Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sciaenops ocellatus
(red drum)

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Datasheet

Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sciaenops ocellatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red drum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. ocellatus is the second largest member of the drum family in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, reaching a maximum length of 1.5 m. The world record S. ocellatus weighs 42.7 kg. Only the black dru...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sciaenops ocellata (red drum); artwork of adult fish.
TitleArtwork of adult fish
CaptionSciaenops ocellata (red drum); artwork of adult fish.
CopyrightReleased into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Sciaenops ocellata (red drum); artwork of adult fish.
Artwork of adult fishSciaenops ocellata (red drum); artwork of adult fish.Released into the Public Domain by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service/National Digital Library - Original artwork by Duane Raver Jr.
Adult red drum.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult red drum.
Copyright©Granvil D. Treece/©Robert Adami
Adult red drum.
AdultAdult red drum.©Granvil D. Treece/©Robert Adami

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sciaenops ocellatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Preferred Common Name

  • red drum

Other Scientific Names

  • Lutjanus triangulum Lacepède, 1802
  • Perca ocellata Linnaeus, 1766
  • Sciaenops ocellata (Linnaeus, 1766)

International Common Names

  • English: channel bass; drum; redfish; spotted bass
  • Spanish: corvina; corvinón ocelado
  • French: tambour rouge

Local Common Names

  • Finland: punarumpukala
  • Norway: rødhavgjørs
  • Portugal: corvinão-de-pintas
  • Sweden: röd havsgös; röd trumfisk
  • USA: bull red; channel bass; puppy drum; rat red; red; red bass; red horse; redfish; redfish school drum; rosefish; spot; spottail bass

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. ocellatus is the second largest member of the drum family in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, reaching a maximum length of 1.5 m. The world record S. ocellatus weighs 42.7 kg. Only the black drum is larger. It is thought that the S. ocellatus can live at least 30 years. Sciaenops is Greek for perch-like marine fish and ocellatus is Latin for eye-like coloured spot (which is located on the tail). Its native range is in area 31 (Atlantic, Western Central) on the FAO Fishing Areas map. It is normally found in the Gulf of Mexico from Tuxpan, Mexico, northward to Florida, USA and around Florida, USA, northward up the Atlantic coast to the US state of Massachusetts. It has been reported as an exotic in waters off Hong Kong, China. Those fish may have come from offspring of fish that were sent to Taiwan as aquaculture research animals. A US research group shared fish for aquaculture research with a Taiwan research group in the late 1980s. It is not known how extensive the fish has populated Chinese waters since little has been published on the subject since Wilson (2004). To the author’s knowledge it is not on an alert list and not considered a threat. S. ocellatus are preyed upon by any larger piscivorous or carnivorous fish and sharks.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Perciformes
  •                         Suborder: Percoidei
  •                             Family: Sciaenidae
  •                                 Genus: Sciaenops
  •                                     Species: Sciaenops ocellatus

Description

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Chin without barbels; copper bronze body, lighter shade in clear waters; one to many larger black spots on the base of the tail. It is the only sciaenid with large spots. It can also be distinguished by the inferior, or subterminal, mouth. S. ocellatus are iridescent silvery-grey overall, with a coppery cast that is usually darker on the back and upper sides.

Fins: dorsal - 10 hard spines on the front dorsal and 1 hard on the back dorsal with 24 soft spines; anal - 2 hard spines and 8 soft spines; pored lateral line scales 45-50, gill rakers - 5 upper and 7 lower; pectoral fins are anterior to the pelvic fins (Hoese and Moore, 1977).

The young fish are silvery and adults become copper coloured with a white ventral side. All sizes have a large dark spot above the lateral line and some fish may have more than one spot.

The sex attributes of the male and female may sometimes be difficult to distinguish, but during the spawning season it is quite easy. The male S. ocellatus has two ventral openings near the anal fin, one opening is the urogenital papilla and the other is the anus. The female has three ventral openings near the anal fin, the urinary opening, oviduct and anus. Fertilization is external through dispersal of eggs and milt in the water column. Mature adults form spawning aggregations.

