Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aproaerema modicella
(groundnut leaf miner)

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Datasheet

Aproaerema modicella (groundnut leaf miner)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aproaerema modicella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • groundnut leaf miner
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. modicella (leaf miner) adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionA. modicella (leaf miner) adult.
CopyrightE. Neering
A. modicella (leaf miner) adult.
AdultA. modicella (leaf miner) adult.E. Neering
A. modicella young larva and damage on leaf.
TitleYoung larva
CaptionA. modicella young larva and damage on leaf.
CopyrightE. Neering
A. modicella young larva and damage on leaf.
Young larvaA. modicella young larva and damage on leaf.E. Neering
A. modicella; larvae and web.
TitleLarvae and web
CaptionA. modicella; larvae and web.
CopyrightE. Neering
A. modicella; larvae and web.
Larvae and webA. modicella; larvae and web.E. Neering
Leaf webbing by mature larvae.
TitleMature larvae
CaptionLeaf webbing by mature larvae.
CopyrightE. Neering
Leaf webbing by mature larvae.
Mature larvaeLeaf webbing by mature larvae.E. Neering
A. modicella larva and parasite on leaf.
TitleLarva and parasite
CaptionA. modicella larva and parasite on leaf.
CopyrightE. Neering
A. modicella larva and parasite on leaf.
Larva and parasiteA. modicella larva and parasite on leaf.E. Neering
A. modicella (leaf miner) eggs.
TitleEggs
CaptionA. modicella (leaf miner) eggs.
CopyrightICRISAT
A. modicella (leaf miner) eggs.
EggsA. modicella (leaf miner) eggs.ICRISAT
Groundnut varieties susceptible and resistant to A. modicella.
TitleResistance in groundnut
CaptionGroundnut varieties susceptible and resistant to A. modicella.
CopyrightICRISAT
Groundnut varieties susceptible and resistant to A. modicella.
Resistance in groundnutGroundnut varieties susceptible and resistant to A. modicella. ICRISAT

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aproaerema modicella (Deventer)

Preferred Common Name

  • groundnut leaf miner

Other Scientific Names

  • Anacampsis nerteria Meyrick
  • Aproaerema nerteria Meyrick
  • Biloba nerteria Zeller
  • Stomopteryx nerteria Meyrick

International Common Names

  • English: groundnut leaf folder; groundnut leaf webber; peanut leaf folder; peanut leaf miner; soyabean leaf miner; soybean leaf miner

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Minierraupe, Catjang-
  • India: surul puchi
  • India/Tamil Nadu: surul moth

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Gelechiidae
  •                             Genus: Aproaerema
  •                                 Species: Aproaerema modicella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Republic of thePresentKenis and Cugala (2006)
MalawiPresentSubrahmanyam et al. (2000)
MozambiquePresentNHM (2002)
South AfricaPresentNHM (1917); NHM (2001); Plessis and Berg (2011)
UgandaPresentPage et al. (2000)

Asia

BangladeshPresent, LocalizedAPPPC (1987); Shanower et al. (1993)
CambodiaPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); Shanower et al. (1993)
-Andhra PradeshPresentMohammad (1981)
-DelhiPresentMohammad (1981)
-GujaratPresentMohammad (1981)
-KarnatakaPresentMohammad (1981)
-Madhya PradeshPresentMohammad (1981)
-MaharashtraPresentMohammad (1981)
-OdishaPresentMohammad (1981)
-PunjabPresentMohammad (1981)
-RajasthanPresentMohammad (1981)
-Tamil NaduPresentMuthiah and Kareem (2000)
-UttarakhandPresentArvind Kumar and Singh (2008)
-West BengalPresentMohammad (1981)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); Shanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
-JavaPresentNHM (Undated)
LaosPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
MalaysiaPresent, WidespreadShanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
MyanmarPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
NepalPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993)
PakistanPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
Sri LankaPresentNHM (Undated)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadAPPPC (1987); Shanower et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1993)
VietnamPresent, LocalizedShanower et al. (1993)

Oceania

New ZealandPresentNHM (1923)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles javanensis Parasite Larvae
Apanteles singaporensis Parasite Larvae
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Asympiesiella indica Parasite Larvae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite
Brachymeria marmonti Parasite
Brachymeria plutellophaga Parasite Pupae
Bracon brevicornis Parasite Larvae
Bracon gelechiae Parasite Larvae
Bracon hebetor Parasite Larvae
Carabidae Predator Larvae
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Coccinella septempunctata Predator
Dolichogenidea laevigata Parasite Larvae
Elasmus brevicornis Parasite Larvae
Microchelonus blackburni Parasite Eggs/Larvae
Stenomesius japonicus Parasite
Sympiesis dolichogaster Parasite Larvae
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs

References

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Amin PW, 1983. Major field insect pests of groundnut in India and associated crop losses. Indian Journal of Entomology, 2:337-344.

