Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apple mosaic virus
(chestnut mosaic)

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Datasheet

Apple mosaic virus (chestnut mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apple mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chestnut mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Bromoviridae
  •         Genus: Ilarvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleVein yellowing induced by ApMV in almond
Caption
CopyrightG.P. Martelli
Vein yellowing induced by ApMV in almondG.P. Martelli

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apple mosaic virus

Preferred Common Name

  • chestnut mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • Apple mosaic ilarvirus
  • Birch line pattern virus
  • Birch ringspot virus
  • Dutch plum line pattern virus
  • European plum line pattern virus
  • Hop A virus
  • Hop virus A
  • Hop virus C
  • Horsechestnut yellow mosaic virus
  • Mountain ash variegation virus
  • Rose mosaic virus

International Common Names

  • English: apple infectious variegation virus; peach line pattern; plum European line pattern; plum line pattern virus; rose infectious chlorosis virus; rose mosaic
  • Spanish: virus del mosaico del manzano
  • French: virus de la mosaïque du pommier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Apfelmosaikvirus; Apfelmosaik-Virus
  • Italy: virus del mosaico del melo

EPPO code

  • APMV00 (Apple mosaic ilarvirus)

Subspecies

  • Mild apple mosaic virus
  • Severe apple mosaic virus

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Bromoviridae
  •                 Genus: Ilarvirus
  •                     Species: Apple mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentGuseinov, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentIslam et al., 2010
ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-GansuPresentWang and Hong, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentWang and Hong, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentWang and Hong, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentWang and Hong, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentRuan et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-YunnanPresentLi et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentRaychaudhuri et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentBhardwaj et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentSingh et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentKanno et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentSano et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
JordanWidespreadEPPO, 2014
LebanonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentYildizgordu and Hurigil, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Akbas and Degirmenci, 2010; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentRouag et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentBouani et al., 2004; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadvan der Walt & Engelbrecht, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
TunisiaRestricted distributionZeramdini et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Mahfoudhi et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaWidespreadHardcastle and Gotlieb, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AlbertaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
MexicoPresentCardenas Alonso, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
USAWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AlabamaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-AlaskaPresentRobertson, 2012; EPPO, 2014
-ArizonaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentHampton, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-DelawareWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentManners, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoWidespreadKlein and Husfloen, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IndianaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-IowaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-KansasWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-KentuckyWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MaineWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsWidespreadMakarski and Agrios, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MichiganWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MissouriPresentMillikan, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-MontanaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-NevadaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshireWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New JerseyWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New YorkWidespreadWong et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OhioWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-OregonWidespreadPostman and Cameron, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-PennsylvaniaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-South CarolinaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-TennesseeWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-TexasWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-UtahWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-VermontWidespreadGotlieb, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-VirginiaWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WashingtonWidespreadCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WisconsinWidespreadGotlieb and Berbee, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentHampton, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Santa CatarinaPresentLeite and Bleicher, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ChilePresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UruguayPresentTozzi et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentMyrta et al., 2004
AustriaRestricted distribution****Knapp et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentSemenas and Koukharchik, 2000; EPPO, 2014
BelgiumPresentWelwaert & Samyn, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaRestricted distribution196*Topchiiska, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
CyprusPresentEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentSvoboda, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentAlbrechtova et al., 1979
DenmarkPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FinlandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentMarenaud and Germain, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GermanyRestricted distribution****Gruntzig et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentVarveri and Bem, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distribution1951CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadSavino et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentKilevits and Miltyn'sh, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentBos, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
NorwayWidespread****CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentZawadzka, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
PortugalPresentCastilho, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentNicolaescu, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Central RussiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentPaulechova, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentTurk, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SpainRestricted distributionLlacer et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distribution****Ryden, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
UKWidespread****Sweet and Campbell, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentVoronin & Kartausova, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2001

Oceania

AustraliaPresentMcLean and Revill, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentJohnstone et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentWood et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2001; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Akbas B; Degirmenci K, 2010. First report from Turkey of European plum line pattern caused by Apple mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 94(5):641. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Albrechtova L; Chod K; Fencl J, 1979. Nachweis des Apple mosaic virus und des Tobacco necrosis virus in Hopfen. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 94:45-55.

Aramburu JM; Rovira M, 1995. Effect of apple mosaic virus (ApMV) on the growth and yield of "Negret" hazelnut. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:565-568; 10 ref.

