Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salmo salar
(Atlantic salmon)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salmo salar
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Atlantic salmon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Native to the north Atlantic and rivers that flow into it, S. salar has been introduced to many parts of the world for the purposes of aquaculture (and in some locations for sport fishing or fisheries). Concern...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
TitleAdult
CaptionSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
Copyright©Hans-Petter Fjeld/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
AdultSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.©Hans-Petter Fjeld/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • Atlantic salmon

Other Scientific Names

  • Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882
  • Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795
  • Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784
  • Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865
  • Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829
  • Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866
  • Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772
  • Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832
  • Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912
  • Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882
  • Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1912
  • Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971
  • Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862
  • Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962
  • Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792
  • Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863
  • Trutta salar Linnaeus, 1758

International Common Names

  • English: bay salmon; black salmon; caplin-scull salmon; common Atlantic salmon; fiddler; grayling; grilse; grilt; kelt; landlocked salmon; n. Atlantic salmon; ouananiche; ouinanish; outside salmon; parr; salmon; salmon peel; salmon, Atlantic; sea salmon; sebago salmon; silver salmon; slink; smolt; spring fish; spring salmon; winnish
  • Spanish: salmó; salmón; salmón del Atlántico
  • French: saumon Atlantique; saumon d'eau douce; tacon Atlantique
  • Russian: Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos'; losos; semga

Local Common Names

  • Belarus: losos
  • Canada: fiddler; grilse; grilt; landlocked salmon; ouananiche; parr; unaniche
  • Canada/British Columbia: k'wolexw; sináech; st'thkway'
  • Canada/Newfoundland and Labrador: breeder; kavisilik
  • Canada/Quebec: kumaliq; saama; saamakutaak; saamarug; sâma; saumon Atlantique; saumon d'eau douce
  • Chile: salmón del Atlántico
  • Czech Republic: losos Atlantsky; losos obecný
  • Denmark: Atlanterhavslaks; Atlantisk laks; gravlaks; laks; nedfaldslaks; skællaks
  • Estonia: salmon
  • Faroe Islands: laksur; smolt
  • Finland: graavisuolattu lohi; kutenut lohi; lohi
  • Germany: Atlantischer Lachs; Atlantischer Salmon; Echter Lachs; Lachs; Las; Salm; Salmling; Wildlachs
  • Greece: solomos; solomós
  • Greenland: kapisalirksoak; kapisilik; kebleriksorsoak
  • Iceland: graflax; hoplax; lax
  • Ireland: an bradán; bradan; braden; salmon
  • Isle of Man (UK): braddan; salmon
  • Italy: salmo; salmone; salmone Atlantico; salmone del Reno
  • Japan: sake masu-rui
  • Latvia: losos
  • Netherlands: drooggezouten gekruide zalm; hengst; ijle zalm; jacobzalm; zalm
  • Norway: laks; laks Atlantisk; lax
  • Poland: losos; losos szlachetny a. Atlantycki
  • Portugal: salmao; salmâo; salmão; salmâo-do-Atlântico; salmão-do-Atlântico; sãlmao-do-Atlântico
  • Romania: somon de Atlantic
  • Slovakia: losos obycajný
  • Spain: salmó
  • Sweden: gravlax; gullspångslax; lax; vraklax
  • Turkey: alabalik Atlantik
  • UK: black salmon; common Atlantic salmon; grilse; kelt; parr; salmon; sea salmon; silver salmon
  • UK/England and Wales: eog
  • USA: sebago salmon
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): losos; salmon

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Native to the north Atlantic and rivers that flow into it, S. salar has been introduced to many parts of the world for the purposes of aquaculture (and in some locations for sport fishing or fisheries). Concerns have been raised over the negative impacts of its farming on native fish populations and the surrounding environment. Transmission of disease and hybridization with wild populations are of particular concern. Jonsson and Jonsson (2006) reviewed the interactions between cultured and wild Atlantic salmon and reported that the fitness of wild salmon was superior to that of cultured salmon in all aspects of survival and reproduction and that the lifetime reproductive success of farmed fish was only 17% that of similar-sized wild salmon. However, they concluded that as a result of ecological interaction and through density-dependent mechanisms, cultured fish may displace wild conspecifics to some extent, increase their mortality, and decrease their growth rate, adult size, reproductive output, biomass, and production. Hindar et al. (2006) modelled the future of wild salmon populations experiencing invasions of escaped farmed salmon. Simulations with a fixed intrusion rate of 20% escaped farmed salmon at spawning suggested that substantial changes take place in wild salmon populations within ten salmon generations (∼40 years). In a study conducted in Norway, Fiske et al. (2006) found a significant positive correlation between the incidence of escaped farmed salmon in the rivers at the county level and the intensity of salmon farming, measured as the number of farmed salmon in net pens, suggesting that restriction in salmon farming may reduce the impact of escapees in salmon populations nearby. Welcomme (1988) reported that compared to Salmo trutta, which is highly invasive and is implicated in the extirpation of native fish in many regions of the world, S. salar was a poor colonizer and had rarely been associated with species loss. It was one of the 100 invasive species listed in 2004 by the Oregon Invasive Species Council (Oregon Invasive Species Council, 2005), but was removed from the list in 2015 (Oregon Invasive Species Council, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Salmo
  •                                 Species: Salmo salar

Description

Top of page

The Atlantic salmon is a species of ray-finned teleost fish in the family Salmonidae with a graceful fusiform body. It is the largest species in the genus Salmo. Sea-run Atlantic salmon usually attain a larger size than do landlocked salmon (those living in entirely fresh water). Sea-run wild salmon range from 2kg to 9kg depending, largely, on fish sea age (i.e. how long they have lived at sea); the maximum published weight and age are 46.8kg and 13 years respectively (Froese and Pauly, 2018). The world record rod-caught Atlantic salmon weighed 35.9 kg and was caught in the Tana River of Norway (Renzi, 1999). The maximum attainable total length is around 150 cm for males and 120 cm for females (Froese and Pauly, 2018). (Farmed salmon are harvested at between 3kg and 6kg GWE (gutted weight equivalent), with the most common size in the range 4kg to 5kg GWE; the standard conversion factor from GWE to LWE (live weight equivalent) is a factor of 1.19 -- Marine Harvest, 2018).

