Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi
(Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)



Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm)


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Order: Aphelenchida
  •         Family: Aphelenchoididae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
All stages of A. ritzemabosi in tissues of chrysanthemum leaf.
TitleAll stages
CaptionAll stages of A. ritzemabosi in tissues of chrysanthemum leaf.
Copyright©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
All stages of A. ritzemabosi in tissues of chrysanthemum leaf.
All stagesAll stages of A. ritzemabosi in tissues of chrysanthemum leaf.©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
Interveinal necrosis on chrysanthemum leaves caused by A. ritzemabosi.
TitleInterveinal necrosis
CaptionInterveinal necrosis on chrysanthemum leaves caused by A. ritzemabosi.
Copyright©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience
Interveinal necrosis on chrysanthemum leaves caused by A. ritzemabosi.
Interveinal necrosisInterveinal necrosis on chrysanthemum leaves caused by A. ritzemabosi.©J. Bridge/CABI BioScience


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Steiner & Buhrer, 1932

Preferred Common Name

  • Chrysanthemum foliar eelworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphelenchoides ribes (Taylor, 1917) Goodey, 1933
  • Aphelenchus phyllophagus Stewart, 1921
  • Aphelenchus ribes (Taylor, 1917) Goodey, 1923
  • Aphelenchus ritzema-bosi (Schwartz, 1911)
  • Pathoaphelenchus ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Steiner, 1932
  • Pseudaphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Drozdovski, 1967
  • Tylenchus ribes Taylor, 1917

International Common Names

  • English: chrysanthemum foliar nematode; leaf and bud nematode; leaf wilt nematode of chrysanthemum
  • Spanish: afelencoide del crisantemo; nematodos del crisantemo
  • French: anguillule des chrysanthèmes

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: bladal; chrysanthemumbladnematod
  • Finland: päivänkukkaankeroinen
  • Germany: Aelchenkrankheit der Chrysanthemen; Chrysanthemenalchen
  • Italy: anguillula dei crisantemi
  • Netherlands: Chrysantebladaaltje
  • Norway: krysantemumbladnematode
  • Sweden: krysantemumbladnematod

EPPO code

  • APLORI (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Order: Aphelenchida
  •                 Family: Aphelenchoididae
  •                     Genus: Aphelenchoides
  •                         Species: Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi was proposed by Schwartz in 1911, as a new species of Aphelenchus Bastian, 1865. Steiner and Buhrer (1932) transferred it to Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894. Steiner (1932) had proposed a new genus, Pathotylenchus, to which he assigned this species as Pathotylenchus ritzemabosi. The species was later assigned to a new genus, Pseudaphelenchoides, proposed by Drozdovski (1967). Pathotylenchus and Pseudaphelenchoides were not recognized by later workers, who preferred Aphelenchoides. Two other species, proposed as Tylenchus ribes Taylor, 1917 and Aphelenchus phyllophagus Stewart, 1921, were later synonymized with A. ritzemabosi. The type host and locality of A. ritzemabosi is chrysanthemum, Redwood City, California, USA, from where the neotype was proposed by Allen (1952). The species has been assigned to the family Aphelenchidae Fuchs, 1937 and later more appropriately to Aphelenchoididae Skarbilovich, 1947.


Top of page The morphology of A. ritzemabosi is described by Siddiqi (1974), Franklin and Southey (1978), Khan et al. (1987) and Hunt (1993).

Measurements (after Allen, 1952). Females: length = 0.77-1.20 mm; a = 40-45; b = 10-13; c = 18.24; V = 66-75%. Males: length = 0.70-0.93 mm; a = 31-50; b = 10-14; c = 16-30; T = 35-64%.

Body elongate-slender. Cuticle marked by transverse striae 0.9-1.0 µm apart; lateral field with four incisures. Cephalic region hemispherical, smooth, set off from body by a constriction, slightly wider than adjacent body. Stylet about 12 µm long, with minute but distinct basal knobs and sharply pointed tip. Median oesophageal bulb prominent, somewhat oval, filling body cavity, with large cuticular valvular apparatus in centre. Nerve ring about 1.5 body widths behind median bulb. Excretory pore 0.5-2 body widths posterior to nerve ring. Oesophageal glands forming a lobe extending over intestine dorsally for about 4 body widths. Tail elongate-conoid, bearing a terminal peg which has two to four tooth-like processes pointing posteriorly and giving it a paint brush-like appearance.

Female: body when relaxed becomes straight to slightly arcuate. Vulva a transverse slit, at 66-75% of body. Postvulval uterine sac more than half the vulva-anus distance, often containing sperm. Ovary single, with oocytes in multiple rows.

Male: common. Posterior region of body curved through 180 degrees. Testis single, outstretched; sperm large-sized, rounded. Spicules large and prominent, smoothly curved, rosethorn-shaped, lacking a dorsal or ventral process at proximal end; dorsal limb 20-22 µm long.

Juveniles: four juvenile stages, resembling female in general morphology but lacking genital structures.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-GuizhouWidespreadLi and Zhang, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IndiaRestricted distributionGill and Sharma, 1979; Gill, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentAhmad, 1971; Khan et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKhan et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentDeimi et al., 2007; EPPO, 2014
JapanRestricted distributionKobayashi et al., 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
KazakhstanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UzbekistanPresentKhakimova, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014


MauritiusPresentOrian, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaWidespreadWager, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Canary IslandsWidespreadSturhan, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

North America

MexicoWidespreadCid del Prado & Sosa-Moss, 1978; Sandoval-Hernandez & Teliz Ortiz, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionStrider, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-ColoradoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentLehman, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-WyomingPresentFranc et al., 1993; Franc et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentGandarilla Basterrechea, 2003

South America

BrazilPresentCuri and Pitta, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-BahiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
ChilePresentBohm and Aruta, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentMeredith and Yepez, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014


BulgariaPresentSoyanov, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentPagliarini, 2006
DenmarkAbsent, formerly presentLindhardt, 1967; Andersson, 1969; Juhl, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentBurckhardt, 1972; Blank, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentFarkas et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
IrelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentVovlas and Lamberti, 1973; Lamberti et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
LatviaPresentZvirgzdynya Zvirgzdina, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
PolandPresentSzczygiel & Hasiur, 1972; Szczygiel, 1967; Szczygiel, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Cha<l>anska et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014
PortugalRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-MadeiraWidespreadSturhan, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentUrek and ?irca, 2003
SpainRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentStaubli et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UKPresentMAFF, 1970; Roberts, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentLebedeva & Metliskii, 1972; Lebedeva et al., 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentGrujicic, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2000


FijiPresentSwaine, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandPresentBoesewinkel, 1980; Boesewinkel, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page A. ritzemabosi is one of the species which are presently targeted in regulatory programmes worldwide (O'Bannon and Esser, 1987).

