Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Salmo trutta
(sea trout)

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Datasheet

Salmo trutta (sea trout)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salmo trutta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sea trout
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Introduction of Salmo trutta has caused both negative and positive impacts on biodiversity. They compete with native trout and other fish species, but they are not known to have been the cause of any species' ext...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • sea trout

Other Scientific Names

  • Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848
  • Fario trutta Linnaeus, 1758
  • Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858
  • Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858
  • Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788
  • Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866
  • Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838
  • Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806
  • Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877
  • Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758
  • Salmo estuaries Knox, 1854
  • Salmo estuarius Knox, 1854
  • Salmo fario Linnaeus, 1758
  • Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792
  • Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863
  • Salmo faris forestensis Bloch, 1801
  • Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo gadoids Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866
  • Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873
  • Salmo lacustris rhenana Fatio, 1890
  • Salmo lacustris romanovi Kawraisky, 1896
  • Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890
  • Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839
  • Salmo mistops Günther, 1866
  • Salmo Montana Walker, 1812
  • Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866
  • Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842
  • Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804
  • Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866
  • Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798
  • Salmo spurious Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814
  • Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788
  • Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788
  • Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812
  • Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954
  • Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877
  • Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967
  • Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948)
  • Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758
  • Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771
  • Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771
  • Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784
  • Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772

International Common Names

  • English: blacktail; brook trout; brown trout; brown trout; finnock; galway sea trout; gillaroo; herling; hirling; orange fin; orkney sea trout; peal; salmon trout; sea-trout; sewin; trout; trout, brown; trout, sea; whiting; whitling
  • Spanish: trucha; trucha común; trucha marina; truita
  • French: truite brune; truite brune de mer; truite de mer; truite d'Europe
  • Russian: kumzha; losos taimen; losos' taimen; morskaya Forel'

Local Common Names

  • Canada/British Columbia: k'wsech
  • Canada/Quebec: truite brune
  • Czech Republic: pstruh morsky; pstruh obecný; pstruh obecný severomorský
  • Denmark: almindelig ørred; havørred; ørred
  • Ecuador: trucha
  • Finland: meritaimen; taimen
  • Germany: bachforelle; forelle; lachförch; lachsforelle; lassföhren; meerforelle
  • Greece: thalasopestrofa
  • Iceland: sjourrioi; urriði
  • Iran: mahiazad-e-Daryaye Khazar
  • Ireland: an breac geal; breac geal
  • Italy: salmo trota; trota; trota di mare; trota fario; truta; trutta
  • Netherlands: zeeforel
  • Norway: aure; ørret; sjøaure; sjøørret
  • Poland: troc; troc wedrowna
  • Portugal: truta marisca; truta-de-lago; truta-fário; truta-marisca
  • Romania: pastrav de mare
  • Russian Federation: kumzha; losos' taimen; morskaya forel'; salmon trout
  • Slovakia: pstruh obycajný
  • Slovenia: morska postrv
  • Spain: truita
  • Sweden: havsöring; öring
  • Turkey: denizalabaligi; denizalasi
  • UK: blacktail; brook trout; finnock; Galway sea trout; gillaroo; gwyniedyn; herling; orange fin; Orkney sea trout; pearl; sewin; siwin; whiting; whitling
  • UK/England and Wales: gwyniedyn; siwin

Summary of Invasiveness

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Introduction of Salmo trutta has caused both negative and positive impacts on biodiversity. They compete with native trout and other fish species, but they are not known to have been the cause of any species' extinction (Animal Diversity Web, 2004).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Salmo
  •                                 Species: Salmo trutta

Description

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Salmo trutta has a fusiform body with a small pointed head, large mouth, extending mostly after the eye (Rochard and Elie, 1994). S. trutta or brown trout get their name from the brown or golden brown hue on their bodies. Body is grey-blue coloured with numerous spots, also below the lateral line (Rochard and Elie, 1994). Blackish coloured on upper part of body, usually orange on sides, surrounded by pale halos. Adipose fin is with red margin (FishBase, 2004). Sea-run S. trutta have a more silvery coloration and the spotting is less visible (Nova Scotia, 2004). It has 3-4 dorsal spines, 10-15 dorsal soft rays, 3-4 anal spines and 9-14 anal soft rays (FishBase, 2004). Caudal fin has 18-19 rays (Spillman, 1961). Caudal peduncle is thick and rounded (Rochard and Elie, 1994). It has a few scales (Rochard and Elie, 1994).