Distribution

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S. ocellatus are found in native habitats in the Gulf of Mexico from Tuxpan, Mexico, northward around the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic coast of Florida and up the Atlantic coast of the USA to Massachusetts.

Taiwan (ROC) has been growing redfish in ponds since 1987 (Liao et al., 1994). China on the mainland has also been growing redfish for a number of years and it has escaped into the wild and apparently established itself in waters around Hong Kong (Wilson, 2004). One aquaculture producer in Israel offers redfish fingerlings, fry and market size fish (Aquaculture Magazine, 2004).

S. ocellatus has also been introduced to the Bahamas, US Virgin Island and Ecuador from Texas for aquaculture purposes (G Treece, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA, personal communication, 2004).

Stock Enhancement for Recreational Fishing

The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department stocked S. ocellatus into a number of power plant freshwater cooling lakes in the 1970s (Lake Calivarus and Lake Braunig outside San Antonio and Lake Fairfield in East Texas). Tilapia (considered exotic), were stocked in these lakes as forage fish for the S. ocellatus. S. ocellatus grew to very large sizes (13.5 kg and more), but did not reproduce. TPWD has also been restocking selected Texas bays with advanced S. ocellatus fingerlings since 1983 to enhance a very large recreational fishing industry in Texas. The recreational fishery in Texas has been estimated to have a US $6 billion a year economic impact in the state. TPWD has a S. ocellatus fingerling production capacity of 30 million fish per year and 5 million fingerling speckled trout capacity for stock enhancement to support recreational fishing. These efforts are supported by funding from the Coastal Conservation Association (CCA) (formerly known as Gulf Coast Conservation Association - GCCA), now a Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic organization.

From 1983 to 2004, 453 million S. ocellatus fingerlings have been stocked into Texas waters. S. ocellatus are currently cultured in two hatcheries (Sea Center Texas-Lake Jackson and AEP-CCA Marine Development Center-Corpus Christi, formerly John Wilson Hatchery) along the Texas Gulf Coast, but fingerlings are cultured on three of the facilities (Perry R. Bass Marine Fisheries Research Station-Palacios, Sea Center Texas and AEP-CCA Marine Development Center). Sea Center Texas generally collects S. ocellatus brood stock from the wild between San Antonio Bay and Sabine and subsequently the fingerlings are stocked in the same general area. AEP-CCA Marine Development Center generally collects S. ocellatus broodstock from Aransas Bay and the Lower Laguna Madre and subsequently stocks the fingerlings from the same collected areas as well. The collected brood stocks are generally used for about four years. Within the four years, the brood stocks are rotated between tanks after each spawning year to diversify genetics of the captive spawners.

A number of methods have been developed through the years for tagging hatchery reared fish so they can be tracked after they are released in the wild. Metal head tags, implanted into the heads of fingerlings, were used for many years, but mortality was considered too high from the tags or the tags were not always retrievable. Staining otoliths and other more advanced methods of marking fish are now used for recognizing previously released hatchery-reared fish. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers are being used in S. ocellatus. See Gold and Turner (2002) for more information on nuclear-encoded microsatellites. See Gold et al. (1999) and Turner et al. (1998, 1999) for more information on genetics in S. ocellatus and estimating wild populations of fish.

Wild caught versus farm-raised S. ocellatus

Methods have been utilized to test for differences in wild caught fish and farm-raised fish by TPWD. Those methods can be used to determine the source of a fish found in the processing plant or restaurant.

Villarreal (1999) reported that as of 30 December 1990, the sale of wild-caught S. ocellatus was banned in the state of Texas, USA. Practical enforcement of this legislation required a method that could unambiguously discriminate between wild and farm-raised fish. A fatty acid profile database, established by analyzing muscle samples of wild S. ocellatus from four major Texas bay systems and of farm-raised S. ocellatus from two aquaculture ventures, indicated that levels of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) distinguished wild from farm-raised S. ocellatus. Since 1991, casework has included undercover operations where poaching rings were infiltrated for a year prior to busting the ring. Results of sample analyses were used to prosecute the cases in court. Both these cases involved freshwater fish species, not S. ocellatus. Because of the underlying principles of why fatty acid profile analysis works to distinguish between wild and farm-raised fish (namely, "you are what you eat"), this forensic tool is easily extended to other fish species.