The results of more than 8 years of voluntary certification schemes for strawberry stocks in Italy indicate that A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae, D. dipsaci and Meloidogyne spp. can be successfully controlled by means of plant certification schemes (Tacconi and Lamberti, 1994).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. ritzemabosi is a major and widespread pest of chrysanthemum in Europe, North America, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, and has been reported on this host from several other countries including Brazil (Curi and Pitta, 1971), Mexico (Cid del Prado and Sosa-Moss, 1978; Sandoval Hernandez and Teliz Ortiz, 1990), Fiji (Swaine, 1971), Mauritius (Orian, 1957) and others (see Geographic Distribution).

Chrysanthemum is the major host in Europe (Juhl, 1978; Farkas et al., 1985); chrysanthemum, narcissus and pseudonarcissus are the main hosts in Italy (Vovlas and Lamberti, 1973); chrysanthemum and dahlia are major hosts in Poland (Szczygiel and Hasior, 1972). This species is also important on chrysanthemum in Japan (Kobayashi et al., 1971) and areas of China (Li and Zhang, 1992).

A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae occur on and cause damage to strawberries in Denmark (Lindhardt, 1967; Andersson, 1969), England (MAFF, 1970), Switzerland (Klingler, 1969; Staubli et al., 1989); Germany (Hirling, 1970, 1971; Blank, 1985), Italy (Tacconi, 1972) and Poland (Szczygiel, 1967, 1970). A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae are widespread in strawberry fields in Mexico (Szczygiel and Cid del Prado-Vera, 1981; Sandoval Hernandez and Teliz Ortiz, 1990). A. ritzemabosi occurs in strawberry plantations in southern Ukraine, USSR (Lebedeva et al., 1972), in the Crimea (Lebedeva and Metlitskii, 1972) and Bulgaria (Stoyanov, 1975).

The nematode has been reported on blackcurrant, dahlia, lavender, Callistephus, and many other cultivated plants in England (Franklin, 1959). In the UK, recorded hosts are: Allium flavum, Allium sikkimense, Buddleia spp., Ceratostigma willmottianum and Lewisia (Southey, 1974); Bergenia (Roberts, 1981); and Viburnum x bodnantense, cv. Aberconway Dawn (Southey and Roberts, 1977). It has also been recorded on lucerne and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Western Europe (Franc et al., 1996); on dahlia in Italy (Lamberti et al., 1987) and on basil (Ocimum basilicum) in north-west Italy (Lamberti and Garibaldi, 1977); on Limonium sinuatum in Chile (Bohm and Aruta, 1985); and on china aster (Callistephus chinensis) in Germany (Burckhardt, 1972). Also recorded as hosts are: tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) (Grujicic, 1972; Weischer, 1975; Sikora and Dehne, 1979); Rumex spp. and Echium in Madeira, Rumex spp. and Geranium in the Canary Islands (Sturhan, 1973); the fungus Rhynchosporium verticillatum, Ipomoea purpurea [Pharbitis purpurea] and Aster sp. in Simla, India (Ahmad, 1971); Zinnia elegans, Salvia splendens, chrysanthemum and dahlia in hilly regions of northern India (Gill, 1981; Khan et al., 1987).

A. ritzemabosi was recorded on redcurrant and boysenberry in New Zealand (Dale, 1971); for the first time on the following plants: Aster dumosus, Campanula pyramidalis, cultivated Dahlia, Helleborus niger, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Marattia salicifolia, Passiflora edulis, Ranunculus sardous, Rheum rhaponticum and Zinnia elegans by Boesewinkel (1977); on Aquilegia vulgaris by Boesewinkel (1980); on Lotus corniculatus, Lycopersicon esculentum, Phytolacca octandra, Senecio petasitis and Tristania conferta by Boesewinkel (1982). A. ritzemabosi was found on lucerne and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Wyoming and other western states of the USA (Franc et al., 1996); on gloxinias (Sinningia speciosa) in Florida (Lehman, 1991) and on pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, var. Othello) in Wyoming, USA (Franc et al., 1993). The nematode has also been recorded in the USA on African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) (Strider, 1979); Verbena (Christie, 1959); gooseberry, lupin, Mimulus guttatus, Saintpaulia, watermelon and Peperomia (Allen, 1952). Christie (1959) stated that at least 25-30 different plant species are hosts in the USA, including Aster, Calceolaria, Dahlia, Delphinium, Phlox, tobacco, Verbena and Zinnia. It is also widespread on Zinnia in South Africa (Wager, 1972).

Juhl (1978) gives a list of 249 plant species in Denmark which are hosts for A. ritzemabosi. Two ferns, Asplenium nidus and Struthiopteris orientalis, and one fungus, Rhynchosporium verticillatum, are also hosts for the nematode (Juhl, 1978). Wallace (1961) reported 190 plant species as hosts, and Sturhan (1962) recorded it on 31 new hosts, mostly in Compositae, in Germany.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Asplenium nidus (bird's nest fern)AspleniaceaeOther
Bergenia (elephant-leaved saxifrage)SaxifragaceaeOther
Buddleia (Butterflybush)LoganiaceaeWild host
Calceolaria (pouch flower)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Callistephus chinensis (China aster)AsteraceaeOther
Campanula (campanulas)CampanulaceaeOther
Campanula pyramidalis (chimney bellflower)CampanulaceaeOther
Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))AsteraceaeMain
Consolida ambigua (rocket larkspur)RanunculaceaeOther
Crassula coccineaCrassulaceaeOther
EchiumBoraginaceaeWild host
Eleusine coracana (finger millet)PoaceaeWild host
Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
Geranium (cranesbill)GeraniaceaeOther
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeOther
Helleborus niger (christmas rose)RanunculaceaeOther
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (China-rose)MalvaceaeOther
Hydrangea anomalaOther
Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)LamiaceaeOther
Limonium sinuatum (sea pink)PlumbaginaceaeOther
Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil)FabaceaeOther
Lupinus (lupins)FabaceaeOther
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeOther
Mimulus (monkey-flower)ScrophulariaceaeOther
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeOther
Ocimum basilicum (basil)LamiaceaeOther
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
Philadelphus coronarius (mock orange)HydrangeaceaeOther
Ranunculus (Buttercup)RanunculaceaeWild host
Rheum hybridum (rhubarb)PolygonaceaeOther
Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeOther
Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant)GrossulariaceaeOther
Ribes uva-crispa (gooseberry)GrossulariaceaeOther
Rudbeckia (coneflower)AsteraceaeOther
Rumex (Dock)PolygonaceaeWild host
Saintpaulia (african violet)GesneriaceaeOther
Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet)GesneriaceaeOther
Salvia splendens (scarlet sage)LamiaceaeOther
Sambucus (Elderberry)CaprifoliaceaeWild host
Senecio (Groundsel)AsteraceaeWild host
Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia)GesneriaceaeOther
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Sonchus (Sowthistle)AsteraceaeWild host
Stellaria media (common chickweed)CaryophyllaceaeWild host
Verbena (vervain)VerbenaceaeOther
Veronica (Speedwell)ScrophulariaceaeWild host
Viola (violet)ViolaceaeOther
Zinnia elegans (zinnia)AsteraceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage


Top of page A. ritzemabosi causes angular leaf spot in several hosts, and also causes dwarfing and leaf wilt.