Barba M, 1986. Detection of apple mosaic and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses in almond by ELISA. Archiv fnr Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 22(4):279-282

Bhardwaj SV; Khosla K; Modgil M; Sharma DR, 1994. Standardization of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and penicillinase (PNC) based indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of apple mosaic virus from Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Virology, 10(1):7-12

Bos L, 1976. Symptom expression and variation of rose mosaic. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(6):239-249

Bouani A; Al-Rwahnih M; Ghanem-Sabanadzovic NA; Alami I; Zemzami M; Myrta A; Savino V, 2004. A preliminary account of the sanitary status of stone-fruit trees in Morocco. Bulletin OEPP, 34(3):399-402.

Bradford FC; Joly L, 1933. Infectious variegation in the apple. Journal of Agricultural Research, 46:901-908.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Apple mosaic virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 354. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cambra M; Olmos A; Asensio M; Esteban O; Candresse T; Gorris MT; Boscia D, 1998. Detection and typing of Prunus viruses in plant tissues and in vectors by print and spot-capture PCR, heminested-PCR and PCR-ELISA. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:257-263; 14 ref.

Cambra M; Olmos A; Candresse T; Gorris MT, 1997. Detection of prunus viruses by print-capture PCR. Bulletin OEPP, 27(4):535-537; 5 ref.

Candresse T; Kofalvi SA; Lanneau M; Dunez J, 1998. A PCR-ELISA procedure for the simultaneous detection and identification of prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV) and apple mosaic (ApMV) ilarviruses. Acta Horticulturae, No. 472:219-225; 21 ref.

Cardenas-Alonso MR, 1994. Virus diseases of ornamentals in Mexico, and management alternatives. Revista Chapingo. Serie Horticultura, 1(1):124-130

Castilho MB, 1982. Virus diseases of apple in Northern Portugal. Garcia de Orta, Estudos Agronomicos, 9(1/2):271-273

De Sequeira OA, 1967. Purification and serology of an apple mosaic virus. Virology, 31:314-322.

Desvignes JC, 1999. Maladies a Virus des Arbres Fruitiers. Editions Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Fruits et LTgumes, Paris.

Dhingra KL, 1972. Transmission of apple mosaic by natural root grafting. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 29:348-350.

Digiaro M; Savino V, 1992. Role of pollen and seeds in the spread of ilarviruses in almond. Advances in Horticultural Science, 6(3):134-136

Eppler A, 1992. Studies on the transmission of hop viruses by dodder, Cuscuta spp. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(2a):341-349

Eppler A, 1998. Some remarks on the seed transmissibility of hop viruses. Proceedings 50th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent 1998, 913-916.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fidan n, 1994. Indexing of apple trees for apple mosaic virus, apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus by ELISA. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 23(3):127-132; 13 ref.

Francki RIB, 1985. The viruses and their taxonomy. In: Francki RIB, ed. The Plant Viruses; Vol. 1. Polyhedral Virions with Tripartite Genomes. New York, USA; London, UK: Plenum Press, 1-18.

Fulton RW, 1952. Mechanical transmission and properties of rose mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 42:413-416.

Fulton RW, 1967. Purification and serology of rose mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 57:1197-1201.

Fulton RW, 1968. Serology of viruses causing cherry necrotic ringspot, plum line pattern, rose mosaic and apple mosaic. Phytopathology, 58:635-638.

Fulton RW, 1972. Apple mosaic virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 83. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists, 4 pp.

Fulton RW, 1981. Ilarviruses In: Kurstak E, ed. Handbook of Plant Virus Infections and Comparative Diagnosis. North Holland, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 377-421.

Fulton RW, 1983. Ilarvirus Group. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 275. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists, 3 pp.

Garrett RG; Cooper JA; Smith PR, 1985. Virus epidemiology and control. In: Francki RIB, ed. The Plant Viruses; Vol. 1. Polyhedral Virions with Tripartite Genomes. New York, USA; London, UK: Plenum Press, 269-297.

Gotlieb AR, 1975. Apple mosaic virus infecting yellow birch in Vermont. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 2:97.

Gotlieb AR; Berbee JG, 1973. Line pattern of birch caused by apple mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 63:1470-1477.