Amin PW, 1987. Insect pests of groundnut in India and their management. In: Veerabhadra Rao M, Sithanantham S, eds. Plant Protection in field Crops. Hyderabad, India: Plant Protection Association of India, 219-333.

Amin PW; Mohammad AB, 1980. Groundnut pest research at ICRISAT. In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Groundnuts. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT, 158-166.

Andrewartha HG; Birch LC, 1954. The distribution and abundance of animals. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arvind Kumar; Singh CP, 2008. Population dynamics of ground nut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) on Babchi, Psoralea corylifolia Linnaeus. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana), 21(1):96-99.

Bainbridge-Fletcher T, 1920. Life histories of Indian insects: Microlepidoptera. Mem. Dept. Agric. India, Pusa. Entomolo. Ser., 6:77-79.

Bieri M; Baumgartner J; Bianchi G; Delucchi V; Arx Rvon, 1983. Development and fecundity of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) as affected by constant temperatures and by pea varieties. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 56(1/2):163-171

Campbell WV, 1983. Management of arthropods on peanut in Southeast Asia. Ann. Rep. Peanut Collab. Res. Support Prog. (CRSP) USA: University of Georgia, Georgia Experiment Station.

Cherian MC; Basheer M, 1942. Studies on Stomopteryx nerteria Meyr. A pest of groundnut in the Madras Presidency. Madras Agric. Journal, 30:379-381.

Crowe TJ, 1985. Field crop pests in Burma. An annotated list. Rangoon, Burma; FAO, 65pp.

Curry GL; Feldman RM, 1987. Mathematical foundations of population dynamics. College Station, Texas, USA: Texas A&M University Press.

Das BB; Misra DP, 1984. New records of alternate hosts of groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(9):776

Dudley NJ; Mueller RAE; Wightman JA, 1989. Application of dynamic programming for guiding IPM on groundnut leafminer in India. Crop Protection, 8(5):349-357

Dyar HG, 1890. The number of molts of lepidopterous larvae. Psyche, 5:420-422.

Ghewande MP; Nandagopal V; Reddy PS, 1987. Plant Protection in Groundnut. ICAR Tech. Bulletin 1. Junagadh, Gujarat, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Ghule BD; Jagtap AB; Dhumal VS; Deokar AB, 1987. Determination of critical time for protection against groundnut leaf miner. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 12(3):292-293

Gilbert N; Gutierrez AP; Fazer BD; Jones RE, 1976. Ecological Relationships. New York, USA: W H Freeman and Co.

Godse DB; Patil RB, 1981. New nuclear polyhedroses of lepidopterous insects in Karnataka, India. Ind. Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.), 90:93-97.

Gujrati JP; Kapoor KN; Gangrade GA, 1973. Biology of soybean leaf-miner, Stomopteryx subsecivella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Entomologist, 106(1323):187-191

Gutierrez AP; Baumgaertner JU, 1984. I. Age-specific energetics models - pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae) as an example. Canadian Entomologist, 116(7):924-932

Hughes RD, 1963. Population dynamics of the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). Journal of Animal Ecology, 32:393-426.

ICRISAT, 1988. Annual Report 1987. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT.

ICRISAT, 1991. Legumes Prog. Ann. Rep. 1990. Patancheru, India: International Crops Research Insitute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.

India; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, 1986. ICRISAT annual report 1985. Patancheru, India; International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, xvi + 379pp.

Islam W; Ahmed KN; Nargis A; Islam U, 1983. Occurrence, abundance and extent of damage caused by insect pests of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Malaysian Agricultural Journal, 54(1):18-24

Jagtap AB; Bothe NN; Deokar AB, 1985. Carry over of groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer across the season. Indian Journal of Entomology, 47(4):463

Jagtap AB; Ghule BD; Deokar AB, 1984. Assessment of losses in yield of 'Phule Pragati' groundnut caused by insect pests. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 54(8):697-698

Jai Rao K; Thirumalachar DK, 1977. New record of alternate host plants of groundnut leaf miner Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller (Syn.: S. nerteria Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Current Science, 46(3):91-92

Jena BC; Kuila B, 1997. Seasonal incidence of leaf miner Aproaerema modicella in groundnut and its chemical control. Indian Journal of Entomology, 59(1):27-33; 7 ref.