As described in detail by Froese and Pauly (2018), the Atlantic salmon has an elongate, laterally compressed body with a distinct caudal peduncle. A fleshy adipose fin is present between the dorsal and forked caudal fin. The mouth extends only to the area below the rear of the eye and has well-developed teeth. The number of gill rakers may range from 17 to 24 and the number of vertebrae from 58 to 61. Small parr have 8-11 pigmented bars along each side of the body that alternate with a single row of red spots along the lateral line. These marks are lost when fish reach the smolt stage, when body colour becomes silvery and the dorsal area shows shades of green, blue and brown. Adult body colour varies, but fish are generally silver-skinned with distinct dark blue-green, cross-like spots over the body and head, and above the lateral line. The skin is protected by mucus secreted by goblet cells in the epidermis. At spawning the skin and fins thicken and the body colour of both males and females turns dark. The head of the male becomes elongated and grows a "kype" from the tip of the lower jaw, making males and females easily distinguished. (Further information on morphology from ASF, 2018; Jonsson and Jonsson, 2011; and Renzi, 1999). When compared to wild salmon, farmed salmon often have worn fins with wavy fin-rays and more spots both above and below the lateral line (Fiske, 2012).

Distribution

Top of page

Salmo salar is found in the Atlantic Ocean in the temperate and arctic zones in the northern hemisphere (ASF, 2018). It is native to the basin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from the Arctic Circle to Portugal in the eastern Atlantic, in Iceland and southern Greenland, and from the Ungava region of northern Quebec south to the Connecticut River (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Landlocked stocks are present in Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway (Kazakov, 1992) and in North America (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Atlantic salmon are farmed in a number of countries around the world, not restricted to the native range; these include the USA (Puget Sound and Maine), Canada (British Columbia, Newfoundland, New Brunswick), Chile, Australia (Tasmania), New Zealand, Ireland, the UK (Scotland), Norway, the Faeroe Islands, Russia (Murmansk and Barents Sea), and Iceland (Marine Harvest, 2018). Introductions for angling and escapes from culture have led to the establishment of wild populations in the north-east Pacific, Chile, Argentina and New Zealand; these are usually landlocked, but anadromous breeding has been recorded in British Columbia (Love et al., 2005; Welcomme, 1988).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Antarctica

French Southern TerritoriesPresentIntroduced1975FAO (2019); Froese and Pauly (2019)Kerguelen Islands; Establishment uncertain

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedFAO (2019)Establishment uncertain
IndiaPresentIntroducedFAO (2019)Probably not established; Establishment uncertain
TurkeyAbsent, Formerly presentFroese and Pauly (2010)

Europe

BelgiumPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
CyprusPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2010)for aquaculture; Not established
CzechiaPresent, Few occurrencesNativeFroese and Pauly (2019)Reported extinct in wild in 2000 despite restocking, but further specimens have been found since then
DenmarkPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
EstoniaPresentNativeAnon (1999); Froese and Pauly (2004)
Faroe IslandsPresentNativeSvetovidov (1984); Froese and Pauly (2004)
FinlandPresentNativeKoli (1990); Froese and Pauly (2004)
FrancePresentNativeKeith and Allardi (2001); Froese and Pauly (2004)
GermanyPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1968); Froese and Pauly (2004)
IcelandPresentNativeJonsson (1992); Froese and Pauly (2004)
IrelandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
Isle of ManPresentNativeSvetovidov (1984); Froese and Pauly (2004)
ItalyPresentNativeGandolfi et al. (1991); Froese and Pauly (2004)
LatviaPresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
LithuaniaPresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
NetherlandsPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
NorwayPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
PolandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
PortugalPresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
RussiaPresentNativeReshetnikov et al. (1997); Froese and Pauly (2004)
SlovakiaPresentNativeBlanc et al. (1971); Froese and Pauly (2004)
SpainPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
SwedenPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004)
SwitzerlandPresent, Few occurrencesNativeHartmann (1827); Leybold-Johnson (2008); Froese and Pauly (2010); Moore (2018)Formerly common, later became extinct; reintroduction efforts and some farming
United KingdomPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström (1974); Froese and Pauly (2004);
-Channel IslandsPresentNativeSvetovidov (1984); Froese and Pauly (2004)
-Northern IrelandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
-ScotlandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)

North America

CanadaPresentNativeRobins and Ray (1986); Froese and Pauly (2004)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedMcAllister (1990); Froese and Pauly (2004); Love et al. (2005)
GreenlandPresentNativeNielsen and Bertelsen (1992); Froese and Pauly (2004)
United StatesPresentNativeRobins and Ray (1986); Froese and Pauly (2004)
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedLove et al. (2005)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedLove et al. (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedKailola et al. (1993); Froese and Pauly (2004)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)

Sea Areas

Arctic SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
Atlantic - NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
Atlantic - NorthwestPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
Atlantic - SouthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)
Indian Ocean - AntarcticPresentIntroduced1975FAO (2019); Froese and Pauly (2019)Establishment uncertain
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly (2004)
Pacific - NortheastPresentIntroducedLove et al. (2005)
Pacific - SoutheastPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)
Pacific - SouthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly (2004)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)
ChilePresentIntroducedWelcomme (1988); Froese and Pauly (2004)