As part of the regulatory authority and control of wild caught fish TPWD has also used linoleic and linolenic acids to determine if S. ocellatus have been grain fed or have been feeding on natural foods. The tests, although not foolproof, can be used as a deterrent for the sale of wild fish for human consumption. Apparently a wild caught fish will show a lower amount (say 1%) of these amino acids in the muscle than a grain-fed fish would show (say 3%). Some factors can affect these test results, mainly temperature at which the meat was held being a big factor. In the early 1990s, when the tests were just being developed, Houston Seafood Wholesaler’s Inc. was fined US $3,500 by TPWD game warden for selling wild-caught S. ocellatus (G Treece, Texas A&M University, Texas, personal communication, 2004). The first time the seafood company claimed it was innocent, but did not contest the fine. The company claimed a rice farmer had raised the oversized S. ocellatus in his rice farming reservoir on natural foods, captured them in a gill net, and had sold them to the seafood company. The fine was apparently cheaper then hiring a lawyer to fight the charges. The second time the company was fined by the same game warden, the company claimed it was innocent and decided to fight the charges. The company, HSW Inc. and one of their managers at the time (Mr Wynn Pettibone) showed proof and a paper trail that the S. ocellatus fingerlings were purchased at Redfish Unltd. hatchery in Palacios, Texas, shipped to Ecuador and grown out in a shrimp farm reservoir on natural foods by Jack Crockett. The company and Pettibone also had a bill of laden from Contintential Airlines showing that 400 kg of S. ocellatus were flown by air freight from Ecuador to Houston. The case was dropped in J.P. Court and did not go to trial. The S. ocellatus samples taken by the game warden had also come under fire because they had been taken from a garbage dumpster outside the freezer plant and were not kept at a temperature which would facilitate good testing procedures. Improvements in testing and sampling procedures have occurred since then.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Sea Areas

Atlantic, NorthwestPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Atlantic, Western CentralPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, SoutheastPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
Pacific, Western CentralPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Hong KongPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced1988 Invasive Wilson, 2004No further reports since 2004
IsraelPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Aquaculture Magazine, 2004
SingaporePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
TaiwanPresentIntroducedLiao et al., 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2004
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced Not invasive Aquaculture et al., 2007

North America

MexicoPresentNativeInstituto Nacional de la Pesca, 1994; Froese and Pauly, 2004
USAPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2004
-AlabamaPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-FloridaPresentNativeFlorida Dept. of Natural Resources, 1987
-GeorgiaPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-LouisianaPresentNativeSimmons and Breuer, 1962
-MassachusettsPresentNativeHildebrand and Schroeder, 1929
-MississippiPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-New HampshirePresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-New JerseyPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-New YorkPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-North CarolinaPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-Rhode IslandPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-South CarolinaPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954
-TexasPresentNativeSimmons and Breuer, 1962
-VirginiaPresentNativeBigelow and Schroeder, 1954

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresent only in captivity/cultivation2004Introduced1984 Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004
MartiniquePresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004
United States Virgin IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivation2004Introduced1982 Not invasive Froese and Pauly, 2004

South America

EcuadorPresentIntroducedFroese and Pauly, 2004

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hong Kong 1988 Unknown No No Wilson (2004)
Taiwan 1987 Unknown No No Liao et al. (1994)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Brackish
 
Lagoons Principal habitat Natural
Lagoons Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Marine
 
Inshore marine Principal habitat Natural
Inshore marine Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceFood Source DatasheetLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
copepods, rotifers and other zooplankton and small shrimp Fry/Larval 99
Predates crabs, sea lice or squilla, shrimp and other animals on sea bottom. Adult/Broodstock 100

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 38
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 - 10