As an endoparasite, it enters the leaves through the stomata and moves about, feeding on the mesophyll cells. The cells in infested areas are killed and the leaves develop brown lesions delimited by the veins (Franklin, 1959). Infested leaves become crinkled and deformed, occasionally accompanied by discoloration, with blotches and chlorotic patches turning into brown and white-yellow areas. The entire plant appears stunted and dwarfed.

The symptoms on chrysanthemum include characteristic brown spots limited to the veins, and a progressive yellowing of the whole leaf. These symptoms are due to combined action of the nematode and other organisms (Cayrol and Combettes, 1972). Leaf symptoms on infested Chrysanthemum maximum include reddish-yellow lesions on the lower leaves of young plants; in older plants these leaves are markedly chlorotic and a large area of the leaf surface becomes necrotic. The foliage is scanty and the flowers are few and deformed. Leaves in the upper part of plants have shown slightly higher resistance than those in the lower part (Cid del Prado and Sosa-Moss, 1978). Direct effects are mechanical damage caused by the stylet, and damage due to hormones of growth and division (Cayrol and Combettes, 1972).

Attacked violets are stunted, and affected leaves curl down, wither and die; under surfaces of leaves showed typical water-soaked blotches (Thomas, 1968). Stunting and shoot blindness occurred on attacked Crassula coccinia (Atkinson, 1964).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

A. ritzemabosi is an obligate plant parasite, inhabiting leaves, buds, growing points and outer layers of stem; in soil it does not complete its life cycle or survive the winter. It feeds endoparasitically on mesophyll cells of leaves, and ectoparasitically on buds and growing points (Southey, 1952; Siddiqi, 1974). The nematodes move in the water film over plants, not within the stem tissue, to reach the leaves and buds. Rain splashes and leaf contacts contribute to re-infestation and spread (Wallace, 1959). The leaves are invaded through the stomata. The nematodes feed on the parenchymatous tissue of the mesophyll and destroy the cells, resulting in leaf spots or blotches, easily seen on the under surface. The nematodes leave brown tissue through the stomata and migrate in the water film on the surface to infect terminal flower buds which produce deformed and under-sized blossoms.

As many as 15,000 nematodes may be found in one leaf of chrysanthemum (MAFF, 1969); over 300 individuals per 14 g of infested aster seeds have been recovered (Brown, 1956). Limonium sinuatum attacked by A. ritzemabosi also showed a high level of infestation, more than 100 individuals per 2.5 g foliar tissue (Bohm and Aruta, 1985).

A. ritzemabosi multiplies bisexually and not by parthenogenesis; fertilized females go on reproducing for 6 months without further fertilization (French and Barraclough, 1961). In chrysanthemum leaves, a female lays about 25-30 eggs in a compact group; eggs hatch in 3-4 days and the juveniles take 9-10 days to reach maturity; the life cycle takes 10-13 days (Wallace, 1960). In leaves of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris) the life cycle is completed in 14-15 days (Stewart, 1921). In susceptible chrysanthemum varieties the female remains in the leaf at one place, feeds on adjoining cells and lays many eggs which hatch into rapidly developing juveniles; however, in resistant varieties the female moves about rapidly through the tissues, feeding on cells, but lays only a few eggs whose emerging juveniles fail to reach maturity (Wallace, 1961).

In strawberry fields in Poland, both Aphelenchoides fragariae and A. ritzemabosi showed peak populations in March-May and November-January, and were influenced by moisture and temperature (Szczygiel and Hasior, 1972).

Like other plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides species such as A. fragariae, A. besseyi and A. blastophthorus, A. ritzemabosi can reproduce on fungi, and soil fungi may therefore contribute to its survival in the absence of a host (Hooper and Cowland, 1986).

Survival and source of infection

A. ritzemabosi survives unfavourable conditions through anhydrobiosis, as it possesses multiple contraction ability, i.e. coiling coupled with transverse and longitudinal folding of the cuticle. It survived immersion in paraffin oil for 12 days (Saeed and Roessner, 1984). Christie (1959) revived specimens in dried chrysanthemum leaves after 16 months, but not after 19 months; Steiner (1924) revived them after 22 months; Voss (1930) after 2 years; and Goodey (1933) after 3 years.

A. ritzemabosi overwinters in dormant buds and growing points of chrysanthemum stools; stools rather than the soil serve as the source of infestation (Hesling and Wallace, 1961). The nematode is also carried on the seeds of aster (Brown, 1956).

No change in nematode population per number of hearts occurred when strawberry plants infested with A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae were stored at a room temperature of 14-15°C or in an unheated glasshouse in winter. However, at 20°C the population increased several times. Under cold-storage conditions of -2 to -1°C, an increase of 56% was registered (Hirling, 1972); at 4°C, 33% revived after 3 years (French and Barraclough, 1962).

Several weeds are hosts (goosegrass, chickweed, buttercup, sowthistle, speedwell) hence weed control is important.


A. ritzemabosi was mass cultured on courgette and/or marrow tissues at 16-18°C (Hooper and Cowland, 1988). In oat callus tissue, the nematode increased 50-fold in 6 weeks, although oat is not a recorded host (Webster, 1966); numbers increased in plant growth-stimulating substances (Webster, 1967). It also reproduced and multiplied in callus tissues of carrot, tobacco, periwinkle and marigold; the reproduction seemed to be influenced by the concentration of cations in the culture (Dolliver et al., 1962).

Monoxenic cultures of A. ritzemabosi, Ditylenchus dipsaci, Pratylenchus penetrans and Pratylenchus vulnus were obtained on lucerne and clover callus tissue by the method of Eriksson (described by Bossis and Caubel, 1982).

Interactions with other Organisms

Cross and Pitcher (1952) co-inoculated A. ritzemabosi and Corynebacterium fascians [Rhodococcus fascians] to strawberry runners and produced the 'cauliflower' disease resulting in the continued production of axillary buds on affected crown. In such an interaction, nematodes appear to act as vectors for the bacteria and may also stimulate bacterial growth either by producing a suitable metabolite or by modifying the host substrate (Pitcher, 1963). In southern regions of Russia, A. ritzemabosi and highly virulent strains of C. fascians are thought to be responsible for 'cauliflower' symptoms, and less virulent strains are thought to cause 'red plants' or 'alaminate leaves' (Drozdovski et al., 1971). The alaminate leaves condition of strawberry is due either to the nematodes alone, or to the nematodes acting in association with less virulent strains of C. fascians (Pitcher and Cross, 1958).