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina Canada 1904, 1970 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Australia USA 1864-1870, 1963-1964 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Brazil USA 1957 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
British Columbia Scotland 1933-1934 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Clemens and Wilby (1961)
British Columbia 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause) Yes No Love et al. (2005)
Washington 1980s Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Love et al. (2005)
Chile Germany 1935 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes No Welcomme (1988)
China USA   No No FAO (2019)
Cyprus USA 1971 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Falkland Islands UK 1960 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Finland Former USSR 1970-1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Fisheries (pathway cause)
Government Yes No FAO (2019)
Former USSR Unknown No No Holcík (1991)
Greece Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
Iceland Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
India North America 1960 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Government No No FAO (2019)
India Canada 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government No No FAO (2019)
Indian Ocean, Antarctic Europe 1975-1980 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019) To Kerguelen Islands from Denmark, Iceland and the UK
French Southern and Antarctic Territories Europe 1975-1980 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes No FAO (2019) To Kerguelen Islands from Denmark, Iceland and the UK
Indonesia Netherlands 1929 No No Welcomme (1988)
Israel Europe   Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
Italy 1866 Unknown No No Welcomme (1988)
New Zealand UK 1960-1965 Fisheries (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes Yes FAO (2019)
New Zealand North America 1960-1965 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FAO (2019)
New Zealand Germany 1960-1965 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes Yes FAO (2019)
New Zealand 1864-1910, 1960-1965 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) Yes No Welcomme (1988)
Portugal 1935 Fisheries (pathway cause)Unknown No No FAO (2019)
South Africa Scotland 1896 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown No No Moor and Bruton (1988)
Turkey Norway 1988-1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sector No No FAO (2019)
Spain Scotland Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause) No No FAO (2019)
Jordan No No FAO (2019)

Habitat

Top of page

The Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species, living in freshwater for at least the first 2 or 3 years of life before migrating to the sea. Relatively large cool rivers with extensive gravelly bottom headwaters are essential during its early life (Renzi, 1999). Smolts migrate to the sea where they may live for a number of years before returning to freshwater, but the movements of Atlantic salmon at sea are not well understood (Renzi, 1999). Tagging has shown that while some salmon wander, the great majority return to the river in which they were spawned. The species prefers cool temperatures (Bigelow et al., 1963).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Rivers / streams Principal habitat
Marine
Pelagic zone (offshore) Principal habitat

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Life History

The anadromous Atlantic salmon has a relatively complex and flexible life history that involves spawning and juvenile growth in rivers, and extensive feeding migrations at sea. As a result, Atlantic salmon go through several distinct phases that can be identified by specific changes in appearance, behaviour, physiology, and habitat requirements (Sedgwick, 1982; Jonsson and Jonsson, 2011). Several lake populations are landlocked.

In the natural environment, eggs hatch in March or April and the alevins (~ 2 cm) that emerge subsist off the attached yolk sac until reaching the fry stage, when they are ready to accept exogenous food. Fry remain buried in the gravel for about six weeks before emerging, and start feeding on plankton and small invertebrates. Emergent fry develop cryptic colouration appropriate to a riverine environment (predominantly greens, reds, yellows and browns) and camouflaging stripes along their sides, and enter what is termed the parr stage which typically lasts for 1-4 years. Parr habitat is normally riffle areas in streams characterized by adequate cover, shallow water depth, and moderate-to-fast water flow. In the spring of each year, driven by increasing daylength and increasing water temperatures, salmon parr undergo a physiological transformation called smoltification that prepares them for life in a marine habitat. Atlantic salmon smolts, approximately 15g in weight, leave rivers in the late spring and grow to adulthood in the North Atlantic basin where they remain for 1-5 years, before returning to their natal river to spawn in the early winter months. Genetically, populations are very river-specific in their attributes, which are adapted to the biotic and abiotic conditions found in a particular river.  Body growth is rapid during the marine stage and the flesh becomes pink to orange due to carotenoid pigments derived from prey such as Euphausiid shrimp.

The rearing of captive Atlantic salmon for fish farming and stock enhancement programmes mimics the life history of wild S. salar and utilises both freshwater and sea water environments. Because of the efficiencies of farm husbandry practices, the farming process accelerates the life cycle to 1 year or less in freshwater (smolts typically 4-g to 120g), with harvesting after a further 16 to 20 months of growth in sea cages.

Natural Food Sources

Top of page
Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
detritus Fry
nekton (bony fish) Adult/Fry
nekton (squids/cuttlefish) Adult/Fry
cladocerans Adult/Fry
euphausiids Adult
zoobenthos (finfish) Adult/Fry
zoobenthos (insects) Adult/Fry
zoobenthos (polychaetes) Adult
zoobentos (benthic crustaceans) Adult/Fry
terrestrial insects
molluscs

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Tolerated Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Water Tolerances

Top of page
ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Aluminium (mg/l) <0.33 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.0025 Optimum Egg from RSPCA (2018b)
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.0025 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.0025 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <10.0 Optimum Egg from RSPCA (2018b)
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <6.0 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Carbon Dioxide (mg/l) <6.0 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 7.0 Optimum Egg from RSPCA (2018b)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 7.0 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) 7.0 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Nitrate (mg/l) <50.0 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Nitrate (mg/l) <50.0 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.2 Optimum Egg from RSPCA (2018b)
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.2 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.2 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Salinity (part per thousand) 33 34 Optimum Adult
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 5 10 Optimum Broodstock
Suspended solids (mg/l) <25.0 Optimum Egg from RSPCA (2018b)
Suspended solids (mg/l) <25.0 Optimum Larval from RSPCA (2018b)
Suspended solids (mg/l) <25.0 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Water pH (pH) 6 9 Optimum Adult
Water pH (pH) 5.5 8.0 Optimum Egg From RSPCA (2018b); refers to inlet water
Water pH (pH) 5.5 8.0 Optimum Larval From RSPCA (2018b); refers to inlet water
Water pH (pH) 5.5 8.0 Optimum Fry From RSPCA (2018b); refers to inlet water
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 1.0 12.0 Optimum Larval From RSPCA (2018b). Other information indicates that more than 22°C is harmful
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 1.0 14.0 Optimum Fry from RSPCA (2018b)
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <12 16 Optimum Adult Less than -7 or more than 27°C is harmful
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 8 12 Optimum Egg RSPCA (2018b) indicates that acceptable range is 1.0 to 8.0°C

