Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salvelinus alpinus
(Arctic charr)

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Datasheet

Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvelinus alpinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Arctic charr
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvelinus alpinus

Preferred Common Name

  • Arctic charr

Other Scientific Names

  • Salmo alpinostagnalis Smitt, 1886
  • Salmo alpinus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Salmo ascanii Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salmo carbonarius Strom, 1784
  • Salmo hybridus Smitt, 1886
  • Salmo laevis Walbaurn, 1792
  • Salmo levis Mohr, 1786
  • Salmo nivalis Faber, 1829
  • Salmo palja Walbaurn, 1792
  • Salmo punctatus Cuvier, 1829
  • Salmo rutilus Nilsson, 1832
  • Salmo salvelinostagnalis Smitt, 1886
  • Salvelinus lepechini (Gmelin, 1789)
  • Salvelinus lepechini melanostomus Berg, 1932
  • Salvelinus lepechini profundicola Berg, 1932

International Common Names

  • English: alpine char; breeder; char; charr; lake char; saltwater trout; sea run trout
  • Spanish: salvelino
  • French: omble Arctique; omble chevalier

Local Common Names

  • Austria: seesaibling
  • Canada: angmalook; aniaq; awanans; eekalook; ekalluk; ekalupik; ekaluppik; equaluk; erlakukpik; hiwiterro; ihkaluk; ikalopik; ikalukpik; ikalupik; ikaluq; ikaluqpik; iloraq; ilorarzuk; iqalugaq; iqaluk; irkaluk; ivatagok; ivatarak; ivisaaruq; ivisaruq; ivitaaruq; ivitaruk; kaîtilik; kaloarpok; kavasilik; kavisilik; kisuajuq; majuliqtuq; majuqtuq; nutidleq; situajuq; situliqtuq; suvaliviniq; tariurmiutaq; tariurmuarunnanngittuq
  • Canada/Newfoundland and Labrador: eqaluk; I ha look; iqluq
  • Canada/Quebec: aopalayâk; aoparktulâyoq; aupalijaat; ekaluk; ekralugak; eqaluk; iqaluppik; ivitaroq; nutidilik; nutiliarjuk; nutilliq; tadlulik
  • Czech Republic: siven arktický
  • Denmark: fjeldørred; rødding; røding
  • Germany: saibling; Schwarzreuther; seeforelle; seesaibling; tiefsee-saibling
  • Greenland: eqalugdlukâq; eqaluk; eqalukâkaq; eqaluqaq; iviksarok; ivisâroq
  • Iceland: bleikja
  • Ireland: ruabhreac
  • Italy: salmerino; salmerino alpino; salmerino artico
  • Japan: iwana
  • Netherlands: beekridder; riddervis
  • Norway: arktisk roye; röye; røye; royr
  • Poland: golec zwyczajny
  • Portugal: salvelino-árctico
  • Romania: pastrav alpim
  • Russian Federation: arkticheskiy golets; goletz
  • Slovakia: sivon arktický
  • Sweden: fjällröding; röding
  • Switzerland: salmerino alpino
  • USA: akalukpik
  • USA/Alaska: egaluk; eqäluk; ikalukpik; kalukpik; lixtaa
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): barjaktarica; jezerska zlatovcica; pastrve

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Salvelinus
  •                                 Species: Salvelinus alpinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MoroccoPresentIntroduced1948

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesPresentIntroduced1991Original location reported: Kerguelen Islands

Asia

TurkeyPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 2000 - 2005

Europe

CroatiaPresentIntroduced1950
CyprusPresentIntroduced1970
CzechiaPresentIntroduced1759
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1925
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentIntroduced
GermanyPresentIntroduced1990
IcelandPresentNative
IrelandPresentIntroduced1971
ItalyPresentIntroduced1866
LatviaPresentIntroduced1929
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1900
NorwayPresent
PolandPresentIntroduced1603
RussiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIntroduced
SwitzerlandPresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresentNative
-QuebecPresentNative
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MainePresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative

Sea Areas

Atlantic - NortheastPresentNative
Atlantic - NorthwestPresentNative

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Bythotrephes longimanus

References

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Alanärä A; Kiessling A, 1996. Changes in demand feeding behaviour in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L., caused by differences in dietary energy content and reward level. Aquaculture Research, 27(7):479-486; 23 ref.