In experiments, population growth of Ditylenchus dipsaci on tobacco was depressed by simultaneous infection with A. ritzemabosi. The latter species was not affected by D. dipsaci in the leaves; however, in the stems and petioles, where A. ritzemabosi does not normally develop, its population growth was enhanced, possibly due to the chemical and histological changes induced by D. dipsaci (Weischer, 1974).

In tests on tobacco plants, A. ritzemabosi was inhibited by Tobacco mosaic virus, Tobacco rattle virus, Tomato ringspot virus, Raspberry ringspot virus and Tomato black ring virus, and favoured by Arabis mosaic virus. The negative or positive influence of a virus is due to the various physiological changes it causes in a plant, and not to a direct influence on the nematodes which ingest the virus particles with the cell contents (Weischer, 1969, 1975).

A. ritzemabosi was found in association with Phytophthora cryptogea on diseased gloxinia plants in Florida (Stokes and Alfieri, 1969).

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Rhizoglyphus echinopus Predator

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page The bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus was found to feed on A. ritzemabosi (Sturhan and Hampel, 1977).

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page The nematode is carried on the seeds of aster (Brown, 1956). Adults and stage IV juveniles of A. ritzemabosi and Aphelenchoides blastophthorus were isolated from seeds and tissue fragments of china aster, Callistephus chinensis. The nematodes were found between the testa and embryo, the embryos remaining uninfested (Burckhardt, 1972).

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsWith flowers and cuttings Yes
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehicles Yes
MailWith flowers and cuttings Yes
Soil, sand and gravelWith flowers and cuttings Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Leaves adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
True seeds (inc. grain) adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants


Top of page A. ritzemabosi is a major and widespread pest of chrysanthemum in Europe, North America, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, and chrysanthemum is regarded as the major host in Europe (Juhl, 1978; Farkas et al., 1985).

A. ritzemabosi is a serious pest of strawberry in Ireland, where yield reductions up to 60% due to A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae infestations have been recorded (Duggan, 1969). The crown weight of strawberry cv. Senga Sengana was reduced by 51% by A. ritzemabosi and by 41% by A. fragariae. Fruit yield in the first year was reduced, owing largely to a decline in fruit number, by 65% and 54%, respectively, by these two species. The number of runners was reduced by 25-30% by A. ritzemabosi, but only by 11-15% by A. fragariae. Damage to the plant crowns and reduced yield were related to population density in winter and spring, but reduced runner production was due to the summer population density (Bohmer, 1981). Due to infection by A. ritzemabosi, average yield losses of the strawberry variety Korallovaya 100 were estimated as 53.4%. The variety Yasna seems to be somewhat less susceptible to A. ritzemabosi than Korallovaya 100 or Muto (Lebedeva et al., 1972). In Poland, A. ritzemabosi infestation destroyed 45% of chrysanthemum plants on a holding, and for the most susceptible varieties the number could be as high as 92% (Baranowski, 1976).


Top of page Increased numbers of A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae infesting strawberry or chrysanthemum were recovered by funnel extraction using dilute hydrogen peroxide instead of water (Hirling, 1971).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page
Infested chrysanthemum leaves become crinkled and deformed, occasionally accompanied by discoloration, and by nematodes in buds inhabiting mainly the axils or innermost parts of the bud (Kobayashi et al., 1971).

Infected plants of Zinnia elegans, Salvia splendens, Chrysanthemum sp., Aster sp. and Dahlia sp. had fewer and smaller leaves than healthy plants, and the leaves appeared shrunken. Yellow-white spots which gradually turned brown were observed on infected plants (Gill and Sharma, 1979). Zinnia elegans leaves infested with A. ritzemabosi showed a higher concentration of total phenols, ortho-dihydroxy phenols, total sugars and reducing sugars than uninfested leaves (Gill and Uppal, 1979).

Infestation of strawberry is generally concentrated in the buds and folded leaves within the hearts. The suspected plant tissues may be chopped up and submerged in water to see if the nematodes are present.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A. ritzemabosi occurs sympatrically with A. fragariae on 28 hosts including strawberry, aster and begonia, and on one species of fern (Struthiopteris orientalis). A. ritzemabosi mostly parasitizes members of the Compositae, whereas A. fragariae occurs mostly on ferns, Liliaceae, Primulaceae and Ranunculaceae (see Siddiqi, 1974, 1975). The two species can be differentiated using morphological characters: A. ritzemabosi can be distinguished from A. fragariae by the position of the excretory pore at 0.5-2 body widths behind the nerve ring (level with or closely behind the nerve ring in A. fragariae), the females having an irregular tail mucro and four incisures in the lateral field (tail mucro simple, spike-like, two incisures in the lateral field in A. fragariae) and the males lacking dorsal and ventral processes on the proximal end of the spicule (present in A. fragariae); longer dorsal limb of spicule (14-17 µm long in A. fragariae).

Prevention and Control

Top of page


Symptoms and control of diseases in strawberry due to infestation by A. ritzemabosi and Aphelenchoides fragariae are described in an advisory leaflet (MAFF, 1970). Siddiqi (1974) reviewed control of A. ritzemabosi.

Chemical Control

On begonia spraying with demeton (superseded) and with sodium selenate gave good control (see Siddiqi, 1974).

Strawberry runners treated with fensulfothion (superseded) were less susceptible to attack than the untreated ones (Hirling, 1970).

Of the spray chemicals fenitrothion gave the best control of A. ritzemabosi (Baranowski, 1985).

Treatment of chrysanthemum nursery soil with an organophosphorous nematicide was very effective in control of this nematode (Fukazawa and Kobayashi, 1971; Kobayashi et al., 1971).

Suggested control measures include cleaning and burning infested leaves, submerging infected cuttings in hot water, spraying of foliage with chlorpyrifos (Gill, 1981). Foliar sprays of quinalphos successfully controlled A. ritzemabosi on Zinnia elegans, reducing both the symptoms of infestation and the final nematode population (Gill and Walia, 1980).

Guidelines have been given for the efficacy evaluation of nematicides against A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae on susceptible cultivars of ornamentals such as Chrysanthemum indicum [Dendranthema indicum], Begonia elatior [B. hiemalis], Primula denticulata, Verbena hybrida, Saintpaulia ionantha or Weigela spp. (EPPO, 1994). The UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food's 1976 revised edition of an advisory leaflet on chrysanthemum eelworm disease caused by A. ritzemabosi emphasizes chemical control, giving instructions for the use of thionazin (superseded) and places hot-water treatment in second place. This is a reflection of the development of year-round chrysanthemums with small stools (MAFF, 1976).