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Ammonia [unionised] (mg/l) 0.3 Harmful Fry <0.1 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) <150 Harmful Adult 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) <150 Harmful Broodstock 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) <150 Harmful Egg 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) <150 Harmful Larval 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) <150 Harmful Fry 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) >500 Optimum Adult 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) >500 Optimum Broodstock 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) >500 Optimum Egg 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) >500 Optimum Larval 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Chloride (mg/l) >500 Optimum Fry 2,000 - 20,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 Optimum Fry
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) >5 (saturated) Optimum Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <1.5 Harmful Adult
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <1.5 Harmful Broodstock
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Egg
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Larval
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l) <3 Harmful Fry
Hardness (mg/l of Calcium Carbonate) >100 Optimum Adult
Salinity (part per thousand) <30 Harmful Broodstock 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) <30 Harmful Egg 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) 25 36 Optimum Fry 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 36 Optimum Adult 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 36 Optimum Broodstock 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 36 Optimum Egg 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Salinity (part per thousand) 32 36 Optimum Larval 10,000 - 35,000 mg/L desired level in ponds
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) <20 Harmful Broodstock
Spawning temperature (ºC temperature) 26 28 Optimum Broodstock
Water pH (pH) <7 Harmful Adult range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) <7 Harmful Broodstock range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) <7 Harmful Fry range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) <7.8 Harmful Egg range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) <7.8 Harmful Larval range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Adult range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Broodstock range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Egg range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Larval range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water pH (pH) 8 Optimum Fry range 7-9 in ponds is normal
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Adult +/- 2 °C
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Broodstock +/- 2 °C
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Egg +/- 2 °C
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Larval +/- 2 °C
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 28 Optimum Fry +/- 2 °C

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Callinectes sapidus Egg/Fry/Larval

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has high genetic variability
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

References

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Aguirre P, Gatlin DMIII, 1999. Dietary vitamin C requirement of red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 5(4):247-249; 13 ref

Alderman DJ, 1986. Whirling disease chemotherapy. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists, 6(2):38-39

Alsop FJ, 2004. East Tennessee State University. Online at www.etsu.edu/biology/Alsop/Protozoans.pdf. Accessed 27 July 2004

Aquaculture Magazine, 2004. Buyer’s Guide and Industry Directory. 33rd Annual Edition. Asheville, North Carolina, 28802, USA

Aquaculture Magazine, 2007. Buyer's Guide , Industry Directory. 36th Annual Edition, 32(6). Asheville, North Carolina, 28802, USA 43,174

Aquaculture Network Information Center, 2004. Online at http://aquanic.org/beginer/marinefish/marinefish.htm. Accessed 27 July 2004

Arnold CR, 1988. Controlled year-round spawning of Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus in captivity. In: Arnold CR, Holt GJ, Thomas P, eds. Red drum Aquaculture. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Culture of Red drum and Other Warm Water Fishes, Contributions in Marine Science Supplement to vol. 30, Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, Texas, 65-70

Arnold CR, Wakeman JM, Williams TD, Treece GD, 1978. Spawning of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) first time in captivity. Aquaculture, 15:301-302

Bass RJ, Avault JW Jr, 1975. Food habits, length-weight relationships, condition factor, and growth of juvenile Red drum, Sciaenops ocellata, in Louisiana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 104:35-45

Bigelow HB, Schroeder WC, 1954. US Fish. Wildl. Serv. Fish. Bull., 53(74):1-577

Boren RS, Gatlin DMIII, 1995. Dietary threonine requirement of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 26(3):279-283

Brown PB, Davis DA, Robinson EH, 1988. An estimate of the dietary lysine requirement of juvenile Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 19:109-112

Craig SR, Arnold CR, Holt GJ, 1994. The effects of enriching live foods with highly unsaturated fatty acids on the growth and fatty acid composition of larval red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 25(3):424-431

Craig SR, Gatlin DMIII, 1992. Dietary lysine requirement of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 23(2):133-137

Craig SR, Gatlin DMIII, 1995. Coconut oil and beef tallow, but not tricaprylin, can replace menhaden oil in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) without adversely affecting growth or fatty acid composition. Journal of Nutrition, 125(12):3041-3048; 28 ref