Bebak J; Hankins JA; Summerfelt ST, 2000. Effect of water temperature on survival of eyed eggs and alevins of Arctic char. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 62(2):139-143.

Bjerkeng B; Johnsen K; Mayer I; Storebakken T; Nilssen KJ, 1999. Influence of 11-ketotestosterone, 17-estradiol, and 3,5,3-triiodo-L-thyronine on distribution and metabolism of carotenoids in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 21(4):353-364.

Blanc M; Gaudet JL; Banarescu P; Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Dick TA; Yang X, 1995. Flaxseed in Arctic char and rainbow trout nutrition. In: Cunnane SC, Thompson LU, eds, Flaxseed in human nutrition. Illinois, USA: AOCS Press, 295-314.

Dick TA; Yang X, 2002. Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. In: Nutrient requirements and feeding of finfish for aquaculture [ed. by Webster, C. D.\Lim, C.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 203-218. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=86

Fabricius E, 1953. Aquarium observations on the spawning behaviour of the char, Salmo alpinus. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottingholm 34: 14-48.

Fabricius E; Gustafson KJ, 1954. Further aquarium observations on the spawning behaviour of the char, Salmo alpinus L. Report of the Institute of Freshwater Research, Drottingholm 35:58-104.

Gillet C, 1991. Egg production in an Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) brood stock: effects of temperature on the timing of spawning and the quality of eggs. Aquatic Living Resources, 4(2):109-116.

Gillet C; Vauchez C; Haffray P, 2001. Triploidy induced by pressure shock in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): growth, survival and maturation until the third year. Aquatic Living Resources, 14(5):327-334.

Gurure RM; Moccia RD; Atkinson JL, 1995. Dietary lysine requirements for young growing Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed nine semi-practical diets. In: 87th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Animal Science. Abstract 3, Orlando, Florida, USA, p. 180.

Gurure RM; Moccia RD; Atkinson JL, 1995. Optimal protein requirements of young Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed practical diets. Aquaculture Nutrition, 1(4):227-234; 28 ref.

Hatlen B; Aas GH; Jrgensen EH; Storebakken T; Goswami UC, 1995. Pigmentation of 1, 2 and 3 year old Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed two different dietary astaxanthin concentrations. Aquaculture, 138(1/4):303-312.

Heggberget TG; Grotnes P; Klemetsen A; Richardson R; Ugedal O, 1994. Culture of Arctic charr - possibilities in Norway. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 123:435-444.

Hilton JW; Slinger SJ, 1981. Nutrition and feeding of rainbow trout. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55: 15 pp.

Jansen ME, 1993. Induction of ovulation in Arctic char held under unchanging temperature and photoperiod. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 55(1):32-34.

Jobling M; Wandsvik A, 1983. An investigation of factors controlling food intake in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L. Journal of Fish Biology, 23(4):397-404; 23 ref.

Johnson L, 1980. The Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. In: Balo EK, ed. Charrs: Salmonid Fishes of the genus Salvelinus. The Hague, Netherlands: W Junk Publishers, 15-88.

Jonsson G, 1992. Islenskir fiskar. Fiolvi, Reykjavik, 568 pp.

Keith P; Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des poissons d’eau douce de France. Patrimoines naturels, 47. Paris, France: MNHN, 387 pp.

Koli L, 1990. Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland]. Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio. Helsinki. 357 pp.

Morrow JE, 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. University of British Columbia Animal Resources Ecology Library, 248pp.

NRC (National Research Council), 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 114 pp.

Olsen RE; Mortensen A, 1997. The influence of dietary astaxanthin and temperature on flesh colour in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus L. Aquaculture Research, 28(1):51-58.