Host-Plant Resistance

In Japan, 61 strawberry cultivars were studied and divided into three groups according to susceptibility to injury by A. ritzemabosi. The most resistant group contained 14 cultivars (including Otomezakuramomo), the group with medium resistance contained 32 cultivars (including Seikobizan), and the most susceptible group contained 15 cultivars (including Hagoromo) (Nakagome and Kato, 1977). In Poland, none of the 33 strawberry cultivars was entirely resistant to A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae, but the degree of their susceptibility differed greatly. The cultivars Purpuratka, Senga Sengana, Macherauchs Fruhernte, Koralovaya and Templar were highly susceptible (Szczygiel and Danek, 1975).

Chrysanthemum varieties Amy Schoesmith, Orange Beauty and Orange Peach Blossom are comparatively resistant, but not immune (Hesling and Wallace, 1961; Wallace, 1961), as are the strawberry varieties George Soltwedel and Regina (Szczygiel, 1967). Of 20 varieties of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha) tested in the USA, Allison and Suzanne are most resistant to the nematode, whereas Julianne, Maryland, Mitzi, Pearl and Colorado are the most susceptible varieties (Strider, 1979).

Several authors (Goffart, 1930; Voss, 1930; Wilson, 1943, etc.) have listed varieties of chrysanthemum differing in their susceptibility, but Hesling and Wallace (1960) have cautioned that the degree of nematode infestation may be considerably influenced by cultural methods, soil type and weather (see also Szczygiel, 1967). It should be noted that the commercial varieties are constantly changing and new ones are being introduced, so that a list of resistant or less-resistant varieties will not serve any practical purpose (MAFF, 1969).

Cultural Practices and Hot-Water Treatment

Cultural methods of control include thorough and constant rogueing of plants showing signs of infestation; burning all infected material; propagating only from healthy stocks and in clean soil and containers; and avoiding contact between plants and undue surface moisture of the leaves (Siddiqi, 1975). In France, cultural methods to control A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae and other pests and diseases of strawberry include the use of healthy, well adapted cultivars; manuring based on soil analysis with special attention to boron; draining or planting on ridges to avoid waterlogging; and irrigating at planting, during the summer of planting and again in the following spring (Clerjeau et al., 1983).

Christie (1959) reported the successful use of hot-water treatment at 44.4°C for 30 min for control of A. ritzemabosi on chrysanthemum, and reported that chrysanthemum stools show good tolerance to hot-water treatment although treated plants were slower in growth. Hot-water treatment at 46°C for 10 min controlled A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae on begonias in Denmark (Rasmussen, 1971) and on strawberry in Switzerland (Klingler, 1969). Strawberry runner initials were hot-water treated at 45 and 50°C for 10 and 15 min to control A. ritzemabosi, A. fragariae and D. dipsaci. The results showed that runner initials will tolerate 45°C for 10 min provided they are pre-heated in warm water, immersed in cold water after treatment, and planted in a frame covered with white polythene. Best results should be obtained if runners are taken before September (MacLachlan and Duggan, 1979).

Hot-water treatment at 46°C for 10 min controlled A. ritzemabosi and A. fragariae on Lorraine begonia (Rasmussen, 1971). For lily bulbs, a hot-water formaldehyde bath (1 pint of 38% formaldehyde in 25 gallons of water) at 44°C for 1 h was effective (Jensen and Caveness, 1954).

Tobacco plants inoculated with the endotrophic mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae and with A. ritzemabosi showed a decrease in nematode populations by 48% 30 days after inoculation, compared to non-mycorrhizal controls (Sikora and Dehne, 1979).

Common weeds (goosegrass, chickweed, buttercup, sowthistle, speedwell) are hosts and hence weed control is important in the control of A. ritzemabosi populations.


Top of page

Ahmad ST, 1971. Host records of parasitic leaf nematodes. Indian Phytopathology, 24(2):413

Allen MW, 1952. Taxonomic status of the bud and leaf nematodes related to Alphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos, 1891). Proc. Helminth. Soc. Wash., 19(2):108-120.

Andersson S, 1969. Bladnematoder orsakar miljonforluster for den svenska jordgubbsodlingen varje ar. Barodlaren, No. 2:16-22.

Anon, 1978. A handbook of pests, diseases and weeds of quarantine significance. [Translated from the Russian]. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. for Agricultural Research Service, USDA. New Delhi, 2nd Rev. Ed.:xii + 312 pp.

Atkinson K, 1964. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi Schwartz on Crassula coccinea. Plant Pathology, 13:137.

Baranowski T, 1974. The control of Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi on chrysanthemums. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa, E, No. 4:77-83

Baranowski T, 1976. Investigations on harmful influence of fauna on Chrysanthemum X hortorum Bailey grown in Poznan and its close neighbourhood. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, Seria E, 6(1):17-39

Baranowski T, 1985. Evaluation of the effectiveness of several preparations for the control of chrysanthemum eelworm (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz) Steiner) occurring on border chrysanthemum. Prace Instytutu Sadownictwa I Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach, B- Rosliny Ozdobne, 7:245-250.

Blank W, 1985. Leaf and stem nematodes in strawberries - a serious problem. Mitteilungen des Obstbauversuchsringes des Alten Landes, 40(6):229-234.

Boesewinkel HJ, 1977. New plant disease records in New Zealand: records in the period 1969-76. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 20(4):583-589

Boesewinkel HJ, 1980. Phytophthora hibernalis and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on foliage of Aquilegia vulgaris in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology, 9(2):10-11

Boesewinkel HJ, 1982. A list of 142 new plant disease recordings from New Zealand and short notes on three diseases. Australasian Plant Pathology, 11(4):40-42

Bohm SL, Aruta MC, 1985. Identification of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz) Steiner and Buhrer (Aphelenchoidea: Aphelenchoididae) infesting Limonium sinuatum at Valdivia, Chile. Agro-sur, 13(2):111-113.

Bohmer B, 1981. The harmful effect of Aphelenchoides fragarip and A. ritzemabosi on Fragaria ananassa. Gesunde Pflanzen, 33(5):113-117

Bossis M, Caubel G, 1982. Monoxenic culture of plant parasitic nematodes on callus tissue. Sciences Agronomiques, Rennes, No.2:115-125

Britain, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1976. Chrysanthemum eelworm. Advisory Leaflet, Agricultural Development and Advisory Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No.339 (Revised):5 pp.

Brown EB, 1956. A seed-borne attack of chrysanthemum eelworm (Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi) on the annual aster (Callistephus chinensis). Journal of Helminthology, 30(2/3):145-148.

