Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salmo salar
(Atlantic salmon)

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Datasheet

Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salmo salar
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Atlantic salmon
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Native to the Atlantic, S. salar has been introduced throughout the world for the purposes of aquaculture. Although a popular food fish, concerns have been raised over the negative impacts of farming this species...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
TitleAdult
CaptionSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
Copyright©Hans-Petter Fjeld/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.
AdultSalmo salar (Atlantic salmon); adult. Atlanterhavsparken, Ålesund, Norway. July 2006.©Hans-Petter Fjeld/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758

Preferred Common Name

  • Atlantic salmon

Other Scientific Names

  • Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882
  • Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795
  • Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784
  • Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865
  • Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829
  • Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866
  • Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772
  • Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832
  • Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803
  • Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912
  • Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882
  • Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1912
  • Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971
  • Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862
  • Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962
  • Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848
  • Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792
  • Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863
  • Trutta salar Linnaeus, 1758

International Common Names

  • English: bay salmon; black salmon; breeder; caplin-scull salmon; common Atlantic salmon; fiddler; grayling; grilse; grilt; kelt; kippered salmon; landlocked salmon; n. Atlantic salmon; ouananiche; ouinanish; outside salmon; parr; salmon; salmon peel; salmon, Atlantic; sea salmon; sebago salmon; silver salmon; slink; smolt; spring fish; spring salmon; winnish
  • Spanish: salmó; salmón; salmón del Atlántico
  • French: saumon Atlantique; saumon d'eau douce; tacon Atlantique
  • Russian: Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos'; losos; semga

Local Common Names

  • Belarus: losos
  • Canada: fiddler; grilse; grilt; landlocked salmon; ouananiche; parr; unaniche
  • Canada/British Columbia: k'wit'thet; k'wolexw; schaanexw; shamet skelex; shmexwalsh; sináech; sk'wel'eng's schaanexw; slhop' schaanexw; spak'ws schaanexw; st'thkway'
  • Canada/Newfoundland and Labrador: kavisilik
  • Canada/Quebec: kumaliq; saama; saamakutaak; saamarug; sâma; saumon Atlantique; saumon d'eau douce
  • Chile: salmón del Atlántico
  • Czech Republic: losos Atlantsky; losos obecný
  • Denmark: Atlanterhavslaks; Atlantisk laks; gravlaks; laks; nedfaldslaks; skællaks
  • Estonia: salmon
  • Faroe Islands: laksur; smolt
  • Finland: graavisuolattu lohi; kutenut lohi; lohi
  • Germany: Atlantischer Lachs; Atlantischer Salmon; Echter Lachs; Lachs; Las; Salm; Salmling; Wildlachs
  • Greece: solomos; solomós
  • Greenland: kapisalirksoak; kapisilik; kebleriksorsoak
  • Iceland: graflax; hoplax; lax
  • Ireland: an bradán; bradan; braden; salmon
  • Isle of Man (UK): braddan; salmon
  • Italy: filetti di salmone svedesi; salmo; salmone; salmone Atlantico; salmone del Reno; salmone kipper
  • Japan: sake masu-rui
  • Latvia: losos
  • Netherlands: drooggezouten gekruide zalm; hengst; ijle zalm; jacobzalm; zalm
  • Norway: laks; laks Atlantisk; lax
  • Poland: losos; losos szlachetny a. Atlantycki
  • Portugal: filetes de salmão àsueca; salmao; salmâo; salmão; salmâo-do-Atlântico; salmão-do-Atlântico; sãlmao-do-Atlântico
  • Romania: somon de Atlantic
  • Slovakia: losos obycajný
  • Spain: salmó
  • Sweden: gravlax; gullspångslax; lax; vraklax
  • Turkey: alabalik Atlantik
  • UK: black salmon; common Atlantic salmon; eog; grilse; kelt; parr; salmon; sea salmon; silver salmon
  • UK/England and Wales: eog
  • USA: sebago salmon
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): losos; salmon

Summary of Invasiveness

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Native to the Atlantic, S. salar has been introduced throughout the world for the purposes of aquaculture. Although a popular food fish, concerns have been raised over the negative impacts of farming this species both on native fish populations and the surrounding environment. Transmission of disease and hybridization with wild populations are of particular concern.