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Atlantic salmon are susceptible to a number of diseases (bacterial and viral) and parasites (arthropods, helminths and protozoa), although disease-related mortality is primarily documented for hatcheries and aquaculture facilities. The monogenean freshwater ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris (commonly known as the salmon fluke) has been implicated in the reduction of Atlantic salmon populations in the Norwegian fjords, and the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and various Caligus species are major ectoparasites of farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. Bakke and Harris (1998) note that disease epizootics in wild salmon are not commonly reported; they consider that myxozoans, furunculosis, Gyrodactylus salaris, and sea lice are the pathogens most likely to threaten wild and managed salmon stocks in future. Spawning salmon in rivers and streams are susceptible to fungal (Saprolegnia spp.) infections. Despite abundant research on pathogens of farmed salmon, little is known of their impact on wild or managed stocks and an adequate theoretical framework for salmon disease epidemiology is needed to understand and manage the role of disease in salmon conservation (Bakke and Harris, 1998).

Wild and farmed salmon are predated upon by a variety of marine mammals and birds.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture Yes Yes FAO, 2019
Fisheries Yes Yes Froese and Pauly, 2009
Hunting, angling, sport or racing Yes Yes FAO, 2019

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Atlantic salmon farming has long been controversial and its effect on the environment and on wild fisheries (particularly salmonid fisheries) is questioned by many individuals and organizations (FAO, 2018). Taranger et al. (2015) offer a comprehensive risk assessment of the impact of farmed S. salar on the environment and on wild salmon populations.

The major areas of concern can be summarised as follows:

  • Local nutrient pollution into water systems from waste feed/faeces.
  • Local chemical pollution through use of chemical treatments.
  • Effect on wild fish of escapees, through the spread of diseases, competition for food, space, and breeding partners, and genetic introgression.
  • Transmission of ectoparasites (especially sea lice, which are species of copepod in the genera Lepeophtheirus and Caligus) from farmed fish to wild fish causing increased mortality in the latter, especially of migrating smolts.
  • Issues of sustainability, since farmed salmon production relies on supplies of fishmeal and fish oil for feed production, and these are obtained from industrial fisheries.

Genetic Impact

Native salmon populations are typically genetically distinct from each other and potentially locally adapted. Farmed salmon represent a limited number of wild source populations that have had 12 generations or more of selective breeding and domestication (Hindar et al., 2006). Consequently, farmed and wild salmon differ in many traits including molecular-genetic polymorphisms, growth, morphology, life history, behaviour, physiology and gene transcription (Jonsson and Jonsson, 2006). Field experiments have demonstrated that the offspring of farmed salmon display lower lifetime fitness in the wild than wild salmon and that following introgression, there is a reduced production of genetically wild salmon and, potentially, reduced total salmon production. Introgressive hybridization was detected in half of about 150 Norwegian populations, with point estimates as high as 47%, and an unweighted average of 6.4% across 109 populations (Glover et al., 2017). The biological and ecological consequences, and the mechanisms driving population-specific impacts of introgression, remain poorly understood.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Eggs (roe)
  • Fish meal
  • Fish oil
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Whole

Materials

  • Skins/leather/fur

References

Top of page

Alabaster, J.S. , Lloyd, R., 1982. Water quality criteria for freshwater fish (2nd ed.), London, UK: Butterworths.349 pp.

Allendorf FW, Thorgaard GH, 1984. Tetraploidy and the evolution of salmonid fishes. In: Evolutionary Genetics of Fishes, [ed. by Turner BJ]. New York, USA: Plenum Press. 1-53.

Anon., 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm

ASC, 2017. ASC salmon standard v1.1 – April 2017. Utrecht, Netherlands: Aquaculture Stewardship Council.103 pp. https://www.asc-aqua.org/what-we-do/our-standards/farm-standards/the-salmon-standard/

ASF, 2018. Atlantic Salmon Federation. St. Andrews, New Brunswick, Canada: Atlantic Salmon Federation.http://www.asf.ca/main.html

Atlantic Salmon Federation, 2005. Diseases in wild Atlantic salmon. http://www.asf.ca/Overall/diseases.html

Austin, B., 2012. Infectious Disease in Aquaculture: Prevention and Control, 1st Edition, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing.560 pp.