Kapadia MN; Bharodia RK; Vora VJ, 1982. Biology and estimation of groundnut leaf-miner, Stomopteryx subsecivella Zell. (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 8(1):37-39

Kenis M; Cugala D, 2006. Prospects for the biological control of the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella, in Africa. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 1(031):9 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews/default.aspx?LoadModule=Review&ReviewID=23028&Site=167&page=1178

Khan MI; Raodeo AK, 1978. Importance of larval parasites in the control of Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 3(3):261-263

Khan MI; Raodeo AK, 1979. Studies on the soil application of systemic insecticides for the control of groundnut leaf miner, Stromopteryx subsecivella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 4(1):29-31

Khan MI; Raodeo AK, 1987. Seasonal incidence of groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). PKV Research Journal, 11(1):93-96

Krishnamurti B; Usman S, 1954. Some parasites of economic importance mnoted in Mysore State. Indian Journal of Entomology, 16:327-344.

Krishnananda N; Kaiwar SR, 1965. A preliminary study on the control of leafminer of groundnut. Indian Oilseeds Journal, 9:180-185.

Lewin HD; Saroja R; Sundararaju D; Padmanabhan MD, 1979. Influence of sowing time and weather on the incidence of groundnut leaf-miner. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 49(11):886-891

Logiswaran G; Madhava Rao S; Vasudevan G; Kannan V, 1982. Influence of time of sowing and weather factors on the infestation of leafminer Aproaerema modicella Deventer and yield in rainfed groundnut. Madras Agric. Journal, 69:359-363.

Logiswaran G; Mohanasundaram M, 1985. Effect of intercropping, spacing and mulching in the control of groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). Madras Agricultural Journal, 72(12):695-700

Logiswaran G; Mohanasundaram M, 1987. Influence of weather factors on the catches of moths of groundnut leaf miner Aproprema modicella Deventer in the light trap. Entomon, 12(2):147-150

Logiswaran G; Rao SM, 1982. Control of leafminer Aproprema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller) infesting groundnut with certain systemic insecticides. Madras Agricultural Journal, 69(2):129-131

Manjanaik C; Krishnamurthy MK; Jyothylakshmi S; Somasundra KM, 2002. Efficacy and economics of insecticides for the management of groundnut leaf miner Aproaerema modicella in coastal zone. Environment and Ecology, 20(1):99-101; 7 ref.

Manoharan T; Chandramohan N, 1986. Psoralea corylifolia, an alternate host for carry over of groundnut leaf miner (Aproaerema modicella (D.)). Madras Agricultural Journal, 73(10):591

Maxwell-Lefroy H; Howlett FM, 1909. Indian Insect Life: A Manual of the Insects of the Plain (Tropical India). New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrows' Publishers.

Meyrick E, 1906. Description of Indian microlepidoptera. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 17:139-140.

Mohammad A, 1981. The groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review of world literature. The groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review of world literature. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India, 33 pp.

Motka MN; Bhalani PA; Bharodia RK, 1985. Growth and development of Aproprema modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on certain groundnut varieties. Agricultural Science Digest, India, 5(3):162-164

Mundhe RR, 1980. Studies on the susceptibility of twenty varieties of soybean to the leafminer, Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller. Research Bulletin Marathwada Agricultural University, 4:10-11.

Muthiah C, 1991. Some new parasites of groundnut leaf miner (Aproaerema modicella Dev.). Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 19(1):105

Muthiah C, 2000. Effect of intercropping on the incidence of leafminer (Aproaerema modicella) in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 70(8):559-561; 8 ref.

Muthiah C; Kareem AA, 2000. Survey of groundnut leaf miner and its natural enemies in Tamil Nadu, India. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 20:62-63.

Oblisami G; Ramamoorthi K; Rangaswami G, 1969. Studies on the pathology of some crop pests of South India. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science, 3:86-98.

Page WW; Epieru G; Kimmins FM; Busolo-Bulafu C; Nalyongo PW, 2000. Groundnut leaf miner Aproaerema modicella: a new pest in eastern districts of Uganda. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 20:64-66; 4 ref.

Phisitkul S, 1985. The Biology and Natural Enemies of the Leafminer Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). PhD dissertation. Los Ba±os, Philippines: University of the Philippines.