When compared to Salmo trutta, which is highly invasive and is implicated in the extirpation of native fish in many regions of the world, S. salar, is a poor colonizer and has rarely been associated with species loss (Welcomme, 1988). However, S. salar is one of the 100 invasive species listed in 2004 by the Oregon Invasive Species Council (Oregon Invasive Species Council, 2005). This listing is done on the basis of the possibility of invasion at anytime and would have serious economic and ecological negative effects.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Salmoniformes
  •                         Family: Salmonidae
  •                             Genus: Salmo
  •                                 Species: Salmo salar

Description

Top of page Morphology

The adult S. salar is a graceful fish with a fusiform body (Rochard and Elie, 1994) and little scales (FishBase, 2005). There are 114-130 small scales in the lateral line, 11-15 obliquely from the adipose fin to the lateral line (Jones, 2005). The body deepens rearward from a small pointed head to the deepest point under the dorsal fin, then tapers to a slender caudal peduncle which supports a spreading and slightly emarginate caudal fin (Renzi, 1999). The tip of the upper jaw reaches to the hind margin of the eye, but not beyond. Jaws in adult males become greatly hooked just before and during breeding (Jones, 2005). S. salar has a caudal fin with 19 rays (Spillman, 1961). The dorsal fin rays are 9-12, while pelvic fin rays are 8-9 and anal fin rays 7-9 (Jones, 2005). Atlantic salmon are distinguished from the Pacific salmon because they have fewer than 13 rays in the anal fin. The mouth is moderately large and the shape, length of head, and depth of body vary with each stage of sexual maturity (Renzi, 1999).

When compared to wild salmon, farmed salmon often have worn fins with wavy fin-rays and more spots both above and below the lateral line (Fiske, 2006).

Colour


The body colour of S. salar varies with age of the fish. Adults are blue-green colored with a silvery coating and a few spots in salt water; no spots are found under the lateral line (Bigelow et al., 1963; Rochard and Elie, 1994). Small 'parr', older young salmon, have 8 to 11 pigmented bars, or 'parr marks', along each side of their body, alternating with a single row of red spots along the lateral line and these markings are lost when the 'smolt' age is reached (Renzi, 1999). During the reproductive period, in freshwater, it loses the silvery guanin coat and becomes greenish or reddish brown mottled with red or orange, certainly the males (Bigelow et al., 1963; Rochard and Elie, 1994). After spawning, the 'kelts' are so dark in colour that these fish are also called 'black salmon' (Renzi, 1999). Juveniles have 8 to 12 blue-violet spots on the flanks with little red spots in-between (Rochard and Elie, 1994).

Size

Sea-run Atlantic salmon usually attain a larger size than do landlocked (those living in entirely fresh water) salmon. Sea-run salmon range from 2.3 to 9.1 kg and commercially caught fish average 4.5 to 5.4 kg. The world record rod-caught Atlantic salmon weighed 35.89 kg and was caught in the Tana River of Norway (Renzi, 1999). It is reported that the maximum attainable total length is 150 cm for males (Robins and Ray, 1986) and 120 cm for females (FishBase, 2005). The maximum published weight and age is 46.8 kg (Daymond, 1963) and 13 years (Fishbase, 2005), respectively.

Distribution

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S. salar is found in the Atlantic Ocean in the temperate and arctic zones in the northern hemisphere (Rochard and Elie, 1994). The Atlantic salmon is native to the basin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from the Arctic Circle to Portugal in the eastern Atlantic, from Iceland and southern Greenland, and from the Ungava region of northern Quebec south to the Conneticut River (Scott and Crossman, 1973). Landlocked stocks are present in Russia, Finland, Sweden and Norway (Kazakov, 1992) and in North America (Scott and Crossman, 1973). S. salar is widely distributed within Europe, ranging from Portugal in the south to Sweden and Finland in the north.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Arctic SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, NortheastPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, NorthwestPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, SouthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Indian Ocean, AntarcticIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010Kerguelen Islands
Mediterranean and Black SeaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SoutheastPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SouthwestPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

ChinaIntroduced, establishment uncertainDIAS, 2007
IndiaIntroduced, not establishedDIAS, 2007Probably not established
IndonesiaIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
IsraelIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
JordanIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
TurkeyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2010