Bakke, T. A., Harris, P. D., 1998. Diseases and parasites in wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55(Supplement 1), 247-266. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-55-S1-247

Barnes, R., King, H., Carter, C. G., 2011. Hypoxia tolerance and oxygen regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar from a Tasmanian population. Aquaculture, 318(3/4), 397-401. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848611004790 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.06.003

Beland KF, Kocik JF, 2001. Striped bass predation upon Atlantic Salmon smolts in Maine. Northeastern Naturalist, 8:267-274

Berg LS, 1962. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Volume 1. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948)

Berge, G. M., Baeverfjord, G., Skrede, A., Storebakken, T., 2005. Bacterial protein grown on natural gas as protein source in diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in saltwater. Aquaculture, 244(1/4), 233-240. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.11.017

Berntssen, M. H. G., Lundebye, A. K., Torstensen, B. E., 2005. Reducing the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in farmed Atlantic salmon by substitution of fish oil with vegetable oil in the feed. Aquaculture Nutrition, 11(3), 219-231. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=anu doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2005.00345.x

Bigelow HB, Bradbury MG, Dymond JR, Greeley JR, Hildebrand SF, Mead GW, Miller RR, Rivas LR, Schroeder WL, Suttkus RD, Vladykov VD, 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale University, USA

Blanc M, Gaudet JL, Banarescu P, Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd

Byelashov, O. A., Griffin, M. E., 2014. Fish in, fish out: perception of sustainability and contribution to public health. Fisheries (Bethesda), 39(11), 531-535. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ufsh20 doi: 10.1080/03632415.2014.967765

Carss DN, Kruuk H, Conroy JWH, 1990. Predation on adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., by otters, Lutra lutra (L.), within the River Dee system, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. J. Fish Biol., 37(6):935-944

Carter TJ, Pierce GJ, Hislop JRG, Houseman JA, Boyle PR, 2001. Predation by seals on salmonids in two Scottish estuaries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 8(3):207-225

Clemens WA, Wilby GV, 1961. Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Second edition. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull., 68:443 pp

Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Fish and Shrimp, 2011. Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp, Washington, USA: National Academies Press.392 pp. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13039

Davidson WS, Koop BF, Jones SJM, Iturra P, Vidal R, Maass A, Jonassen I, Lien S, Omholt SW, 2010. Sequencing the genome of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Genome Biology, 11, 403. http://genomebiology.com/2010/11/9/403

Davidson, J., Barrows, F. T., Kenney, P. B., Good, C., Schroyer, K., Summerfelt, S. T., 2016. Effects of feeding a fishmeal-free versus a fishmeal-based diet on post-smolt Atlantic salmon Salmo salar performance, water quality, and waste production in recirculation aquaculture systems. Aquacultural Engineering, 74, 38-51. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0144860916300504 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2016.05.004

European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 2006. Directive 2006/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on the quality of fresh waters needing protection or improvement in order to support fish life. Official Journal of the European Union, 49(L264), 20-31. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:264:0020:0031:EN:PDF

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), 2016. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture: contributing to food security and nutrition for all. In: The state of world fisheries and aquaculture: contributing to food security and nutrition for all Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).ix + 190 pp.

FAO, 2018. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Salmo salar (Linnaeus, 1758). Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Salmo_salar/

FAO, 2019. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS). Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en

Fiske P, 2012. NOBANIS - Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet: Salmo salar. Akureyri, Iceland: NOBANIS (North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species).https://www.nobanis.org/globalassets/speciesinfo/s/salmo-salar/salmo_salar.pdf (NOBANIS fact sheet no. 72)

Fiske P, Lund RA, Hansen LP, 2006. Relationships between the frequency of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in wild salmon populations and fish farming activity in Norway, 1989-2004. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Interactions between Aquaculture and Wild Stocks of Atlantic Salmon and other Diadromous Fish Species: Science and Management, Challenges and Solutions. Proceedings of an ICES/NASCO Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 18-21 October 2005.], 63(7):1182-1189. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10543139

Fjalestad, K. T., Moen, T., Gomez-Raya, L., 2003. Prospects for genetic technology in salmon breeding programmes. Aquaculture Research, 34(5), 397-406. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2109.2003.00823.x

Froese R, Pauly D, 2009. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese R, Pauly D, 2010. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese, R., Pauly, D., 2004. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese, R., Pauly, D., 2018. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese, R., Pauly, D., 2019. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Gandolfi G, Zerunian S, Torricelli P, Marconato A, eds, 1991. I pesci delle acque interne italiane. Ministero dell’Ambiente e Unione Zoologica Italiana. Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma. 616 pp

Gilbey, J., Cauwelier, E., Coulson, M. W., Stradmeyer, L., Sampayo, J. N., Armstrong, A., Verspoor, E., Corrigan, L., Shelley, J., Middlemas, S., 2016. Accuracy of assignment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to rivers and regions in Scotland and northeast England based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. PLoS ONE, 11(10), e0164327. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0164327 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164327

Gilmour KM, Perry SF, 2009. Carbonic anhydrase and acid–base regulation in fish. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212, 1647-1661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.029181

Glover, K. A., Solberg, M. F., McGinnity, P., Hindar, K., Verspoor, E., Coulson, M. W., Hansen, M. M., Araki, H., Skaala, Ø., Svåsand, T., 2017. Half a century of genetic interaction between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon: status of knowledge and unanswered questions. Fish and Fisheries, 18(5), 890-927. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-2979 doi: 10.1111/faf.12214

Grandjean, F., Verne, S., Cherbonnel, C., Richard, A., 2009. Fine-scale genetic structure of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using microsatellite markers: effects of restocking and natural recolonization. Freshwater Biology, 54(2), 417-433. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/fwb doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.2008.02116.x

Hardisty MW, 1986. Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus 1758). In: Holcík J, ed. The Freshwater fishes of Europe. Vol. 1, Part 1. Petromyzontiformes, 94-116

Hartmann GL, 1827. Helvetische Ichthyologie, oder ausführliche Naturgeschichte der in der Schweiz sich vorfindenden Fische. Zürich, Switzerland: Orell, Füßli und Compagnie

Heather J, Dixon J, Dempson B, Sheehan TF, Renkawitz MD, Power M, 2017. Assessing the diet of North American Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) off the West Greenland coast using gut content and stable isotope analyses. Fisheries Oceanography, 26(5), 555-568.

