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Datasheet

Salvelinus namaycush
(lake trout)

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Datasheet

Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvelinus namaycush
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lake trout
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. namaycush is a freshwater fish native to North America. It has been introduced to other areas within North America and to South America, Europe, New Zealand and Japan. It is a highly piscovourous top predato...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout); fisherman holding an adult lake trout, which is in spawning dress.
TitleAdult
CaptionSalvelinus namaycush (lake trout); fisherman holding an adult lake trout, which is in spawning dress.
CopyrightPublic Domain-USGOV-INTERIOR-FWS
Salvelinus namaycush (lake trout); fisherman holding an adult lake trout, which is in spawning dress.
AdultSalvelinus namaycush (lake trout); fisherman holding an adult lake trout, which is in spawning dress.Public Domain-USGOV-INTERIOR-FWS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792)

Preferred Common Name

  • lake trout

Other Scientific Names

  • Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Cristivomer namaycush Walbaum, 1792
  • Cristovomer namayacush (Walbaum, 1792)
  • Cristovomer namayacush Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo amethystinus Mitchill, 1818
  • Salmo amethystinus Mitchill, 1818
  • Salmo amethystus Mitchill, 1818
  • Salmo amethystus Mitchill, 1818
  • Salmo confinis DeKay, 1842
  • Salmo confinis DeKay, 1842
  • Salmo ferox Perley, 1852
  • Salmo ferox Perley, 1852
  • Salmo namaycush Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo namaycush Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo pallidus Rafinesque, 1817
  • Salmo pallidus Rafinesque, 1817
  • Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum, 1792

International Common Names

  • English: char; great lake trout; great Lakes char; great Lakes trout; grey trout; lake charr; lake trout; laker; landlocked salmon; mackinaw; mackinaw trout; masamacush; mountain trout; namaycush; salmon trout; siscowet; taque; togue; touladi
  • Spanish: trucha lacustre; trucha lacustre
  • French: cristivomer; omble d'Amérique; omble du Canada; Omble du Canada; touladi; truite de lac d'Amérique; truite grise
  • Russian: severoamerikanskiy kristivomer

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: trucha de lago
  • Austria: Amerikanischer Seesaibling; lake trout
  • Canada: Great Lakes char; Great Lakes trout; grey trout; idlorak; idlorak; ihok; ihok; iIuuraq; iIuuraq; ikhlorak; ikhlorak; ilortoq; ilortoq; islorak; islorak; isok; isok; isuuq; isuuq; isuuqiaq; isuuqiaq; isuuqiq; isuuqiq; isuuraaryuk; isuuraaryuk; isuuraq; isuuraq; ivitaruk; ivitaruk; keyteeleek; keyteeleek; lake charr; lake trout; laker; mackinaw trout; masamacush; mountain trout; naaqtuuq; naaqtuuq; näluarryuk; näluarryuk; Näluarryuk; namaycush; namekus; namekus; nauktoq; nauktoq; nemakos; nemakos; nemeks; nemeks; némèkus; némèkus; salmon trout; sigguayaq; sigguayaq; siscowet; siuktuuk; siyuktuuq; taque; togue; Touladi; truite grise
  • Canada/British Columbia: hupin; k'wit'thet; k'wsech; shamet skelex; shmexwalsh; sk'wel'eng's schaanexw; slhop' schaanexw; spak'ws schaanexw
  • Canada/Quebec: ikhiloktok; ishioraliktâq; milaqkkâyoq
  • Czech Republic: siven obrovký; siven obrovký
  • Denmark: amerikansk søørred; Amerikansk søørred; canadarødding; Canadarødding; canadarøding; Canadarøding; kanadarødding; Kanadarødding; kanadarøding; Kanadarøding
  • Finland: harmaanieriä; harmaanieriä
  • France: cristivomer; omble d'Amérique; Omble du Canada; truite de lac d'Amérique
  • Germany: Amerikanische Seeforelle
  • Greenland: iclook; iclook; iqluq; iqluq
  • Iceland: murta; murta
  • Italy: trota di lago americana; trota di lago americana
  • New Zealand: mackinaw trout
  • Norway: canadaröye; Canadaröye; Canadarøye
  • Portugal: salvelino-lacustre; salvelino-lacustre; truta-do-lago; truta-do-lago
  • Russian Federation: severoamerikanskiy kristivomer
  • Serbia: pastrva
  • Slovakia: sivon velký; sivon velký
  • Spain: trucha lacustre
  • Sweden: canadaröding; Canadaröding; kanadaröding; Kanadaröding
  • Switzerland: amerikanische Seeforelle; Amerikanische Seeforelle
  • UK: great lake trout; grey trout; lake trout; namaycush; togue; touladi
  • USA: great lake trout; lake trout; siscowet
  • USA/Alaska: akalukpik; akalukpik; col-lic-puk; col-lic-puk; ikalukpik; ikalukpik; lake trout
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): pastrva