Africa

South AfricaIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010

North America

CanadaPresentNativeRobins and Ray, 1986; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedMcAllister, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GreenlandPresentNativeNielsen and Bertelsen, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
USAPresentNativeRobins and Ray, 1986; Froese and Pauly, 2004

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
BrazilIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
ChilePresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Falkland IslandsIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010

Europe

BelgiumPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
CyprusIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
Czech RepublicPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2010
DenmarkPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
EstoniaPresentNativeAnon, 1999; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Faroe IslandsPresentNativeSvetovidov, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FinlandPresentNativeKoli, 1990; Froese and Pauly, 2004
FrancePresentNativeKeith and Allardi, 2001; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1968; Froese and Pauly, 2004
GreeceIntroduced, not establishedFroese and Pauly, 2010
IcelandPresentNativeJonsson, 1992; Froese and Pauly, 2004
IrelandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Isle of Man (UK)PresentNativeSvetovidov, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeGandolfi et al., 1991; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LatviaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
NorwayPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PolandPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
Russian FederationPresentNativeReshetnikov et al., 1997; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SlovakiaPresentNativeBlanc et al., 1971; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SpainPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwedenPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNativeHartmann, 1827; Froese and Pauly, 2010
UKPresentNativeMuus and Dahlström, 1974; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-Channel IslandsPresentNativeSvetovidov, 1984; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-England and WalesPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-Northern IrelandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-ScotlandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedKailola et al., 1993; Froese and Pauly, 2004
-TasmaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
New ZealandPresentIntroducedWelcomme, 1988; Froese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina Canada 1904 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Australia USA 1864-1870 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
Brazil USA 1957 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
British Columbia Scotland 1933-1934 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownClemens and Wilby (1961)
Chile Germany 1935 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes Welcomme (1988)
China USA   DIAS (2007)
Cyprus USA 1971 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Falkland Islands UK 1960 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Finland Former USSR 1970-1979 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Fisheries (pathway cause)
Government Yes FAO (1997)
Former USSR UnknownHolcík (1991); Holcík (1991)
Greece Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownWelcomme (1988)
Iceland Norway 1985-1987 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sectorFAO (1997)
India North America 1960 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
GovernmentDIAS (2007); FAO (1997)
India Canada 1969 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
GovernmentDIAS (2007)
Indian Ocean, Antarctic 1975 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes DIAS (2007) To Kerguelen Islands from Denmark, Iceland and the UK
Indonesia Netherlands 1929 GovernmentWelcomme (1988)
Israel Europe   Aquaculture (pathway cause) No DIAS (2007)
Italy 1866 UnknownWelcomme (1988)
New Zealand UK 1864-1910 Fisheries (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes FAO (1997)
New Zealand North America 1864-1910 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes FAO (1997)
New Zealand Germany 1864-1910 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Government Yes FAO (1997)
Portugal 1935 Aquaculture (pathway cause)UnknownFAO (1997)
South Africa Scotland 1896 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknownde and Moor Bruton (1988)
Turkey Norway 1988-1989 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Private sectorFAO (1997)

Habitat

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The Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species, living in freshwater for at least the first 2 or 3 years of life before migrating to sea. Relatively large cool rivers with extensive gravelly bottom headwaters are essential during their early life (Renzi, 1999). Smolts migrate to sea where they may live for 1 or 2 years before returning to freshwater, but the movements of Atlantic salmon at sea are not well understood (Renzi, 1999). Tagging has shown that while some salmon wander, the great majority return to the river in which they were spawned. S. salar prefer cool temperatures (Bigelow et al., 1963).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Rivers / streams Principal habitat
Marine
Pelagic zone (offshore) Present, no further details

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
detritus Adult/Fry
nekton (bonyfish) Adult/Fry
nekton (squids/cuttlefish) Adult/Fry
zoobenthos (cladocerans) Adult/Fry
zoobenthos (eupausiids) Adult
zoobenthos (finfish) Adult/Fry
zoobenthos (insects) Adult/Fry up to 77
zoobenthos (polychaetes) Adult
zoobentos (benthic crustaceans) Adult/Fry 0.6