S. trutta closely resemble Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout, but salmon have no red coloration on the adipose fin and rainbow trout have lines of black spots on the tail. Young S. trutta (parr) have 9-14 dark narrow parr marks along the sides and some red spotting along the lateral line (Nova Scotia, 2004). S. trutta can grow to be quite large, especially sea-run fish. It can grow to a standard length of 140 cm (Muus and Dahlström, 1967). Maximum published weight is 50.0 kg (Muus and Dahlström, 1967) and maximum reported age is 38 years (FishBase, 2004).

Distribution

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The native range of Salmo trutta includes Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. The species is found in Iceland and on the northwest coast of Europe, along the Mediterranean and south to India. S. trutta has been introduced to appropriate streams all over the world (Animal Diversity Web, 2004) and today is found in rivers, lakes and coastal areas (Nova Scotia, 2004).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, NorthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, NortheastPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeCoad, 1981; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ArmeniaPresentNativeGabrielyan, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BhutanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IndiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IranPresentIntroducedCoad, 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2004
JapanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
JordanPresentIntroducedKrupp and Schneider, 1989; Golani and Mires, 2000
NepalPresentIntroducedShrestha, 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PakistanPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedFAO, 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TurkeyPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Africa

EthiopiaPresentIntroducedTedla and Meskel, 1981; Froese and Pauly, 2004
KenyaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LesothoPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MadagascarPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MalawiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
MoroccoPresentIntroducedCourtenay et al., 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
South AfricaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwazilandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedEccles, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedBell-Cross and Minshull, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedHart, 1973; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedCarl et al., 1959; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
-QuebecPresentIntroducedCrossman, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
USAPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-GeorgiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988

Central America and Caribbean

PanamaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedErdman, 1984

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BoliviaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ChilePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ColombiaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
Falkland IslandsPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PeruPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Europe

BelgiumPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
CroatiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
CyprusPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedBlanc et al., 1971
DenmarkPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrøm, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EstoniaPresentNativeMuus and Dahlstrøm, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FinlandPresentNativeKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FrancePresentNativeBillard, 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GreecePresentNativeEconomidis, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IcelandPresentNativeJonsson, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IrelandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Isle of Man (UK)PresentNativeBruce et al., 1963; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeGandolfi et al., 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LatviaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NorwayPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PolandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
RomaniaPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Russian FederationPresentNativeReshetnikov et al., 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SlovakiaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SpainPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwedenPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNativeVilcinskas, 1993
UKPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-England and WalesPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-ScotlandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedKailola et al., 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FijiPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedAllen, 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina USA 1904 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Australia UK 1864 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Pollard (1989)
Bhutan 1930-39 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Bolivia USA 1939 Fisheries (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes No FAO (1997)
Canada UK 1884 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Chile Europe 1905 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Colombia UK 1892 Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Cyprus USA 1970 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Ecuador Chile 1950 Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Ethiopia Kenya 1967 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Tedla and Meskel (1981)
Falkland Islands UK 1955 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Fiji New Zealand 1920 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Finland Sweden 1970-79 Fisheries (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997)
Hawaii USA 1935 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
India UK 1900 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Japan USA 1900 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Japan 1930-39 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Jordan Denmark 1982 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Golani and Mires (2000); Golani and Mires (2000)
Jordan unknown Unknown No No Krupp and Schneider (1989); Krupp and Schneider (1989)
Kenya UK 1921 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Lesotho unknown Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Madagascar France 1926 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Malawi UK 1906 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Private sector No No FAO (1997)
Malawi South Africa 1906 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Private sector No No FAO (1997)
Montana British Columbia 1932-34 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No Clemens and Wilby (1961)
Morocco France 1953 Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Morocco Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) 1953 Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Nepal UK 1972 Fisheries (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (1997)
Netherlands Denmark 1922 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
New Zealand UK 1867 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (1997)
New Zealand Italy 1867 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (1997)
New Zealand Australia 1867 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Individual Yes No FAO (1997)
Pakistan UK 1906 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No FAO (1997)
Panama unknown Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Papua New Guinea Australia 1949 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Peru Chile 1928 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Puerto Rico 1934 Unknown No No Erdman (1984)
Quebec USA 1890 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Crossman (1984)
South Africa UK 1890 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Sri Lanka Europe 1882 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (1997)
Swaziland South Africa 1914 Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Tanzania unknown Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Eccles (1992)
USA Germany 1883 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (1997)
Wisconsin British Columbia 1932-34 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No Clemens and Wilby (1961)
Zimbabwe South Africa 1927 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
nekton Adult 36
zoobenthos Adult/Fry 29-94
zoobenthos Adult/Larval 55-99
zoobenthos Adult 46-81
zooplankton Larval 35-57