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. namaycush is a freshwater fish native to North America. It has been introduced to other areas within North America and to South America, Europe, New Zealand and Japan. It is a highly piscovourous top predator (Fuller, 2007) and competes with native fish for habitat and food. S. namaycush has been reported to be responsible for the decline numerous populations of cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and has been reported to prey heavily on the Utah chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke, 1996). Predation by lake trout has been shown to be a major factor in the decline of kokanee O. nerka in Lake Chelan, Washington (Schoen et al., 2012).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Salvelinus
  •                                 Species: Salvelinus namaycush

Description

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S. namaycush has a deeply forked caudal fin and a slate grey to greenish body with lighter undersides. Cream to yellow spots are generally present on the head, body and dorsal and caudal fins. The lower fins tend to be orange-red with a narrow white edge. The species has nine to twelve gill rakers. Breeding males will develop a dark stripe on their sides temporarily (Lenart, 2001).

The average weight of S. namaycush is about 3 kg, but individuals can grow to up 27 kg under appropriate conditions (Hubert et al., 1994). Average length of S. namaycush varies from 45 to 68 cm (Scott and Crossman, 1973).

Distribution

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In its native range, S. namaycush is widely distributed from northern Canada to New England and the Great Lakes basin (Page and Burr, 1991). Its established introduced range within North America includes the US states of California, Colorado, Idaho, Massachusetts, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington and Wyoming. S. namaycush has been introduced into other countries such as Argentina, Austria, Bolivia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. namaycush has been intentionally stocked as a sport fish in the majority of its introductions, though Kaeding et al. (1996) suggested that it was illegally introduced into Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA.

In the Great Lakes of North America, part of its native range, S. namaycush has been stocked to restore populations that had been severely reduced by the sea lamprey.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina USA 1904 Yes
Bolivia USA 1936 No
Czech Republic Norway 1972 No
Denmark Sweden 1961 No
Denmark USA 1961 No
Finland USA 1955
France USA 1963-1978
France North America 1886 No
Germany Switzerland 1888 Yes
Germany USA 1888 Yes
Japan USA 1904 Yes
Morocco Canada
New Zealand USA 1901-1902
Newfoundland and Labrador Ontario 1886-1893 No
Norway 1971 Yes
Peru USA 1940
Sweden North America 1959 Yes
Switzerland USA 1888 Yes
UK USA 1928 No

Risk of Introduction

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S. namaycush has been intentionally stocked as a sport fish in the majority of its introductions, and since it is still stocked intentionally this remains the most likely pathway for new introductions.

Habitat

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S. namaycush is a cold-water species, preferring temperatures below 13°C and requiring relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen for survival (Ryan, 1994). S. namaycush is the only major native North American sport fish adapted to the deep, cold water of oligotrophic (low-nutrient) lakes, such as those often found in northern Canada and the northern Great Lakes region (Shuter, 1998). At the southern range of the species, S. namaycush requires deep-water refuges, where its preferred temperature ranges and oxygen levels exist. Residing exclusively in freshwater and most often found in lakes, S. namaycush might also inhabit large river systems that have the necessary habitat characteristics.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
Marine
Freshwater
 
Lakes Principal habitat Natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Natural
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive biology

Spawning occurs mostly at night, with peak activity between dusk and 9 or 10 pm (Royce, 1951; Martin, 1957). One or two males approach a female, press against her sides and quiver, causing the female to release eggs, which are then fertilized. A large female may contain up to 17,000 eggs.