Henderson NJ, Letcher BH, 2003. Predation on stocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 60(1):32-42

Hindar K, 2004. Wild Atlantic salmon in Europe: Status and perspectives. In: Proceedings from the World Summit on Salmon, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 2003 [World Summit on Salmon, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 10-13, 2003], Burnaby, BC, Canada: Simon Fraser University. 47-52. https://www.psf.ca/sites/default/files/1273702870.pdf

Hindar, K., Fleming, I. A., McGinnity, P., Diserud, O., 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 63(7), 1234-1247. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2006.04.025

Holcík J, 1991. Fish introductions in Europe with particular reference to its central and eastern part. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48(Supplement 1):13-23

ISFA (International Salmon Farmers Association), 2016. Salmon farming: sustaining communities and feeding the world. International Salmon Farmers Association.5 pp. http://www.salmonfarming.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ISFA-Final-Report-March-16-2015.pdf

Jacobs MN, Covaci A, Schepens P, 2002. Investigation of selected persistent organic pollutants in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), salmon aquaculture feed, and fish oil components of the feed. Environmental Science & Technology, 36(13), 2797-2805.

Jonsson B, Jonsson N, 2006. Cultured Atlantic salmon in nature: a review of their ecology and interaction with wild fish. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Interactions between Aquaculture and Wild Stocks of Atlantic Salmon and other Diadromous Fish Species: Science and Management, Challenges and Solutions. Proceedings of an ICES/NASCO Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 18-21 October 2005.], 63(7):1162-1181. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10543139

Jonsson B, Jonsson N, 2011. Ecology of Atlantic salmon and brown trout, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.732 pp.

Jonsson G, 1992. Islenskir fiskar. Fiolvi, Reykjavik, 568 pp

Kailola PJ, Williams MJ, Stewart PC, Reichelt RE, McNee A, Grieve C, 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Science, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, 422 pp

Kassam, A., 2017. GM salmon hits shelves in Canada – but people may not know they're buying it . In: The Guardian . https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/aug/09/genetically-modified-salmon-sales-canada-aqua-bounty

Kazakov RV, 1992. Distribution of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in freshwater bodies of Europe. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, 23(4):461-475

Keith P, Allardi J, 2001. Atlas des poissons d’eau douce de France. Patrimoines naturels, 47. Paris, France: MNHN, 387 pp

Kjartansson H, Fivelstad S, Thomassen JM, Smith MJ, 1988. Effects of different stocking densities on physiological parameters and growth of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared in circular tanks. Aquaculture, 73(3-4):261-274

Koli L, 1990. Suomen kalat. [Fishes of Finland]. Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio. Helsinki. 357 pp

Kontali, 2018. Analyses and reports from the seafood industry. Kristiansund, Norway: Kontali.https://www.kontali.no

Leybold-Johnson I, 2008. Hope jumps at salmon's return to Switzerland. Bern, Switzerland: Swissinfo.https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/hope-jumps-at-salmon-s-return-to-switzerland/6977722

Love MS, Mecklenburg CW, Mecklenburg TA, Thorsteinson LK, 2005. Seattle, Washington, USA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division.ix +276 pp. http://lovelab.msi.ucsb.edu/checklist.html (OCS Study MMS 2005-030 and USGS/NBII 2005-001)

Lubieniecki, K. P., Jones, S. L., Davidson, E. A., Park, J., Koop, B. F., Walker, S., Davidson, W. S., 2010. Comparative genomic analysis of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, from Europe and North America. BMC Genetics, 11(105), (23 November 2010). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/11/105

Marine Harvest, 2018. Salmon Harvest Industry Handbook 2018, Bergen, Norway: Marine Harvest.112 pp. http://www.mowi.com/globalassets/investors/handbook/2018-salmon-industry-handbook.pdf

McAllister DE, 1990. A list of the fishes of Canada. Syllogeus No. 64. Nat. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ottawa, Canada

Moghadam, H. K., Poissant, J., Fotherby, H., Haidle, L., Ferguson, M. M., Danzmann, R. G., 2007. Quantitative trait loci for body weight, condition factor and age at sexual maturation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): comparative analysis with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 277(6), 647-661. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n370742302450250/?p=dc43c7bbfe52418793ee60cb43d75166&pi=3 doi: 10.1007/s00438-007-0215-3

Montevecchi WA, Cairns DK, Myers RA, 2002. Predation on marine-phase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) by gannets (Morus bassanus) in the northwest Atlantic. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 59:602-612

Moor IJ de, Bruton MN, 1988. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa. A report of the Committee for Nature Conservation Research National Programme for Ecosystem Research. Port Elizabeth, South Africa: South African Scientific Programmes Report No. 144

Moore, G., 2018. Swiss fish farmer harvests first Atlantic salmon. Edinburgh, UK: Fish Farming Expert.https://www.fishfarmingexpert.com/article/swiss-fish-farmer-harvests-first-atlantic-salmon/

Muus BJ, Dahlström P, 1968. Süßwasserfische. München: BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, 224 pp

Muus BJ, Dahlström P, 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe. London, UK: Collins, 244 pp

Nielsen JG, Bertelsen E, 1992. Fisk i grønlandske farvande. Atuakkiorfik, Nuuk, 65

Noga, E. J., 2010. Fish disease: diagnosis and treatment, (Ed. 2) . Ames, USA: Wiley-Blackwell.xv + 519 pp.