Plessis Hdu; Berg Jvan den, 2011. Biology and management of groundnut leafminer. In: 10th African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Maputo, Mozambique, 10-13 October 2011 [ed. by Tenywa, J. S.\Taulya, G.\Kawube, G.\Kawuki, R.\Namugwanya, M.\Santos, L.]. Kampala, Uganda: African Crop Science Society, 169-172.

Prasad SK; Chawla ML; Kumar S; Saxena HP, 1971. Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949 and stem borer, Stomopteryx nertaria Meyrick affecting green gram, Phaseolus aureus. Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(1):55-60

Radhakrishnan S; Mohanan M; Vittal SM, 1983. A preliminary note on the efficacy of isofenphos 40 S. D. as seed treatment against groundnut surulpoochi. Pesticides, 17(9):30-31

Rajagopal D; Hanumanthaswamy BC, 1999. Effect of intercropping on the incidence of groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella deventer (Gelechiidae : Lepidoptera). Madras Agricultural Journal, 86(7/9):461-464; 6 ref.

Rajput SG; Dalaya VP; Awate BG, 1985. Field evaluation of synthetic pyrethroids and other insecticides against groundnut leaf miner (Aproaerema modicella, D.). Pesticides, 19(12):34-35

Ranga Rao GV; Shanower TG, 1988. A survey of groundnut insect pests in Andhra Pradesh, post rainy season, 1987-1988. Int. Arachis Newsletter, 4:8-10.

Rao GVR; Reddy PM, 1997. Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.): a potential biocontrol agent for groundnut leafminer. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 17:48-49; 3 ref.

Reddy ML, 2001. Management of leaf miner Aproaerema modicella in groundnut. Journal of Research ANGRAU, 29(1):56-58; 4 ref.

Sadakathulla S; Abdul-Kareem A; Srinivasan PM; Jayaraj S, 1976. Chemical control of groundnut leaf webber Stomopteryx subsecivella Zell. (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in Tamil Nadu. Pesticides, 10(5):30-31

Sahayaraj K; Paulraj MG, 1998. Relative toxicity of some plant extracts to groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella Dev. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 18:27-29; 7 ref.

Sandhu GS, 1977. Some insects recorded as pests of fodder crops at Ludhiana (Punjab). Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University, 14:449-459.

Sandhu GS, 1978. Note on the incidence of Stomopteryx subsecivella (Zell.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on lucerne at Ludhiana. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 48(1):53-54

Shanower TG, 1989. The Biology, Population Dynamics, Natural Enemies, and Impact of the Groundnut Leafminer, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), on Groundnut in India. PhD dissertation. Berkeley, USA: University of California.

Shanower TG; Ranga Rao GV, 1990. Chlaenius sp. (Col.: Carabidae): a new predator of groundnut leafminer larvae. Int. Arachis Newlett., 8:19-20.

Shanower TG; Wightman JA; Gutierrez AP, 1993. Biology and control of the groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Crop Protection, 12(1):3-10

Shanower TG; Wightman JA; Gutierrez AP; Rao GVR, 1992. Larval parasitoids and pathogens of the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella (Lep.: Gelechiidae), in India. Entomophaga, 37(3):419-427

Sherasiya RA; Butani PG, 1998. Population build up of leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in popular varieties of groundnut. Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 24(1):49-51; 4 ref.

Shetgar SS; Thombre UT, 1984. Occurrence of natural enemies on soybean leaf miner and relative susceptibility of some soybean varieties to its attack. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 9(2):218-219

Shrivastava KK; Srivastava BK; Deole JY, 1988. Studies on chemical control and varietal resistance of soybean against leaf-miner, Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(2):147-151

Sivasubramanian P; Palaniswamy GA, 1983. Studies on the chemical control of groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Dev. Madras Agric. Journal, 70:485-486.

Srinivasan S; Rao DVS, 1985. Evaluation of certain insecticidal dusts against groundnut leaf webber, Aproprema modicella Dev. (= Stomopteryx subsecivella Zell.). Pesticides, 19(10):36-37

Srinivasan S; Siva Rao DV, 1984. New off-season summer hosts of the groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zell.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Andhra Pradesh. Entomon., 9:11-12.

Srinivasan S; Siva Rao DV, 1986. New reports of parasites of groundnut leaf webber, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Entomon., 12:117-119.

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Subba Rao Br; Kandu GG; Sharma AK; Anand RK; Rai S, 1965. New records of parasites of the groundnut leafminer, Stomopteryx nerteria (Meyrick) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). Indian Journal of Entomology, 27:355-357.