Gruntzig M; Fuchs E, 1988. Comparison of different methods for detecting prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRV), prune dwarf virus (PDV) and apple mosaic virus (ApMV) in plum trees. Zentralblatt fnr Mikrobiologie, 143(1):25-37

Gruntzig M; Fuchs E; Pfeilstetter E; Kai BA; Otto F, 1994. Investigation on the distribution of mechanically transmissble viruses in trees of pome and stone fruits. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 29(3):217-248

Guseinov IN, 1975. Apple mosaic in Azerbaijan. Zashchita Rastenii, No.10:55

Halk EL; Hsu HT; pbig J; Franke J, 1984. Production of monoclonal antibodies against three ilarviruses and alfalfa mosaic virus and their use in serotyping. Phytopathology, 74(3):367-372

Hampton RO, 1988. Health status (virus) of native North American Humulus lupulus in the natural habitat. Journal of Phytopathology, 123(4):353-361

Hardcastle T; Gotlieb AR, 1980. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] for the detection of apple mosaic virus in yellow birch [Betula alleghaniensis]. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 10(3):278-283

Howell WE; Parish CL; Mink GI, 1990. Apple mosaic. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS, eds. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society Press, 77.

Hunter JA; Chamberlain EE; Atkinson JD, 1958. Note on the transmission of apple mosaic by natural root grafting. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 1:80-82.

Imed A; Boscia D; Boari A; Saldarelli P; Digiaro M; Savino V, 1997. A comparison of apple mosaic virus isolates from prunus trees and production of specific monoclonal antibodies. Bulletin OEPP, 27(4):563-564.

Islam MM; Alam A; Rahman QA; Moinuddin FM; Kabir MH, 2010. The diseases of rose at Bangladesh agricultural university campus, Mymensingh. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 6(3):15-20. http://gscience.gurpukur.com/product_info.php?cPath=6_160_174&products_id=977&osCsid=a67f963b6bef7c008e4e2e456f81a687

Johnstone GR; Munro D; Brown GS; Skotland CB, 1995. Serological detection, occurrence and spread of ilarviruses in temperate fruit crops, hops and roses in Tasmania. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:132-135; 12 ref.

Kanno Y; Yoshikawa N; Takahashi T, 1993. Some properties of hop latent and apple mosaic viruses isolated from hop plants and their distribution in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 59(6):651-658

Kilevits MA; Miltyn'sh GE, 1977. Raising of healthy virus-free apple planting material in Latvian SSR. Teknologyia Vyrashchivaniya Bezvirusnogo Posadochnogo Materiala Plodovykh Kultur i Vingrada, 19-23.

Klein RE; Husfloen SD, 1995. Incidence of five viruses in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease, 79(4):425

Knapp E; Hanzer V; Weiss H; CGmara Machado Ada; Weiss B; Wang Q; Katinger H; Laimer da CGmara Machado M, 1995. New aspects of virus elimination in fruit trees. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:409-418; 29 ref.

Leite GB; Bleicher J, 1993. Viruses and mycoplasmas of apples in the state of Santa Catarina. Agropecuaria Catarinense, 6(3):21-24

Li F; Chen JL; Yang GH; Cai H; Kong BH; Chen HR, 2009. First report of Apple mosaic virus infecting rose in Yunnan, China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(1):237. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Llacer G; Cambra M; Camarsa E; Gorris MT, 1997. Viruses infecting almond trees in region of Valencia. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 27:551-553.

Mahfoudhi N; El-Air M; Salleh W; Moujahed R; Djelouah K, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of pome fruit viruses in Tunisia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 52(1):136-140. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Makarski JS Jr; Agrios GN, 1973. Respiration, organic acid, and sugar composition of apple fruits collected from apple mosaic virus- or russet ring virus-infected trees. Phytopathology, 63(12):1483-1488

Manners MM, 1985. The rose mosaic heat therapy program at Florida Southern College. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 98:344-347

Marenaud C; Germain E, 1975. Hazel mosaic. Annales de Phytopathologie, 7(2):133-145

Martelli GP; Savino V, 1997. Infectious diseases of almond with special reference to the Mediterranean area. Bulletin OEPP, 27(4):525-534; 3 pp. of ref.