Oppedal, F., Dempster, T., Stien, L. H., 2011. Environmental drivers of Atlantic salmon behaviour in sea-cages: a review. Aquaculture, 311(1/4), 1-18. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-51J9DG4-2&_user=10&_coverDate=02%2F03%2F2011&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234972%232011%23996889998%232867749%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4972&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=40&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ab9a3c94c9eb174e7f351148a11ce8dc&searchtype=a doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.11.020

Oregon Invasive Species Council, 2005. Invasive species in Oregon report card, 2004. Oregon, USA: Oregon Invasive Species Council.https://www.oregoninvasivespeciescouncil.org/s/oisc_reportcard_2004.pdf

Oregon Invasive Species Council, 2016. History of edits to the 100 worst list. Oregon, USA: Oregon Invasive Species Council.10 pp. https://www.oregoninvasivespeciescouncil.org/s/100-Worst-List-History-of-Edits-s988.pdf

Palacios, G., Lovoll, M., Tengs, T., Hornig, M., Hutchison, S., Hui, J., Kongtorp, R. T., Savji, N., Bussetti, A. V., Solovyov, A., Kristoffersen, A. B., Celone, C., Street, C., Trifonov, V., Hirschberg, D. L., Rabadan, R., Egholm, M., Rimstad, E., Lipkin, W. I., 2010. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation of farmed salmon is associated with infection with a novel reovirus. PLoS ONE, 5(7), e11487. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0011487 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011487

Pervozvanskiy VYa, Bugayev VF, 1992. Notes on the ecology of the northern pike, Esox lucius, from the Keret River (White Sea Basin). J. Ichthyol., 32(4):116-126

Quick NJ, Middlemas SJ, Armstrong JD, 2002. The use of Anti-Predator Controls at Scottish Marine Salmon Farms. Pitlochry, Scotland, UK: Fisheries Research Services. (Scottish Fisheries Research Report Number 03/02.)

Rees H, 1967. The chromosomes of Salmo salar. Chromosome (Berlin), 21, 472-474.

Remen, M., Oppedal, F., Imsland, A. K., Olsen, R. E., Torgersen, T., 2013. Hypoxia tolerance thresholds for post-smolt atlantic salmon: dependency of temperature and hypoxia acclimation. Aquaculture, 416/417, 41-47. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848613004225 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.08.024

Renzi V, 1999. "Salmo salar". Online at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Salmo_salar.html

Reshetnikov YS, Bogutskaya NG, Vasil’eva ED, Dorofeeva EA, Naseka AM, Popova OA, Savvaitova KA, Sideleva VG, Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. Journal of Ichthyology, 37:687-736

Roberts RJ, Ellis AE, 2012. The Anatomy and Physiology of Teleosts. In: Fish Pathology (Fourth Edition), [ed. by Roberts RJ]. Oxford, OK: Wiley-Blackwell. 17-61.

Robins CR, Ray GC, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Boston USA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 354 pp

RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals), 2018. Farmed fish - key welfare issues. UK: Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.https://www.rspca.org.uk/adviceandwelfare/farm/fish/keyissues

RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals), 2018. RSPCA welfare standards for farmed Atlantic salmon. Horsham, UK: RSPCA Farm Animals Department.v + 88 pp. https://science.rspca.org.uk/sciencegroup/farmanimals/standards/salmon

Ruane NM, Jones SRM, 2013. Amoebic Gill Disease (AGD) of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Copenhagen, Denmark: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.6 pp. http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Disease%20Leaflets/Sheet%20no.%2060.pdf (ICES Identification Leaflets for Diseases and Parasites of Fish and Shellfish, Leaflet No. 60)

Santos MB, Pierce GJ, Patterson RJIAP, Ross HM, Mente E, 2001. Stomach contents of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Scottish waters. J. Mar. Ass. UK, 81:873-878

Scott WB, Crossman EJ, 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 184. 966 pp

Skilbrei OT, Wennevik V, 2006. The use of catch statistics to monitor the abundance of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout in the sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science [Interactions between Aquaculture and Wild Stocks of Atlantic Salmon and other Diadromous Fish Species: Science and Management, Challenges and Solutions. Proceedings of an ICES/NASCO Symposium, Bergen, Norway, 18-21 October 2005.], 63(7):1190-1200. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10543139

Sommerset I, Krossøy B, Biering E, Frost P, 2005. Vaccines for fish aquaculture. Expert review of vaccines, 4, 89-101.

SSPO (Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation), 2018. Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation. Perth, UK: Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation.http://scottishsalmon.co.uk/

Svetovidov AN, 1984. Salmonidae. In: Whitehead PJP, Bauchot ML, Hureau JC, Nielsen J, Tortonese E, eds. Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 1. Paris, France: UNESCO

Tacon, A. G. J., Metian, M., 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1/4), 146-158. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-4T9M60W-2&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F07%2F2008&_rdoc=25&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234972%232008%23997149998%23703096%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4972&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=44&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=9736d3f6f7c79c078c6a0ff33acfb283 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.015

Taranger, G. L., Karlsen, Ø., Bannister, R. J., Glover, K. A., Husa, V., Karlsbakk, E., Kvamme, B. O., Boxaspen, K. K., Bjørn, P. A., Finstad, B., Madhun, A. S., Morton, H. C., Svåsand, T., 2015. Risk assessment of the environmental impact of Norwegian Atlantic salmon farming. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 72(3), 997-1021. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/

The Fish Site, 2010. Genetically modified salmon: changing the future. Sheffield, UK: 5m Publishing.https://thefishsite.com/articles/genetically-modified-salmon-changing-the-future

Thodesen, J., Gjedrem, T., 2006. Breeding programs on Atlantic Salmon in Norway - lessons learned. In: WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings,(No.73) [ed. by Ponzoni, R. W., Acosta, B. O., Ponniah, A. G.]. Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish Center. 22-26. http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resources/publications

Turnbull, J., Bell, A., Adams, C., Bron, J., Huntingford, F., 2005. Stocking density and welfare of cage farmed Atlantic salmon: application of a multivariate analysis. Aquaculture, 243(1/4), 121-132. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00448486 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.09.022

Verspoor E, Stradmeyer L, Nielsen, J, 2007. The Atlantic salmon: genetics, conservation, and management, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.499 pp.