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3.0 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >6.0 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 0 35 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) >8.4 Harmful Adult
Water pH (pH) 7.0 7.5 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >24 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 18 24 Optimum Adult

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Esox lucius Predator Adult/Fry Raat, 1988
Halichoerus grypus Predator Adult/Fry Carter et al., 2001
Ichthyomyzon castaneus Predator Adult/Fry Hall, 1960
Petromyzon marinus Predator Adult/Fry Hardisty, 1986
Phoca vitulina Predator Adult/Fry Carter et al., 2001

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Tourism Positive

Impact: Biodiversity

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Salmo trutta has been implicated in reducing native fish populations (especially other salmonids) through predation, displacement, and food competition (Taylor et al., 1984). There are some negative effects from S. trutta since the species was introduced in America (Animal Diversity Web, 2004). They compete with native trout and other fish species, but they are not known to have been the cause of any species' extinction. In California, USA, competition and predation from S. trutta may have contributed to the decline of the dolly varden, Salmo malma, in the McCloud River (Moyle, 1976), and of the golden trout, Oncorhynchus aguabonita, in the Kern River (Courtenay and Williams, 1992). S. trutta may have also depleted the Modoc sucker, Catostomus microps, an endangered species, in Rush Creek, Modoc County (Moyle and Marciochi, 1975). S. trutta have commonly replaced cutthroat trout, O. clarki, in large rivers (Behnke, 1992). Another negative effect is their contribution to the lamprey population in many rivers. The increased lamprey populations since S. trutta were introduced have been considered as a negative impact on biodiversity (Animal Diversity Web, 2004). S. trutta introductions may have caused the decline of the Tasmanian mountain shrimp, Anaspides tasmaniae, and have eliminated or reduced several Plecoptera and Trichoptera species in streams in Victoria, Australia (Arthington, 1989).

It interacts ecologically with other species and healthy populations of brown trout are necessary for the reproduction of the freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera (Laikre et al., 1999).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Catostomus santaanae (Santa Ana sucker)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2011
Gila bicolor mohavensis (Mohave tui chub)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesOregonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1998
Gila nigra (headwater chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013c
Gila robusta (roundtail chub)NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened) NT (IUCN red list: Near threatened)Arizona; California; NevadaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013d
Oncorhynchus apache (apache trout)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizonaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; Nevada; Oregon; UtahCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2000
Oncorhynchus clarkii seleniris (Paiute cutthroat trout)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified); PredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013a
Oncorhynchus gilae (Gila trout)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesArizona; New MexicoPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Pacifastacus fortis (Shasta crayfish)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Salvelinus confluentus (bull trout)VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable) VU (IUCN red list: Vulnerable); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesIdaho; Montana; Nevada; Oregon; WashingtonPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008
Thymallus arcticus (arctic grayling)LC (IUCN red list: Least concern) LC (IUCN red list: Least concern)MontanaPredationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013b

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Predation

Uses List

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Human food and beverage

  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat

References

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Allen GR, 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Madang, Papua New Guinea: Christensen Research Institute, 180 pp.