Burckhardt F, 1972. New observations on the presence of Aphelenchoides spp. in seed of Callistephus chinensis. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes Braunschweig, 24(9):132-133.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 808. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cayrol JC, Combettes S, 1972. Histopathological study of the chrysanthemum leaf eelworm disease in monoxenic cultures. Annales de Zoologie-Ecologie Animale, 4(2):119-128

Chaanska A, Bogumi A, Machnicka K, Dziegielewska M, 2014. First record of chrysanthemum foliar nematode Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwarz 1911) Steiner & Buhrer 1932 (Nematoda: Aphelechoididae) in leaf buds of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) in Poland. (Pierwsze stwierdzenie wegorka chryzantemowca (Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi) (Schwarz 1911) Steiner & Buhrer 1932 (Nematoda: Aphelechoididae) w pakach lisciowych porzeczki czarnej (Ribes nigrum L.) w Polsce.) Progress in Plant Protection, 54(4):403-406.

Christie JR, 1959. Plant Nematodes: Their Bionomics and Control. Gainesville, USA: University of Florida.

Cid del Prado I, Sosa Moss C, 1978. Occurrence of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on the foliage of Chrysanthemum maximum in Mexico. Nematropica, 8:6

Clerjeau M, Rancillac M, Veschambre D, 1983. The position regarding strawberry decline in France. Pepinieristes Horticuteurs Maraichers - Revue Horticole, No. 237:39-42

CROSSE JE, PITCHER RS, 1952. Studies in the relationship of eelworms and bacteria to certain plant diseases. I. The etiology of Strawberry cauliflower disease. Annals of Applied Biology, 39(4):475-486 pp.

Curi SM, Pitta GPB, 1971. Occurrence of the leaf nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in chrysanthemums in the State of Sao Paulo. Biologico, 37:19.

Dale PS, 1971. Eelworm control. Foliar, root-lesion and other nematodes. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 122(5):59-61.

Deimi AM, Barouti S, Rius JEP, Castillo P, 2007. First report of the foliar nematode Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi infecting chrysanthemum in Iran. Plant Disease, 91(5):637. HTTP://

Dolliver JS, Hilderbrandt AC, Riker AJ, 1962. Studies of reproduction of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz) on plant tissues in culture. Nematologica, 7(4):294-300.

Drozdovskii EM, Blinov BA, Yakovleva VA, 1971. Study of Aphelenchoides-Corynebacterium complex. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Zonal'nogo Instituta Sadovodstva Nechernozemnoi Polosy (Plodovodstvo i yagodovodstvo nechernozemnoi polosy) Moscow, USSR, 3:393-402

Drozdovsky EM, 1967. Use of the characteristics of embryonal development in the classification of eelworms. Trudy Gel'mintologicheskoi Laboratorii, 18:22-29 (in Russian).

Duggan JJ, 1969. Leaf and bud eelworms of strawberries. Farm Research News, 10(6):134-136.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 1994. Guideline for the efficacy evaluation of nematicides, No. 188. Aphelenchoides spp. on ornamentals. Bulletin OEPP, 24(2):307-314.

Farkas K, Hangya L, Nemeth L, 1985. Nematological studies on chrysanthemums. Novenyvedelem, 21(12):529-537.

Franc GD, BeauprT CMS, Gray FA, Hall RD, 1996. Nematode angular leaf spot of dry bean in Wyoming. Plant Disease, 80(5):476-477; 9 ref.

Franc GD, BeauprT CM-S, Williams JL, 1993. A new disease of pinto bean caused by Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in Wyoming. Plant Disease, 77(11):1168.

Franklin MT, 1950. Two species of Aphelenchoides associated with strawberry bud disease in Britain. Annals of Applied Biology, 37:1-10.

Franklin MT, 1959. Plant-parasitic nematodes of the genus Aphelenchoides Fischer, 1894. In: Plant Nematology. Technical Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. London, UK: HMSO.

Franklin MT, Southey JF, 1978. Aphelenchoides and related genera. Plant Nematology, 172-187.

French N, Barraclough R, 1961. Observations on the reproduction of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz). Nematologica, 6:89-94.

French N, Barraclough RM, 1962. Survival of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz) in soil and dry leaves. Nematologica, 7:309-316.

Fukazawa N, Kobayashi Y, 1971. Chemical control of abnormalities of summer flowering chrysanthemum caused by Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi Schwartz. Proceedings of the Kanto Toxan Plant Protection Society, No. 18, 126.

Gandarilla Basterrechea H, 2003. Damage produced by foliar nematodes in ornamental plants in Cuba. (Daños producidos por nemátodos foliares en plantas ornamentales de Cuba.) Fitosanidad, 7(3):63-64.

Gill JS, 1981. Fighting the foliar nematode of chrysanthemum. Indian Horticulture, 25(4):21-22

Gill JS, Sharma NK, 1976. Additional hosts of the foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi from India. Indian Journal of Nematology, 6(2):169-171

Gill JS, Uppal DS, 1977. Phenolic and sugar contents of Zinnia elegans leaves infested with Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Indian Journal of Nematology, 7(2):157-159

Gill JS, Walia RK, 1980. Control of chrysanthemum foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on Zinnia elegans. Indian Journal of Nematology, 10(1):86-88

Goffart H, 1930. Die Aphelenchiden der Kulkurpflanzen. Monogr. PflSchutz, Berlin, No. 4.

Goodey T, 1933. Plant Parasitic Nematodes and the Diseases they cause. London, UK: Methuen, 306 pp.

Gray FA, Williams JL, Griffin GD, Wilson TE, 1994. Distribution in the Western United States on alfalfa and cultivar reaction to mixed populations of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Journal of Nematology, 26(4 Supp.):705-719; 27 ref.

Grujicic G, 1972. Occurrence of nematode pests on tobacco in Serbia. Tutun, 22(1/2):43-60

Heide A, 1976. Control of leaf nematodes in strawberry runner beds. Gartenbau, 23(4):5-6

Hesling JJ, Peachey JE, 1963. Experiments on the treatment of chrysanthemum stools for the control of eelworm. Plant Pathology, 12(4):180-183.

Hesling JJ, Wallace HR, 1960. Susceptibility of varieties of chrysanthemum to infestation by Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi (Schwartz). Nematologica, 5: 297-302.

Hesling JJ, Wallace HR, 1961. Observations on the biology of chrysanthemum eelworm, Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi (Schwartz) Steiner in florists' chrysanthemum. I. Spread of eelworm infestation. Annals of Applied Biology, 49:195-203.

Hirling W, 1970. Wie gefShrlich sind BlattSlchen an Erdbeeren? Gesunde Pfl. 22:50, 52-54.