Vilata, J., Oliva, D., Sepúlveda, M., 2010. The predation of farmed salmon by South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) in southern Chile. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67(3), 475-482. http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/ doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp250

Waltz, E., 2017. First genetically engineered salmon sold in Canada. In: Scientific American . https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/first-genetically-engineered-salmon-sold-in-canada/

Weis, J.S., Physiological, Developmental and Behavioral Effects of Marine Pollution, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.433 pp.

Welcomme RL, 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 294:x + 318 pp

Young, N. D., Crosbie, P. B. B., Adams, M. B., Nowak, B. F., Morrison, R. N., 2007. Neoparamoeba perurans n. sp., an agent of amoebic gill disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). International Journal for Parasitology, 37(13), 1469-1481. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00207519 doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2007.04.018

Ytrestøyl, T., Aas, T. S., Åsgård, T., 2015. Utilisation of feed resources in production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. Aquaculture, 448, 365-374. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848615300624 doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.06.023

Zhou Li, Gui JianFang, 2017. Natural and artificial polyploids in aquaculture. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2(3), 103-111. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2468550X17300151 doi: 10.1016/j.aaf.2017.04.003

Distribution References

Anon, 1988. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. [ed. by Welcomme R L]. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. x + 318 pp.

Anon, 1991. (I pesci delle acque interne italiane). In: Ministero dell'Ambiente e Unione Zoologica Italiana, [ed. by Gandolfi G, Zerunian S, Torricelli P, Marconato A]. Roma, Instituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato. 616 pp.

Anon, 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. In: World Wide Web Electronic Publication, http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm

Anon, 2010. FishBase. In: FishBase, [ed. by Froese R, Pauly D]. http://www.fishbase.org

Blanc M, Gaudet J-L, Banarescu P, Hureau J-C, 1971. European inland water fish. London, UK: Fishing News Ltd.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

FAO, 2019. Database on Introductions of Aquatic Species (DIAS)., Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/fishery/dias/en

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD., Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. http://www.fishbase.org

Froese R, Pauly D, 2019. FishBase. In: FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Hartmann GL, 1827. (Helvetische Ichthyologie, oder ausführliche Naturgeschichte der in der Schweiz sich vorfindenden Fische)., Zürich, Switzerland: Orell, Füssli und Compagnie.

Jonsson G, 1992. Islenskir fiskar. Reykjavik, Iceland: Fiolvi. 568 pp.

Kailola PJ, Williams MJ, Stewart PC, Reichelt RE, McNee A, Grieve C, 1993. Australian Fisheries Resources., Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Resource Science, Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 422 pp.

Keith P, Allardi J, 2001. (Atlas des poissons d'eau douce de France). In: Patrimoines naturels, 47 Paris, France: MNHN. 387 pp.

Koli L, 1990. Suomen kalat. In: Fishes of Finland, Helsinki, Werner Soderstrom Osakeyhtio. 357 pp.

Leybold-Johnson I, 2008. Hope jumps at salmon's return to Switzerland., Bern, Switzerland: Swissinfo. https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/hope-jumps-at-salmon-s-return-to-switzerland/6977722

Love MS, Mecklenburg CW, Mecklenburg TA, Thorsteinson LK, 2005. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: a checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska-Yukon border (OCS Study MMS 2005-030 and USGS/NBII 2005-001)., Seattle, Washington, USA: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division. ix +276 pp. http://lovelab.msi.ucsb.edu/checklist.html

McAllister DE, 1990. A list of the fishes of Canada. Syllogeus No. 64. In: Syllogeus No. 64, Ottawa, Canada: Nat Mus Nat Sci.

Moore G, 2018. Swiss fish farmer harvests first Atlantic salmon., Edinburgh, UK: Fish Farming Expert. https://www.fishfarmingexpert.com/article/swiss-fish-farmer-harvests-first-atlantic-salmon/

Muus BJ, Dahlström P, 1968. (Süßwasserfische)., München, BLV Verlagsgesellschaft. 224 pp.

Muus BJ, Dahlström P, 1974. Collins guide to the sea fishes of Britain and North-Western Europe., London, UK: Collins. 244 pp.

Nielsen JG, Bertelsen E, 1992. (Fisk i grønlandske farvande). In: Atuakkiorfik, Nuuk, 65

Reshetnikov YS, Bogutskaya NG, Vasil'eva ED, Dorofeeva EA, Naseka AM, Popova OA, Savvaitova KA, Sideleva VG, Sokolov LI, 1997. An annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of Russia. In: Journal of Ichthyology, 37 687-736.

Robins CR, Ray GC, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America., Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. 354 pp.

Svetovidov AN, 1984. Salmonidae. In: Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, 1 [ed. by Whitehead PJP, Bauchot ML, Hureau JC, Nielsen J, Tortonese E]. Paris, France: UNESCO.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Aquaculture Stewardship Councilhttps://www.asc-aqua.org
Atlantic Salmon Federationhttp://www.asf.ca/main.html
FishBasehttp://www.fishbase.org
Food and Agriculture Organizationhttp://www.fao.org/fishery/en
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/
International Salmon Farmers Associationhttp://www.salmonfarming.org
Kontali AShttps://www.kontali.no/
Mowi ASA (formerly Marine Harvest AS)http://www.mowi.com/
North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organizationhttp://www.nasco.int/
Scottish Environmental Protection Agencyhttps://www.sepa.org.uk
Scottish Salmon Producers Organisationhttp://scottishsalmon.co.uk/

Contributors

Top of page

27/03/2018 Updated by:

Clive Talbot, consultant, UK

20/01/2010 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE, UK

Main Author
Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map