Craig SR, Gatlin DMIII, 1996. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Journal of Nutrition, 126(6):1696-1700

Craig SR, Gatlin DMIII, 1997. Growth and body composition of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets containing lecithin and supplemental choline. Aquaculture, 151(1/4):259-267; 21 ref

Craig SR, Neill WH, Gatlin DMIII, 1994. Effect of dietary lipid and environmental salinity on growth, body composition, and cold tolerance of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 14(1):49-61

Daniels WH, Robinson EH, 1986. Protein and energy requirements of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 53(3/4):243-252

Davis DA, Jirsa D, Arnold CR, 1995. Evaluation of soybean proteins as replacements for menhaden fish meal in practical diets for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 26(1):48-58; 37 ref

Davis DA, Lazo JP, Arnold CR, 1999. Response of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to practical diets supplemented with medium chain triglycerides. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 21(3):235-247; 23 ref

Davis DA, Robinson EH, 1987. Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 18:129-136

Diamant A, 1998. Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Sciaenidae), a recent introduction to Mediterranean mariculture, is susceptible to Myxidium leei (Myxosporea). Aquaculture, 162(1/2):33-39

Ellis SC, Reigh RC, 1991. Effects of dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels on growth and body composition of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.. Aquaculture, 97(4):383-394

Fajardo E, 2004. Effect of Vibrio anguillarum endotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism and cortisol actions in Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University

Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, 1987. Now the Dept. of Environmental Protection. Online at www.dep.state.fl.us/law/. Accessed 3 August 2004.

Florida Tech Today Online, 2004. A publication of the Florida Institute of Technology. Online at www.fit.edu/newsroom/archives/FTTF01/facbriefs.html. Accessed 26 July 2004

Fortuna Sea Products Inc., 2004. Online at http://www.fortunasea.com/pages/pd3_update.htm. Accessed 28 July 2004.

Froese R, Pauly D, 2004. FishBase DVD. Penang, Malaysia: Worldfish Center. Online at www.fishbase.org

Gatlin DM, MacKenzie DS, Craig SR, Neill WH, 1992. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on red drum juveniles in waters of various salinities. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 54(4):220-227

Gatlin DMIII, O'Connell JP, Scarpa J, 1991. Dietary zinc requirement of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture, 92(2/3):259-265

Gaylord TG, Gatlin DMIII, 1996. Determination of digestibility coefficients of various feedstuffs for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 139(3/4):303-314; 36 ref

Gold JR, Richardson LR, Turner TF, 1999. Temporal stability and spatial divergence of mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies in Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) from coastal regions of the western Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology, 133:593-602

Gold JR, Turner TF, 2002. Population structure of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, as inferred from variation in nuclear-encoded microsatellites. Marine Biology, 140(2):249-265

Goodyear CP, 1989. Status of the Red Drum Stocks of the Gulf of Mexico Report for 1989

Hildebrand SF, Schroeder WC, 1929. Fishes of Chesapeake Bay. Bull. US Bur. Fish. XLII: 1-275

Hoese HD, Moore RH, 1977. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico-Texas Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. Texas A&M University Press. College Station, Texas and London

Holt J, 1990. Growth and development of Red drum eggs and larvae. In: Red drum Aquaculture, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 46-50

Holt SA, 2002. Intra- and inter-day variability in sound production by Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) at a spawning site. Bioacoustics, 12:227-228

Instituto Nacional de la Pesca, 1994. Atlas pesquero de México. Instituto Nacional de la Pesca, 234 pp

Johnson GD, 1978. Developemnt of Fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight-An Atlas of Egg, Larval and Juvenile Stages. Volume IV Carangidae through Ephippidae. FWS/OSB-78/12. Fish and Wildlife Service. US Department of the Interior

Landsberg JH, 1993. Kidney myxosporean parasites in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (Sciaenidae) from Florida, USA, with a description of Parvicapsula renalis n. sp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 17(1):9-16

Liao IC, Su MS, Hsieh LS, 1994. Spontaneous spawning of Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in Taiwan. In: Chou LM et al., eds. The 3rd Asian Fisheries Forum. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society, 211-214