Hirling W, 1971. On the technique of examining strawberry plants and chrysanthemum leaves for leaf nematodes (Aphelenchoides fragariae and A. ritzemabosi). Part I. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 44(11):171-174.

Hirling W, 1972. On the technique of examining strawberry plants and chrysanthemum leaves for leaf nematodes (Aphelenchoides fragariae and A. ritzemabosi). Part III. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde und Pflanzenschutz, 45:6-10.

Hooper DJ, Cowland JA, 1986. Fungal hosts for the chrysanthemum nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Plant Pathology, 35:128-129.

Hooper DJ, Cowland JA, 1987. Courgette marrows for the mass culture of some nematodes. Nematologica, 33(4):488-490; 5 ref.

Hunt DJ, 1993. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics. Aphelenchida, Longidoridae and Trichodoridae: their systematics and bionomics., xx + 352 pp.; 46 pp. of ref.

Janowicz K, 1976. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on chrysanthemum, its harmfulness and control. Ochrona Roslin, 20(7):14-15

Jensen HJ, Caveness FE, 1954. Hot water and systox for control of foliar nematodes in Bellingham hybrid lilies. Plant Disease Reporter, 38(3):181-184.

Juhl M, 1978. Chrysanthemum nematodes: list of hosts for the leaf nematode, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Ugeskrift for Agronomer, Hortonomer, Forstkandidater of Licentiater, 123(9):183-186

Khakimova L, 1978. Parasitic nematodes of flowers. Uzbekskii Biologicheskii Zhurnal., No. 2:64-67

Khan ML, Kaur D, Sharma NK, 1987. Taxonomic studies on Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Nematoda, Aphelenchida) from India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 15:387-389.

Klingler J, 1969. Die Wirkung der Warmwasserbehandlung gegen ErdbeerblattSlchen und Erdbeermilben. Schweiz. Z. Obst-u. Weinb., 105:605-609.

Kobayashi Y, Shoji K, Fukazawa N, Furuki I, Funakoshi K, 1971. Dwarf disease of chrysanthemum caused by Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz) Steiner. Bulletin of the Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, 16:71-82.

Krczal H, Burckhardt F, 1972. Control of nematodes in strawberry nursery stocks with Aldicarb application in autumn. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land und Forstwirtschaft, Berlin Dahlem, 144:151-158.

Ladygina NM, Volodchenko ZG, 1972. Nematode Fauna of Flower Crops in the Town of Khar'kov (Ukraine). Kiev, USSR: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova Dumka".

Lamberti F, Garibaldi A, 1977. Leaf nematodes on basil. Nematologia Mediterranea, 5(2):335-338

Lamberti F, Tacconi R, Marinari A, D'Errico FP, Basile M, 1987. Major plant parasitic nematodes associated with flower crops in Italy and their control. Difesa delle Piante, 10(1):77-84; 25 ref.

Lebedeva ME, Metlitskii OZ, 1972. Chrysanthemum eelworm on strawberry in the Crimea. Nematodnye bolezni sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur i mery bor'by s nimi. Tezisy soveshchaniya. Moskva, dekabr' 1972. Moscow USSR: VASHNIL, 178-179

Lebedeva ME, Metlitskii OZ, Drozdovskii EM, 1972. Chrysanthemum eelworm as a parasite of strawberry in southern Ukraine. Kul'tura zemlyaniki v SSSR. Doklady simpoziuma, (28 iyunya - 1 iyulya 1971). "Kolos". Moscow USSR, 446-450

Lehman PS, 1991. A disease of gloxinias caused by foliar nematodes. Nematology Circular (Gainesville), No. 195:2 pp.; 12 ref.

Li YS, Zhang P, 1992. Occurrence of leaf wilt nematode disease of chrysanthemum in Guizhou. Plant Protection, 18(2):47.

Lindhardt K, 1967. Danske erfaringer med jordbaernematoder og deres betaempelse. BSrodlaren, No. 9, 23-27.

MacLachlan JB, Duggan JJ, 1979. An effective method for hot-water treatment and propagation of strawberry runners. Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 18(3):301-304

MAFF, 1969. Eelworms on strawberry. Britain. Advisory Leaflet No. 339. London, UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

MAFF, 1970. Eelworms on strawberry. Britain. Advisory Leaflet No. 414. London, UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.

Meredith JA, Yepez T G, 1973. Presence of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911) Steiner, 1932 on a commercial planting of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) in Venezuela. Nematropica, 3(1):28

Nakagome T, Kato K, 1977. Injuries to chrysanthemum cultivars caused by infestation by Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. Research Bulletin of the Aichi Ken Agricural Research Center, B Horticulture, No. 9, 86-91.

O'Bannon JH, Esser RP, 1987. Regulatory perspectives in Nematology, pp. 38-46. In: Veech JA, Dickson DW, eds. Vistas in Nematology. Hyattsville, USA: Society of Nematologists.

Orian G, 1957. Une maladie de quelques plantes ornementales causée par un nématode foliare. Rev. Agric. Sucr. Ile Maurice, 36:261-264.

Pagliarini NC, 2006. Pests of chrysanthemums. (?tetnici krizantema.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 6(5):244-249.

Pitcher RS, 1963. Phytopathology, 53:35-39.

Pitcher RS, Crosse JE, 1958. Studies in the relationship of the eelworms and bacteria to certain plant diseases. II. Further analysis of the strawberry cauliflower disease complex. Nematologica, 3(3):244-256.

Rasmussen AN, 1971. Control of leaf nematodes in Lorraine begonia. Gartner Tidende 87, 303-304.

Roberts H, 1981. New or unusual host-plant records for plant-parasitic nematodes, 1977-80. Plant Pathology, 30(3):182

Sandoval Hernßndez J, TTliz Ortiz D, 1990. Nematodes associated with strawberry in Mexico. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):98-101; 15 ref.

Siddiqi MR, 1974. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 3, No. 32. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Siddiqi MR, 1975. Aphelenchoides fragariae. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 5, No. 74. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 4 pp.

Sikora RA, Dehne HW, 1979. Changes in plant susceptibility to Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi induced by the endotrophic mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mossep. International Congress (IX) of Plant Protection: Abstracts of papers presented at the IX International Congress of Plant Protection, and the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, 5-11 August, 1979, Washington, DC, USA. American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, Minnesota USA, Abs., No. 234

Southey JF, 1952. Unusual chrysanthemum eelworm symptoms. Plant Pathology, 1:48-49.

Southey JF, 1974. New or unusual host-plant records for plant-parasitic nematodes, 1971-1973. Plant Pathology, 23(1):45-46

Southey JF, Bassett P, 1982. Chrysanthemum nematode. MAFF/ADAS Leaflet, No.339 (Revised). Alnwick, UK: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ADAS, 6 pp.