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Aluminium (mg/l) <0.33 Optimum Adult
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) <0.01 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5.0 Optimum Fry
Nitrite (mg/l) <0.03 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) 33 34 Optimum Adult
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) Harmful Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 5 10 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) 6 9 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) Optimum Broodstock
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <10 Optimum Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <25 Optimum Fry
Water temperature (ºC temperature) >22 Harmful Larval
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <-7 27 Harmful Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) <12 16 Optimum Adult
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 8 12 Optimum Egg

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Esox lucius Predator Adult/Fry/Larval Pervozvanskiy and Bugayev, 1992
Gadus morhua Predator Adult/Fry Montevecchi et al., 2002
Halichoerus grypus Predator Adult/Fry Carter et al., 2001
Lutra lutra Predator Carss et al., 1990
Morone saxatilis Predator Adult Beland and Kocik, 2001
Morus bassanus Predator Adult/Fry Montevecchi et al., 2002
Petromyzon marinus Predator Adult/Fry Hardisty, 1986
Phoca vitulina Predator Adult/Fry Carter et al., 2001
Salmo trutta Predator Egg Berg, 1962; Henderson and Letcher, 2003
Salvelinus fontinalis Predator Fry/Larval Henderson and Letcher, 2003
Thymallus thymallus Predator Egg Berg, 1962
Tursiops truncatus Predator Adult/Fry Santos et al., 2001
Uria aalge Predator Adult/Fry Montevecchi et al., 2002

Pathway Causes

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Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stock Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Native fauna Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Atlantic salmon farming has long been controversial and its effect on the environment and on wild fisheries (particularly salmonid fisheries) is questioned by many individuals and organizations (Jones, 2005).

The major areas of concern are:

  • Local nutrient pollution into water systems by waste feed/faeces.
  • Local chemical pollution, by use of chemical treatments.
  • Effect on wild fish of escapees, through disease spread.
  • Global environmental impact and issues of sustainability, since salmon production relies on supplies of fishmeal and fish oil for feed production, from industrial fisheries.
Escapees from fish farms compete with wild fish for food, space and breeding partners; however, their success in the wild is variable and can be poorer than that of wild salmon. Jonsson and Jonsson (2006) suggest that as a result of ecological interactions and through density-dependent means, escaped cultured fish may displace wild salmon to some extent, increasing their mortality and decreasing the growth rate, adult size, reproductive output, biomass and production.
 
A number of studies have been carried out to monitor the interaction between wild and farm salmon, e.g. in the UK (Walker et al., 2006) and Norway (Fiske et al., 2006). Tagging has been used to track migration and survival of farmed salmon (Hansen, 2006; Whoriskey et al., 2006). Identification by DNA profiling may also facilitate monitoring of escapees (Skilbrei and Wennevik, 2006).
 
Impact on Biodiversity

Farmed S. salar escape and invade rivers throughout the North Atlantic annually, which has generated growing concern about their impacts on native salmon populations. However, farmed S. salar is competitively and reproductively inferior, achieving less than one third of the breeding success of the native fish (Fleming et al., 2000). Nevertheless, annual invasions of farmed S. salar have the potential for impacting on population productivity, disrupting local adaptations and reducing the genetic diversity of wild S. salar (Fleming et al., 2000). In contrary to this potential impact, the risks associated with escaped farmed Atlantic salmon in Puget are low in particular:

The expectation that Atlantic salmon will increase current disease incidences in wild and hatchery salmon is low.

The risk that escaped salmon will compete with wild salmon for food or habitat is low, considering their well known inability to succeed away from their historic range.

The risk that salmon farms will adversely impact essential habitat is low, especially when compared to other accepted activities that also occur in near shore marine environments (Waknitz et al., 2002).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Changed gene pool/ selective loss of genotypes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses List

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General

  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Cured meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Whole

References

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Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2001. Fact Sheets: Atlantic Salmon. Agriculture Canada Online. Online at http://atn-riae.agr.ca/seafood/salmon-e.htm. Accessed 16 August 2005.

Anon., 1999. Systematic list of Estonian fishes. World Wide Web Electronic Publication, 14 January 2000. http://bio.edu.ee/animals/Kalad/kalalist2.htm

Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Atlantic Salmon Federation, 2005. Diseases in wild Atlantic salmon. Online at http://www.asf.ca/Overall/diseases.html. Accessed 5 August 2005.