Lochmann RT, Gatlin DMIII, 1993. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 12(3):221-235; 50 ref

Lochmann RT, Gatlin DMIII, 1993. Evaluation of different types and levels of triglycerides, singly and in combination with different levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters in diets of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.. Aquaculture, 114(1/2):113-130; 34 ref

Matlock GC, 1990. The life history of Red drum. In: Red drum Aquaculture, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, College Station, Texas, pp. 1-21

McGoogan BB, Gatlin DMIII, 1997. Effects of replacing fish meal with soybean meal in diets for red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and potential for palatability enhancement. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 28(4):374-385; 32 ref

McGoogan BB, Gatlin DMIII, 1998. Metabolic requirements of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, for protein and energy based on weight gain and body composition. Journal of Nutrition, 128(1):123-130; 23 ref

McGoogan BB, Gatlin DMIII, 1999. Dietary manipulations affecting growth and nitrogenous waste production of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus I. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels. Aquaculture, 178(3/4):333-348; 37 ref

McGoogan BB, Gatlin DMIII, 2000. Dietary manipulations affecting growth and nitrogenous waste production of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus II. Effects of energy level and nutrient density at various feeding rates. Aquaculture, 182(3/4):271-285

McGoogan BB, Reigh RC, 1996. Apparent digestibility of selected ingredients in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) diets. Aquaculture, 141(3/4):233-244; 40 ref

Meilahn CW, Davis DA, Arnold CR, 1996. Effects of commercial fish meal analogue and menhaden fish meal on growth of red drum fed isonitrogenous diets. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 58(2):111-116; 18 ref

Moon HY, Gatlin DM III, 1989. Amino acid nutrition of the Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus): determination of limiting amino acids and development of a suitable amino acid test diet. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Feeding and Nutrition in Fish, Toba, Japan, pp. 201-208

Moon HY, Gatlin DMIII, 1991. Total sulfur amino acid requirement of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.. Aquaculture, 95(1-2):97-106; 37 ref

Moon HYL, Gatlin DMIII, 1994. Effects of dietary animal proteins on growth and body composition of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 120(3/4):327-340

NRC (National Research Council), 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Washington, DC, USA: National Academy Press, 114 pp

Overstreet RM, 1983. Aspects of the Biology of the Red drum, Sciaenops ocellata, in Mississippi. Gulf Research Reports Supplement, 1:45-68

Pattillo ME, Czapla TE, Nelson DM, Monaco ME, 1997. Distribution and abundance of fishes and invertebrates in Gulf of Mexico estuaries, Volume II: Species life history summaries. ELMR Rep. No. 11. NOAA/NOS strategic environmental assessments division, Silver Springs, MD. 377p

Porter CW, Maciorowski AF, 1984. Spotted seatrout fingerling production in saltwater ponds. Journal of the World Mariculture Society, 15:222-232

Regan RE, 1985. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico): Red drum Biological Report 82:11-36

Reigh RC, Ellis SC, 1992. Effects of dietary soybean and fish-protein ratios on growth and body composition of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed isonitrogenous diets. Aquaculture, 104(3/4):279-292

Robinson EH, 1988. Nutritional requirements of Red drum: A review. In: Arnold CR, Holt GJ, Thomas P, eds. Red drum Aquaculture. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Culture of Red drum and Other Warm Water Fishes, Contributions in Marine Science Supplement to vol. 30, Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, Texas, 11-20

Rowan K, 1989. Mortality of larval Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) associated with a Ptychodiscus brevis red tide. Contr. Mar. Sci., 31:137-146

Sandifer PA, Hopkins JS, Stokes AD, Smiley RD, 1993. Experimental pond grow-out of Red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in South Carolina. Aquaculture, 118:217-228

Serrano JA, Nematipour GR, Gatlin DMIII, 1992. Dietary protein requirement of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and relative use of dietary carbohydrate and lipid. Aquaculture, 101(3/4):283-291; 25 ref