The eggs, which are quite large, become lodged in crevices in the rubble bottom, where they remain for months before hatching. Unlike most other salmonid species, S. namaycush do create nests (redds) during spawning. Age at maturity varies widely from around 5 years in southern areas of its native range to more than 20 years in northern areas.

Longevity

S. namaycush tends to reach a maximum age of 25 years; however, the oldest fish on record, in the Northwest Territories (Canada), was aged at 65 years.

Activity patterns

In large water bodies such as the Great Lakes, S. namaycush may migrate up to 300 km (186 mi) to their spawning grounds.

Associations

Muzzall and Whelan (2011) reviewed the available literature for parasites of fish within the Great Lakes. Below is a list of all identified on S. namaycush:

Adult Cestoda: Eubothrium crassum (Cooper, 1919; Pearse, 1924); Eubothrium salvelini, (Amin, 1977; Muzzall, 1989; Wardle, 1933; Dechtiar and Christie, 1988; Bangham, 1955; Muzzall and Bowen, 2000).

Larval/Immature Cestoda: Proteocephalus sp. (Muzzall, 1989).

Adult Nematoda: Cystidicola farionis (Ward and Magath, 1916); Cystidicola farionis (Lankester and Smith, 1980; Dextrase, 1987); Cystidicola stigmatura (Wright, 1879; Leidy, 1886; Black, 1983; Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988;); Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988); Cystidicola stigmatura (Ward and Magath, 1916).

Adult Acanthocephala: Acanthocephalus dirus (Amin, 1977; 1985; Muzzall, 1989); Echinorhynchus leidyi (Pearse, 1924b); Echinorhynchus salmonis (Pearse, 1924; Hnath, 1969; Amin and Burrows, 1977; Amin, 1985; Dechtiar and Christie, 1988; Muzzall, 1989; ); Echinorhynchus lateralis (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988); Echinorhynchus salmonis (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988).

Adult Digenea: Crepidostomum farionis (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988) Monogenea: Discocotyle sagittata (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988).

Larval/Immature Digenea: Diplostomum spathaceum (Collins and Dechtiar, 1974; Dechtiar et al., 1988); Diplostomum sp. (Bangham, 1955; Muzzall and Bowen, 2000); Ichthyocotylurus intermedia (Collins and Dechtiar, 1974).

Hirudinea: Unidentified leeches (Pearse, 1924).

Copepoda: Salmincola extensus (Pearse, 1924); Salmincola siscowet (Dechtiar and Lawrie, 1988).

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
Adult
Adult
Adult
Adult/Fry
Adult/Fry
Fry
Adult
Adult
Pontoporeia Larval
Fry
Adult

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
73 43

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 0 15.5

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 11.2 Optimum

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ameiurus nebulosus Predator Adult/Fry not specific
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis Predator Adult/Fry not specific
Lota lota Predator Adult not specific N
Petromyzon marinus Predator Adult not specific N
Prosopium cylindraceum Predator Adult/Fry not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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There are several natural enemies of S. namaycush reported in its native range, including lamprey species (Ichthyomyzon unicuspis and Petromyzon marinus) and fish (Ameiurus nebulosus, Lota lota and Prosopium cylindraceum). Smaller S. namaycush are potentially predated upon by ducks and other birds.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural dispersal

In large water bodies such as the Great Lakes, S. namaycush may migrate up to 300 km (186 mi) to their spawning grounds.

Intentional introduction

S. namaycush is primarily bred, introduced and stocked for recreational fisheries worldwide (Fuller, 2007).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Acclimatization societiesStocked as a sport fish worldwide Yes Yes
Hunting, angling, sport or racing Yes Yes
Intentional releaseReleased as a sport fish Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WaterAll life stages by natural dispersal Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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S. namaycush was once an important commercial fish in the Great Lakes but numbers dropped sharply during the 1950s due to overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Houston and Kelso, 1990). S. namaycush is still highly valued as a sport fish by anglers worldwide (Lenart, 2001). Recreational fishing and tourism may create a demand not only for food, accommodation and transportation, but also for related recreational activities such as camping, boating and canoeing, all of which may provide economic opportunities locally.