McLean GD; Revill P, 1989. Virus status of temperate fruit in Australia. Acta Horticulturae, 240:51-53

McMorran JP; Cameron HR, 1983. Detection of 41 isolates of necrotic ringspot, apple mosaic, and prune dwarf viruses in Prunus and Malus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plant Disease, 67(5):536-538

Millikan DF, 1982. Virus diseases of shade and ornamental trees. Arboricultural Journal, 6(3):195-203

Myrta A; Terlizzi Bdi; Stamo B; Al-Rwahnih M; Savino V; Carraro L, 2004. A preliminary account of the presence of pome fruit viruses in Albania. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Temperate Fruit Crops: Fruit Tree Diseases, Valencia, Spain, 21-25 July, 2003.], No.657:55-58. http://www.actahort.org

Navarro L; Jußrez J; Llßcer G; Arregui JM, 1997. Sanitation techniques for almond. Bulletin OEPP, 27(4):569-570.

Nicolpscu M, 1972. Studies on apple mosaic virus in Rumania. I. Characteristics of a spherical virus isolated from the variety Jonathan. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Botanica, 24(6):533-536

Otto S; Fuchs E; Kegler K; Gruntzig M; Meyer U, 1990. Nachweis quantitativer Resistenz bei Apfel gegen das Apfelmoaic-Virus (apple mosaic virus). Archiv fnr Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 26:525-533.

Pallßs V; Sßnchez-Navarro JA; Dfez J; Desvignes JC; Rowhani A; Sßnchez-Pina MA, 1995. Characterization and genomic organization of apple mosaic ilarvirus. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:100-108; 17 ref.

Pandey BN; Sindhan GS; Singh BE, 1972. Note on the effect of heat treatment on the inactivation of some temperate-fruit viruses (hot water treatment). Progressive Horticulture, 4(2):53-58

Pasquini G; Barba M, 1991. Production and application of monoclonal antibodies against apple mosaic virus. Petria, 1(1):31-36

Paulechova K, 1978. Distribution of virus and mycoplasma-like diseases of some trees of the family Rosaceae in Eastern Slovakia. Acta Botanica Slovaca Academiae Scientiarum Slovacp, A4, 345-352

Postman JD; Cameron HR, 1987. Apple mosaic virus in U.S. Filbert germ plasm. Plant Disease, 71(10):944-945

Quacquarelli A; Martelli GP, 1972. A note on almond mosaic virus and on the heat therapy of diseased stocks. Proceedings 3rd Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, Oeiras 1972, 421-427.

Raychaudhuri SP; Sharma DC; Giri BK, 1977. Virus and mycoplasmal diseases of temperate fruit in India. Progressive Horticulture, 9:8-18.

Rebandel Z; Zawadzka BJ; Wierszyllowski J, 1979. Effect of apple mosaic virus on bud-take and growth of trees in the nursery. Fruit Science Reports, 6(1):9-17

Robertson NL, 2012. First report of Apple mosaic virus in Alaska. Plant Disease, 96(3):463. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Roossinck MJ; Bujarski J; Ding SW; Hajimorad R; Hanada K; Scott S; Tousignant M, 2000. Family Bromoviridae. In Van Regenmortel MHV, Fauguet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Prongle CR, Wickner RB, eds. Virus Taxonomy; Seventh Report on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 923-935.

Rouag N; Guechi A; Matic S; Myrta A, 2008. Viruses and viroids of stone fruits in Algeria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 90(2):393-395. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Roussel S; Kummert J; Dutrecq O; Lepoivre P; Jijakli MH, 2004. Development of molecular tests for the detection of ILAR and latent viruses in fruit trees. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences [56th International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 4 May 2004. Part II.], 69(4):427-432. http://fltbwww.rug.ac.be/

Ruan XF; Yang Y; Ma SS; Zhou YY, 1998. Research on virus detection by ELISA in sweet cherry. Journal of Shandong Agricultural University, 29:277-282.

Rybicki EP; von Wechmar MB, 1985. Serology and immunochemistry. In: Francki RIB, ed. The Plant Viruses; Vol. 1. Polyhedral Virions with Tripartite Genomes. New York and London: Plenum Press, 207-244.

Ryden K, 1977. Virus and mycoplasma diseases in Swedish apple trees. Vaxtskyddsrapporter Tradgard, Lantbrukshogskolan, 1:45 pp.

Sanchez-Navarro JA; Pallas V, 1994. Nucleotide sequence of apple mosaic ilarvirus RNA 4. Journal of General Virology, 75(6):1441-1445

Sano T; Sasaki M; Shikata E, 1985. Apple mosaic virus isolated from hop plants in Japan. Annals of Applied Biology, 106(2):305-312

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