Southey JF, Roberts H, 1977. New or unusual host-plant records for plant parasitic nematodes. Plant Pathology, 26(3):148

Sped M, Roessner J, 1984. Anhydrobiosis in five species of plant associated nematodes. Journal of Nematology, 16(2):119-124

Staubli A, Vallotton R, Klingler J, Hohn H, 1989. Nematodes and soil pests of small fruits. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 21(2):107-108

Steiner G, 1924. On some plant parasitic nemas and related forms. Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(11):1059-1066.

Steiner G, 1932. Annotations on the nomenclature of some plant parasitic nematodes. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science, 22:517-518.

Steiner G, Buhrer EM, 1932. Miscellaneous notes on nemic diseases. Plant Disease Reporter, 16:137.

Stewart FH, 1921. Parasitology, 13:160-179.

Stokes DE, Alfieri Jr. SA, 1969. A foliar nematode and a Phytophthora parasitic to gloxinia. Proceedings Florida St. Society 1968, 81:376-380.

Stoyanov D, 1975. Nematode fauna of strawberries. Rastitelna Zashchita, 23(10):36-39

Strider DL, 1979. Control of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in African violet. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(5):378-382

Sturhan D, 1962. Fber neue Wirtspflanzen der BlattSlchen Aphelenchoides fragariae und A. ritzemabosi, mit Bemerkungen zu den Wirtspflanzenkreisen beider Nematodenarten. Anzeiger für SchSdlingskunde, 35(5):65-67.

Sturhan D, 1973. Leaf and stem nematodes in the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. Agronomia Lusitana, 35(1):21-26.

Sturhan D, Hampel G, 1977. Plant-parasitic nematodes as prey of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Acarina, Tyroglyphidae). Anzieger für Schadlingskunde, Pflanzenschutz, Umweltschutz, 50:115-118

Swaine G, 1971. Agricultural Zoology in Fiji. London UK: HMSO.

Szczygiel A, 1967. Wstepna ocena szkodliwosci nicieni z rodzajn Aphelenchoides dla truskawek w poludniowej Polsce. Pr. Inst. Sadow., 11:211-224.

Szczygiel A, 1969. Ocena skutecznosci niektorych srodkow chemicznych w zwalczaniu nicieni z rodzaju Aphelenchoides na truskawkach. Pr. Inst. Sadow Skierniew., 12:309-321 (in Polish).

Szczygiel A, 1970. Distribution of leaf and bud nematodes (Aphelenchoides spp.) and stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) in strawberry fields in Poland. Zesz. probl. Postep, Nauk Roln., No. 92, 321-329.

Szczygiel A, Danek J, 1975. Susceptibility of strawberry cultivars to leaf and bud nematodes (Aphelenchoides spp.). Fruit Science Reports, Poland, 2(2):47-57

Szczygiel A, Hasior H, 1972. Seasonal variations in population of plant parasitic nematodes in strawberry plantations. Ekologia Polska, 20(38):507-523

Szczygiel A, Prado Vera ICdel, 1981. Association of Aphelenchoides fragarip and A. ritzemabosi with strawberry plants in Mexico. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych, No.249:81-85

Tacconi R, 1972. Infestations of Aphelenchoides fragariae, Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi and Ditylenchus dipsaci on strawberry in some Italian provinces. Redia, 53:313-319

Tacconi R, Lamberti F, 1994. A scheme of plant certification for production of nematode-free stocks. Bulletin OEPP, 24(2):439-445; 8 ref.

Thomas PR, 1968. Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi on Saintpaulia. Plant Pathology, 17:94-95.

Tsay TT, 1995. Quarantine of plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 4(2):43-59.

Urek G, ?irca S, 2003. Plant parasitic nematodes affecting the aboveground plant parts in Slovenia. (Fitoparazitske ogorcice nadzemnih delov rastlin v Sloveniji.) In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 6. Slovenskega Posvetovanje o Varstvu Rastlin, Zrece, Slovenije, 4-6 marec 2003 . Ljubljana, Slovenia: Dru?tvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije, 486-488.

Voss W, 1930. Zeischrift für Parasitenkunde, 2:310.

Vovlas N, Lamberti F, 1973. Aphelenchoides spp. on flower crops in southern Italy. Nematologica Mediterranea, 1(2):141-146.

Wager VA, 1972. Records of diseases of ornamental plants not previously reported in South Africa. Technical Communication, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa, No. 100.

Wallace HR, 1959. Movement of eelworms. V. Observations on Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi (Schwartz, 1912) Steiner, 1932 on florists' chrysanthemums. Annals of Applied Biology, 47:350-360.

Wallace HR, 1960. Observations on the behaviour of Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi in chrysanthemum leaves. Nematologica, 5:315-321.

Wallace HR, 1961. Chrysanthemum eelworm. Nat. Chrysanthemum Society Year Book, pp. 106-128.

Webster JM, 1966. Production of oat callus and its susceptibility to a plant parasitic nematode. Nature, 212:1472.

Webster JM, 1967. The influence of plant-growth substances and their inhibitors on the host-parasite relationships of Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in culture. Nematologica, 13:256-262.

Weischer B, 1969. Vermehrung und Schadwirkung von Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi und Ditylenchus dipsaci in virusfreiemund in TMV-infiziertem Tabak. Nematologica, 15(3):334-336.

Weischer B, 1974. Interspecific competition between Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi and Ditylenchus on tobacco. Simposio Internacional (XII) de Nematologia, Sociedad Europea de Nematologos, 1-7 Septiembre, 1974, Granada, Spain. Granada. Spain, 109-110

Weischer B, 1975. Further studies on the population development of Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi in virus-infected and virus-free tobacco. Nematologica, 21(2):213-218

Whitehead AG, 1994. Effect of cultivar, carbofuran and row spacing on the incidence of stem and leaf nematodes (Ditylenchus dipsaci and Aphelenchoides ritzema-bosi) in lucerne (Medicago sativa) and on lucerne herbage yield. Journal of Agricultural Science, 122(2):225-230; 8 ref.

Wilson GF, 1943. The chrysanthemum eelworm. Nat. Chrysanthemum Society Year Book, 6 pp.

Wojtowicz M, labanowski GS, 1995. Effects of hot-water and chemical treatments on growth of chrysanthemum mother plants and infestation with Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi (Schwartz, 1911). Zeszyty Naukowe Instytutu Sadownictwa Kwiaciarstwa w Skierniewicach, 2:129-135; 7 ref.

Zvirgzdynya VYa, 1973. Chrysanthemums in the Latvian SSR (introduction and agronomical practices). Khrizantemy v Latviismoi SSR (introduktsiya i agrotekhnika). Riga, USSR: Izdatel'stvo "Zinatne", 186 pp.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map