Environmental Impact

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The various introductions of S. namaycush within the USA has had detrimental effects on native biodiversity. Several species of fish have been affected not only by competition from S. namaycush but by predation as well, as this species is a top predator (Fuller, 2007). For instance, numerous populations of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) have either been eliminated (e.g. in Lake Tahoe, western USA) or severely reduced (e.g. in Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming, USA). S. namaycush introduced into Flaming Gorge Reservoir were found to prey heavily on the Utah chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke, 1996). Predation by lake trout was shown to be a major factor in the decline of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Lake Chelan, Washington (Schoen et al., 2012).

Social Impact

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S. namaycush is a highly sought after recreational fishing species throughout North America. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Long lived
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Conflict
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Predation
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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S. namaycush is a highly valued sport fish by anglers worldwide (Lenart, 2001).

Uses List

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General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. namaycush looks similar to the brook trout, S. fontinalis; however, S. fontinalis can be distinguished by a black stripe on the anterior edge of their pelvic and anal fins (Lenart, 2001).

Prevention and Control

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Eradication

Numerous techniques have been used in an attempt to eradicate S. namaycush. In Yellowstone national park, USA, gillnetting and trapping were deemed the most suitable management techniques for its control (Kaeding et al., 1996). Electrofishing was effective in managing populations of S. namaycush, and is undertaken yearly in Yellowstone Lake (Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center, 2012). Cox et al. (2012) examined the efficacy of high intensity sound from a seismic air gun in reducing survival of S. namaycush embryos, finding increased mortality in embryos at close range and younger age.

Control

As established populations are difficult and costly to control, further introductions or stocking should be avoided.

Chemical control

The only effective method of fish eradication is the application of rotenone, a piscicide that is also toxic to non target species.

Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing)

Both radio and acoustic telemetry can be used.

References

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AFMAFEWM, 2011. Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management.

Amin OM, 1977. Helminth parasites of some southwestern Lake Michigan fishes. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 44(2):210-217.

Amin OM, 1985. The relationship between the size of some salmonid fishes and the intensity of their acanthocephalan infections. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63:924-927.

Amin OM; Burrows JM, 1977. Host and seasonal associations of Echinorhynchus salmonis (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) in Lake Michigan fishes. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 34(3):325-331.

Arkhipchuk V, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Bangham RV, 1955. Studies on parasites of Lake Huron and Manitoulin Island. The American Midland Naturalist Journal, 53:184- 194.

Bianco PG; Ketmaier V, 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna of Italy, with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. Journal of Fish Biology, 59(Supplement A):190-208.

Black GA, 1983. Taxonomy of a swimbladder nematode, Cystidicola stigmatura (Leidy), and evidence of its decline in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 40(5):643-647.

Breder Jr CM; Rosen DE, 1966. Modes of Reproduction in Fishes. Jersey City, New Jersey, : T.F.H. Publications, 941 pp.

Collins JJ; Dechtiar AO, 1974. Parasite fauna of kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) introduced into Lake Huron. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 31(11):1818-1821.

Cooper AR, 1919. North American pseudophyllidean cestodes from fishes. Illinois Biological Monographs, 4. 288-541.

Cox BS; Dux AM; Quist MC; Guy CS, 2012. Use of a seismic air gun to reduce survival of nonnative lake trout embryos: a tool for conservation? North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 32(2):292-298.

Dechtiar AO; Christie WJ, 1988. Survey of the parasite fauna of Lake Ontario fishes, 1961-1971. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Technical Report, 51. 66-106.

Dechtiar AO; Lawrie AH, 1988. Survey of the parasite fauna of Lake Superior fishes, 1967-1975. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Technical Report, 51. 1-18.

Dechtiar AO; Nepszy SJ, 1988. Survey of the parasite fauna of selected fish species from Lake Erie, 1970-1975. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Technical Report, 51. 49-65.