Subba Rao BR; Sharma AK, 1966. Two new species of parasites reared from Stomopteryx nerteria (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 28:299-304.

Subrahmanyam P; Chiyembekeza AJ; Rao GVR, 2000. Occurrence of groundnut leaf miner in northern Malawi. International Arachis Newsletter, No. 20:66-67; 3 ref.

Tej Kumar S; Devaraj Urs KC, 1983. Estimation of crop loss in groundnut due to the leafminer Aproaerema modicella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 2:345-351.

Thontadarya TS; Rao KJ; Kumar NG, 1979. Occurrence of the groundnut leaf miner, Biloba (Stomopteryx) subsecivella (Zeller) on berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum Linnpus) in Karnataka. Current Research, 8(4):65

Umesh N; Naik LK, 1996. Evaluation of insecticides for the control of leafminer Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on soybean. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 9(4):622-626; 8 ref.

Valley K; Wheeler AG Jr, 1976. Biology and immature stages of Stomopteryx palpilineella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a leafminer and leaftier of crownvetch. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(2):317-324

van den Bosch R, 1978. The Pesticide Conspiracy. New York, USA: Doubleday.

Wagner TL; Wu H; Sharpe PJH; Schoolfield RM; Coulson RN, 1984. Modelin insect rates: A literature review and application of a biophysical model. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 77:208-225.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Wheatley ARD; Wightman JA; Williams JH; Wheatley SJ, 1989. The influence of drought stress on the distribution of insects on four groundnut genotypes grown near Hyderabad, India. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 79(4):567-577

Wigglesworth VB, 1972. The principles of insect physiology. The principles of insect physiology. London, Chapman & Hall. UK, Ed. 7, 827 pp.

Wightman JA; Amin PW, 1988. Groundnut pests and their control in the semi-arid tropics. Tropical Pest Management, 34(2):218-226, 243, 247

Wightman JA; Dick KM; Ranga Rao GV; Shanower TG; Gold CS, 1990. Pests of groundnut in the semi-arid tropics. In: Singh SR, ed. Insect Pests of Food Legumes. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 243-322.

Yadav DN; Patel RR; Patel RC, 1987. Natural enemies of groundnut leafminer, Aproprema modicella Deventer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their impact on its infestation at Anand (Gujarat). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 13(1):13-16

Yang C; Liu H, 1966. Biological observations on Stomopteryx subsecivella Zell. in Den Mei District, Kwantung (in Chinese). Acta Entomol. Sin., 15:39-46.

Zar JH, 1974. Biostatistical Analysis. Englewood Cliffe, New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall.

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Arvind Kumar, Singh C P, 2008. Population dynamics of ground nut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) on Babchi, Psoralea corylifolia Linnaeus. Journal of Insect Science (Ludhiana). 21 (1), 96-99.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Kenis M, Cugala D, 2006. Prospects for the biological control of the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella, in Africa. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources. 1 (031), 9 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews/review/20063181691 DOI:10.1079/PAVSNNR20061031

Mohammad A, 1981. The groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review of world literature. In: The groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (=Stomopteryx subsecivella Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). A review of world literature. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 33 pp.

Muthiah C, Kareem A A, 2000. Survey of groundnut leaf miner and its natural enemies in Tamil Nadu, India. International Arachis Newsletter. 62-63.

NHM, 1917. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1923. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 2001. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 2002. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Page W W, Epieru G, Kimmins F M, Busolo-Bulafu C, Nalyongo P W, 2000. Groundnut leaf miner Aproaerema modicella: a new pest in eastern districts of Uganda. International Arachis Newsletter. 64-66.

Plessis H du, Berg J van den, 2011. Biology and management of groundnut leafminer. In: 10th African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Maputo, Mozambique, 10-13 October 2011 [10th African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Maputo, Mozambique, 10-13 October 2011.], [ed. by Tenywa J S, Taulya G, Kawube G, Kawuki R, Namugwanya M, Santos L]. Kampala, Uganda: African Crop Science Society. 169-172.

Shanower T G, Wightman J A, Gutierrez A P, 1993. Biology and control of the groundnut leafminer, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Crop Protection. 12 (1), 3-10. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(93)90014-A

Subrahmanyam P, Chiyembekeza A J, Rao G V R, 2000. Occurrence of groundnut leaf miner in northern Malawi. International Arachis Newsletter. 66-67.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

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