Olsen RE; Myklebust R; Ring E; Mayhew TM, 2000. The influences of dietary linseed oil and saturated fatty acids on caecal enterocytes in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.): a quantitative ultrastructural study. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 22(3):207-216.

Olsen RE; Ring E, 1992. Lipids of arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.) 2. Influence of dietary fatty acids on the elongation and desaturation of linoleic and linolenic acid. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 9(5/6):393-399.

Page LM; Burr BM, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 432 pp.

Papst M, 1994. Variation in growth of hatchey reared Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). PhD dissertation, Manitoba:Canada, University of Manitoba.

Reshetnikov YS; Bogutskaya NG; Vasil’eva ED; Dorofeeva EA; Naseka AM; Popova OA; Savvaitova KA; Sideleva VG; Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology, 37:687-736.

Ringo E, 1995. Hatchery-reared land-locked Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus (L.) from Lake Takvatn reared in fresh and sea water: effect of salinity on digestibility of protein and individual amno acids in a capelin roe diet and commercial feed. Aquaculture Research, 26:221-223.

Scaratt; DJ, 1996. Atlantic mariculture: Arctic char. Deparatment of Fisheries and Oceans, Scotia-Fundy Region, Halifax, Canada.

Simmons L; Moccia RD, 1997. Dietary methionine requirement of juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada, No. 97-2:36-38.

Simmons L; Moccia RD; Bureau DP; Sivak JG; Herbert K, 1999. Dietary methionine requirement of juvenile Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Aquaculture Nutrition, 5(2):93-100; 32 ref.

Svetovidov AN, 1984. Salmonidae. In: Whitehead PJP, Bauchot ML, Hureau JC, Nielsen J, Tortonese E, eds. Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 1. Paris, France: UNESCO.

Torrissen KR; Shearer KD, 1992. Protein digestion, growth and food conversion in Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr with different trypsin-like isozyme patterns. Journal of Fish Biology, 41(3):409-415; 26 ref.

Wallace JC; Kolbeinshavn AG; Reinsnes TG, 1988. The effects of stocking density on early growth in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). Aquaculture, 73(3-4):101-110.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp.

Wheeler A, 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. J. Fish Biol., 41(1):1-37.

Yang X, 1994. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on growth and lipid metabolism of arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.). PhD dissertation. Manitoba, Canada: University of Manitoba.

Yang X; Dick TA, 1993. Effects of dietary fatty acids on growth, feed efficiency and liver RNA and DNA content of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L). Aquaculture, 116(1):57-70; 31 ref.

Yang X; Dick TA, 1994. Dietary -linolenic and linoleic acids competitively affect metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids in arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Journal of Nutrition, 124(7):1133-1145; 25 ref.

Distribution References

Anon, 1988. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. [ed. by Welcomme R L]. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. x + 318 pp. https://www.fao.org/3/X5628E/X5628E00.htm

Blanc M, Gaudet J-L, Banarescu P, Hureau J-C, 1971. European inland water fish. A multilingual catalogue. London, UK: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Johnson L, 1980. The Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus. In: Charrs: Salmonid Fishes of the genus Salvelinus, [ed. by Balo EK]. The Hague, Netherlands: W Junk Publishers. 15-88.

Jonsson G, 1992. Islenskir fiskar. Reykjavik, Iceland: Fiolvi. 568 pp.

Keith P, Allardi J, 2001. (Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France). In: Patrimoines naturels, 47 Paris, France: MNHN. 387 pp.

Koli L, 1990. Fishes of Finland. (Suomen kalat)., Helsinki, Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio. 357 pp.

Reshetnikov YS, Bogutskaya NG, Vasil'eva ED, Dorofeeva EA, Naseka AM, Popova OA, Savvaitova KA, Sideleva VG, Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. In: Journal of Ichthyology, 37 687-736.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Wheeler A, 1992. A list of the common and scientific names of fishes of the British Isles. Journal of Fish Biology. 41 (1), 1-37.

Links to Websites

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