Dextrase AJ, 1987. MSc thesis. Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada: Lakehead University.

FAO, 1997. FAO Database on Introduced Aquatic Species. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org.

Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center, 2012. Lake Trout Control. http://www.greateryellowstonescience.org/topics/biological/fish/yct/projects/laketrout. Acessed 8 Oct 2014

Hnath JG, 1969. Transfer of an adult acanthocephalan from one fish host to another. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 98(2):332.

Houston KA; Kelso JRM, 1990. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) mortality - a review. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Research Completion Report. Ontario, Canada: Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans.

Hubert WA; Gipson RD; Whaley RA, 1994. Interpreting relative weights of lake trout stocks. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 14:212-215.

Kaeding LR; Boltz GD; Carty DG, 1996. Lake trout discovered in Yellowstone Lake threaten native cutthroat trout. Fisheries, 21(3):16-20.

Keith P; Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 387 pp.

Koli L, 1990. Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö. Helsinki, Finland, 357 pp.

Lankester MW; Smith JD, 1980. Host specificity and distribution of the swim-bladder nematodes, Cystidicola farionis Fischer, 1978 and C. cristivomeri White, 1941 (Habronematoidea), in salmonoid fishes of Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58(7):1298-1305.

Leidy J, 1886. Notices of nematoid worms. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 38:308-313.

Martin NV, 1957. Reproduction of lake trout in Algonquin Park, Ontario. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 86:231-244.

McDowall RM, 1984. Exotic fishes:The New Zealand experience. In: Distribution, Biology and Management of Exotic Fishes [ed. by Courtenay WR, Stauffer JR] Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 200-214.

Morrow JE, 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. Animal Resources Ecology Library. British Columbia, Canada: University of British Columbia, 248.

Muzzall PM, 1989. Endohelminths of salmonids from two localities in eastern Lake Michigan, with emphasis on Echinorhynchus salmonis. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67(6):1604-1607.

Muzzall PM; Bowen CA II, 2000. Helminths in an intensively stocked population of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Lake Huron. Journal of Parasitology, 86(3):639-642.

Muzzall PM; Whelan G, 2011. Parasites of fish from the Great Lakes: a synopsis and review of the literature, 1871-2010. Great Lakes Fish. Comm. Misc. Publ.

Myers P; Espinosa R; Parr CS; Jones T; Hammond GS; Dewey TA, 2014. The Animal Diversity Web. Michigan, USA: University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. http://animaldiversity.org

Page LM; Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 432 pp.

Pearse AS, 1924. The parasites of lake fishes. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters, 21:161-194.

Royce WF, 1951. Breeding habits of lake trout in New York. Fishery bulletin, 52(59):59-76.

Ryan P; Marshall T, 1994. Niche Definition for Lake Trout and Its Use to Identify Populations at Risk. Canadian Journal of Fishery and Aquatic Science, 51:2513-2519.

Schoen ER; Beauchamp DA; Overman NC, 2012. Quantifying latent impacts of an introduced piscivore: pulsed predatory inertia of lake trout and decline of kokanee. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 141(5):1191-1206. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/utaf20

Scott WB; Crossman EJ, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin, No. 184:966 pp.

Shuter B; Jones M; Korver R; Lester N, 1998. A general, life history based model for regional management of fish stocks. Canadian Journal of Fishery and Aquatic Science, 55:2161-2177.

Teuscher D; Luecke C, 1996. Competition between kokanees and Utah chub in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 125(4):505-511.

USGS, 2013. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: United States Geological Survey. http://nas.er.usgs.gov

Ward HB; Magath TB; 1916, Dec. Notes on Some Nematodes from Fresh-Water Fishes. Journal of Parasitology, 3(2):57-64.

Wardle RA, 1933. The parasitic helminths of Canadian animals. I. The Cestodaria and Cestoda. Canadian Journal of Research, VIH(4):317-333.

Welcomme R, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, 294:1-318.

Wright RR, 1879. Contributions to American helminthology. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, 1:54-75.

Links to Websites

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Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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08/10/14 Original text by:

Michael Godard, consultant, Canada

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