centr., Sci. Zool. 275 [ed. by Teugels GG, Guégan JF, Albaret JJ]. 35-66.

Teugels GG, Leveque C, Paugy D, Traore K, 1988. (Etat des connaissances sur la faune ichtyologique des bassins cotiers de Cote d'Ivoire et de l'ouest du Ghana). In: Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop, 21 221-237.

Trewavas E, Teugels GG, 1991. Sarotherodon. In: Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA), 4 [ed. by Daget J, Gosse JP, Teugels GG, Thys van den Audenaerde DFE]. Brussels; Tervuren; Paris, ISNB, MRAC, ORSTOM. 425-437.

Contributors

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Main Author
Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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