Balon EK, 1990. Epigenesis of an epigeneticist: the development of some alternative concepts on the early ontogeny and evolution of fishes. Guelph Ichthyol. Rev., 1:1-48.

Beland KF; Kocik JF, 2001. Striped bass predation upon Atlantic Salmon smolts in Maine. Northeastern Naturalist, 8:267-274.

Bell JG; McEvoy J; Webster JL; McGhee F; Millar RM; Sargent JR, 1998. Flesh lipid and carotenoid composition of Scottish farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(1):119-127; 50 ref.

Bell JG; Tocher DR; Henderson RJ; Dick JR; Crampton VO, 2003. Altered fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets containing linseed and rapeseed oils can be partially restored by a subsequent fish oil finishing diet. Journal of Nutrition, 133(9):2793-2801.

Bennison S, 2004. Animal welfare in the Australian aquaculture industry. In: Jones B, ed. Welfare underwater: Issues with aquatic animals. Proceedings of the 2004 RSCPA Australia Scientific Seminar held at the Telstra Theatre, Australian War Memorial Canberra, 26 February 2004, RSPCA, Australia, 11-13.

Berg LS, 1962. Freshwater fishes of the USSR and adjacent countries. Volume 1. Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd, Jerusalem. (Russian version published 1948).

Bigelow HB, 1963. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Sears Foundation for Marine Research, Denmark.

Bigelow HB; Bradbury MG; Dymond JR; Greeley JR; Hildebrand SF; Mead GW; Miller RR; Rivas LR; Schroeder WL; Suttkus RD; Vladykov VD, 1963. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part three. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale University, USA.

Billard R, 1997. Les poissons d’eau douce des rivieres de France. Identification, inventaire et repartition des 83 especes. Lausanne: Delachaux and Niestle, 192 pp.

BIM, 2005. Atlantic salmon cultivation in Ireland. Irish Sea Fisheries Board (Board Iascaigh Mhara). Online at http://www.bim.ie/templates/text_content.asp?node_id=252. Accessed 26 October 2005.

Blanc M; Gaudet JL; Banarescu P; Hureau JC, 1971. European inland water fish: a multilingual catalogue. London: Fishing News (Books) Ltd.

Bley PW, 1987. Age, growth, and mortality of juvenile Atlantic salmon in streams: a review. Biological Report, 87(4). Washington, DC, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Carss DN; Kruuk H; Conroy JWH, 1990. Predation on adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., by otters, Lutra lutra (L.), within the River Dee system, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. J. Fish Biol., 37(6):935-944.

Carter TJ; Pierce GJ; Hislop JRG; Houseman JA; Boyle PR, 2001. Predation by seals on salmonids in two Scottish estuaries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 8(3):207-225.

Clark A; Nowak BF, 1999. Field investigations of amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Tasmania. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22(6):433-443.

Clemens WA; Wilby GV, 1961. Fishes of the Pacific coast of Canada. Second edition. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada Bull., 68:443 pp.

Crockford T; Menzies FD; McLoughlin MF; Wheatley SB; Goodall EA, 1999. Aspects of the epizootiology of pancreas disease in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Ireland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 36(2):113-119.

Daymond JR, 1963. Family Salmonidae. Sears Found. Mar. Res. Mem., 1(3):457-546.

de Moor IJ; Bruton MN, 1988. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa. A report of the Committee for Nature Conservation Research National Programme for Ecosystem Research. Port Elizabeth, South Africa: South African Scientific Programmes Report No. 144.

DIAS, 2007. Entry for Salmo salar. Database on Invasive Aquatic Species (DIAS). http:// www.fao.org

Douglas-Helder GM; Saksida S; Nowak BF, 2005. Questionnaire based risk assessment amoebic gill disease (AGD) and evaluation of freshwater bathing efficacy of reared Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar. Disease of Aquatic Organisms, 63:175-184.

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20/01/2010 Updated by:

Vicki Bonham, CABI, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, OX10 8DE, UK

Main Author
Sunil Siriwardena
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, UK

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