Allendorf FW, Leary RF, 1988. Conservation and distribution of genetic variation in a polytypic species, the cutthroat trout. Conservation Biology, 2:170-184.

Animal Diversity Web, 2004. Salmo trutta (Brown trout). Online at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmo_trutta.html. Accessed 15 November 2004.

Anon., 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000. http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm

Aquanic, 2004. Trout Production. Online at http://aquanic.org/publicat/state/ga/trout.htm. Accessed 26 November 2004.

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Arthington AH, 1989. Impacts of introduced and translocated freshwater fishes in Australia. In: de Silva SS, ed. Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Proccedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asia Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 3, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, 7-20.

Barrington R, 1983. Making and Managing a Trout Lake. England: Fishing News Books, 135 pp.

Behnke RJ, 1992. Native Trout of Western North America. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: American Fisheries Society Monograph, 6, 275 pp.

Bell-Cross G, Minshull JL, 1988. The fishes of Zimbabwe. National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe, Harare. 294 pp.

Billard R, 1997. Les poissons d’eau douce des rivieres de France. Identification, inventaire et repartition des 83 especes. Lausanne: Delachaux and Niestle, 192 pp.

Blanc M, Gaudet JL, Banarescu P, Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Bromage NR, Shepherd CJ, Roberts J, 1990. Farming systems and husbandry practice. In: Shepherd CJ, Bromage NR, eds, Intensive Fish Farming. Oxford: BSP Professional Books, 50-102.

Bruce JR, Colman JS, Jones NS, 1963. Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Memoir No. 36. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Cadwallader PL, Backhouse GN, 1983. A guide to the freshwater fish of Victoria. Melbourne, Australia: Government Printers, 249 pp.

Carl GC, Clemens WA, Lindsey CC, 1959. The freshwater fishes of British Columbia (3rd revision). (Reprinted 1977). British Columbia Prov. Mus. Handbook, 5, 192 pp.

Carter TJ, Pierce GJ, Hislop JRG, Houseman JA, Boyle PR, 2001. Predation by seals on salmonids in two Scottish estuaries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 8(3):207-225.

Clemens WA, Wilby GV, 1961. Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Second edition. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull., 68:443 pp.

Coad BW, 1981. Fishes of Afghanistan, an annotated check-list. Publications in Zoology, National Museums of Canada, 14:23.

Coad BW, 1996. Exotic fish species in the Tigris-Euphrates basin. Zoology in the Middle East 13:71-83.

Courtenay WR Jr, Hensley DA, Taylor JN, McCann JA, 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. In: Courtenay WR Jr, Stauffer JR Jr, ed. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 41-77.

Courtenay WR Jr, Williams JD, 1992. Dispersal of exotic species from aquaculture sources, with emphasis on freshwater fishes. In: Rosenfield A, Mann R, eds. Dispersal of living organisms into aquatic ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant Publication, College Park, MD, 49-81.

Crossman EJ, 1984. Introduction of exotic fishes into Canada. In: Courtenay WR Jr, Stauffer JR Jr, eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Baltimore, USA: John Hopkins University Press, 78-101.

de Moore IJ, Bruton MN, 1988. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa. South African National Scientific Programmes Report 144, 310 pp.

Department of Fisheries, 1999. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia. Online at www.fish.wa.gov.au/aqua/broc/aqwa/trout/aqwatrout05.html. Accessed 26 November 2004.

Department of Fisheries, 2002. The translocation of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fisheries Management Paper No. 156. Western Australia: Department of Fisheries.

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Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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