Simmons EG, Breuer JP, 1962. A study of redfish, Sciaenops ocellata Linnaeus, and black drum, Pogonias cromis Linnaeus. Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci., University of Texas 8:184-211

Sorgeloos P, Persoone G, 1975. Technological improvements for the cultivation of invertebrates as food for fishes and crustaceans. 2. Hatching and culturing of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L. Aquaculture, 6(4):303-317

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, 2004. Online at www.tceq.state.tx.us/index.html. Accessed 27 July 2004

Thoman ES, Davis DA, Arnold CR, 1999. Evaluation of growout diets with varying protein and energy levels for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 176(3/4):343-353; 19 ref

Treece GD, 1994. The Production of Live-Food Organisms for Fishes. In: Nash CE, Novotny AJ, eds. World Animal Science Series-Production of Aquatic Animals-Fishes. Elsevier Science Publishers, 369-382

Treece GD, 2000. Artemia Production for Marine Larval Fish Culture. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication #702. USDA. Online at www.msstate.edu/dept/srac/fslist.htm. Accessed 27 July 2004

Treece GD, Davis DA, 2000. Culture of Small Zooplankters for the Feeding of Larval Fish. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publication #701. USDA. Online at www.msstate.edu/dept/srac/fslist.htm. Accessed 27 July 2004. This publication has been published in Chinese by the American Soybean Association

Tucker JWJr, Lellis WA, Vermeer GK, Roberts DEJr, Woodward PN, 1996. The effects of experimental starter diets with different levels of soybean or menhaden oil on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture, 149(3/4):323-339; 44 ref

Turner TF, Richardson LR, Gold JR, 1998. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in Red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Molecular Ecology, 7:1771-1773

Turner TF, Richardson LR, Gold JR, 1999. Temporal genetic variation of mitochondrial DNA and the female effective population size of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Molecular Ecology, 8(7):1223-1229

Villarreal BA, 1999. Law Enforcement Forensic Specialist, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. "A ForensicTool: Using Fatty Acid Profile Analysis To Distinguish Wild From Farm-raised Fish". Abstract in Northwest Assoc. of Forensic Scientists, Fall ‘99 presentations. Online at www.nwafs.org/fall99.htm. Accessed 27 July 2004

Williams CD, Robinson EH, 1988. Response of red drum to various dietary levels of menhaden oil. Aquaculture, 70(1-2):107-120; 53 ref

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Wilson RP, Poe WE, 1985. Relationship of whole body and egg essential amino acid patterns to amino acid requirement patterns in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 80B:385-388

Wohlschlag NS, Maotang L, Arnold CR, 1990. Raising food organisms for intensive larval culture: II. Rotifers. In: Red drum Aquaculture, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, College Station, Texas, 66-70

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
combat-fishing.comhttp://www.combat-fishing.com
Fish 4 Funhttp://www.fish4fun.com
Fish Sounds Collection of Joe Luczkovichhttp://drjoe.biology.ecu.edu
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
National Invasive Species Information Centerhttp://www.iinvasivesinfo.gov/
Southern Regional Aquaculture Centre, Mississippi State Universityhttp://www.msstate.edu/dept/srac/
US Food and Drug Administrationhttp://vm.cfsan.fda.govIncludes examples of HACCP planning

Organizations

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USA: Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council (FLEPPC), Florida, http://www.fleppc.org/

USA: Gulf and South Atlantic Regional Panel on Aquatic Invasive Spcies, web site, http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov

USA: Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, wesite, http://www.icsu-scope.org/downloadpubs/scope37.html

USA: US Forest Service International Programs News, website, http://www.fs.fed.s/global/news/oldnewsletters/september99/welcome.htm

Contributors

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15/10/2007 Updated by:

Granvil Treece, Texas A&M University, Texas Sea Grant College Program, 2700 Earl Rudder FRWY South, Suite 1800, College Station, Texas 77845, USA

Main Author
Granvil Treece
Texas A&M University, Texas Sea Grant College Program, 2700 Earl Rudder FRWY South, Suite 1800, College Station, Texas 77845, USA

Joint Author
Robert Adami

Distribution Maps

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