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Streptopelia decaocto
(Eurasian collared-dove)

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Datasheet

Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Streptopelia decaocto
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Eurasian collared-dove
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Aves
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. decaocto, the Eurasian collared-dove, is a member of the dove and pigeon family (Columbidae), all of which are small to medium-sized birds with short legs and necks and small heads. Originally native to the...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult. Huntington Beach, California, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult. Huntington Beach, California, USA.
Copyright©Greg Bartman/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult. Huntington Beach, California, USA.
AdultStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult. Huntington Beach, California, USA.©Greg Bartman/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); two birds on an urban balcony.
TitleAdults
CaptionStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); two birds on an urban balcony.
Copyright©Horia Andrei Varlan-2008 - CC BY 2.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); two birds on an urban balcony.
AdultsStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); two birds on an urban balcony.©Horia Andrei Varlan-2008 - CC BY 2.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult, detail of head.
TitleDetail of head
CaptionStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult, detail of head.
Copyright©Iruka - CC BY-SA 3.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult, detail of head.
Detail of headStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); adult, detail of head.©Iruka - CC BY-SA 3.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); typical egg. approx dimensions  31 x 24 mm.  Clutch usually 2 eggs. Incubation period 16-17 days. Young fledging at 17-19 days. Collection Jacques Perrin de Brichambaut. Locality: Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, Seine-et-Marne, France.
TitleEgg
CaptionStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); typical egg. approx dimensions 31 x 24 mm. Clutch usually 2 eggs. Incubation period 16-17 days. Young fledging at 17-19 days. Collection Jacques Perrin de Brichambaut. Locality: Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, Seine-et-Marne, France.
Copyright©Didier Descouens - CC BY-SA 3.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); typical egg. approx dimensions  31 x 24 mm.  Clutch usually 2 eggs. Incubation period 16-17 days. Young fledging at 17-19 days. Collection Jacques Perrin de Brichambaut. Locality: Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, Seine-et-Marne, France.
EggStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove); typical egg. approx dimensions 31 x 24 mm. Clutch usually 2 eggs. Incubation period 16-17 days. Young fledging at 17-19 days. Collection Jacques Perrin de Brichambaut. Locality: Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux, Seine-et-Marne, France.©Didier Descouens - CC BY-SA 3.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove) juvenile, note lack of neck ring. Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
TitleJuvenile
CaptionStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove) juvenile, note lack of neck ring. Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
Copyright©Juan Emilio - CC BY-SA 2.0
Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove) juvenile, note lack of neck ring. Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
JuvenileStreptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared-dove) juvenile, note lack of neck ring. Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.©Juan Emilio - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky, 1838)

Preferred Common Name

  • Eurasian collared-dove

Other Scientific Names

  • Columba risoria decaocto

Local Common Names

  • France: tourterelle turque
  • Germany: turkentaube
  • Hungary: balkáni gerle
  • Puerto Rico: tórtola collarina
  • Russian Federation: kolchataya gorlitsa
  • Spain: tórtola turca

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. decaocto, the Eurasian collared-dove, is a member of the dove and pigeon family (Columbidae), all of which are small to medium-sized birds with short legs and necks and small heads. Originally native to the Bay of Bengal region (India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar), historical records suggest that it expanded its range in the 1600s (by introductions and/or by natural means) to include Turkey and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. By the end of the 1900s, the Eurasian collared-dove could be found throughout Europe. Legal protection has been removed in Britain and it is considered a pest species (Romagosa, 2012).

It is found throughout most of the USA, especially the Gulf Coast and Southeastern USA. However, the species has spread across the south-central regions of the USA, and is gradually making its way west. It is a popular species for hunting in the USA where it is not protected.

In Britain, legal protection has been removed and it is considered a pest species. It is also considered a crop pest in Pakistan.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Aves
  •                     Order: Columbiformes
  •                         Family: Columbidae
  •                             Genus: Streptopelia
  •                                 Species: Streptopelia decaocto

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Streptopelia decaocto belongs to the Columbidae family, which includes about 310 species of pigeons and doves. 

Description

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The following description is adapted from Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier (2009).

The Eurasian collared-dove is a member of the dove and pigeon family (Columbidae), all of which are small to medium-sized birds with short legs and necks and small heads. Most species in Columbidae show little variation in colour, with the exception of the rock dove (Columba livia). S. decaoto is a medium to large-sized, stocky dove, approximately 30-33 cm long with a wingspan of 45-55 cm and weighing around 200 g. Overall, they are a pale, sandy gray, with a slight pinkish tinge to the head and breast. Their bills are black, the irises of their eyes are red, and their legs and feet are mauve. Their tails are white when viewed from the underside, and the ends of their tails are squared off (rather than pointed). The Eurasian collared-dove gets its name from the black partial collar on the nape of the neck, which is outlined in white. Both sexes have a similar plumage, which changes very little throughout the year. Juveniles generally resemble adults but their breast, wing, and back feathers have pale reddish margins, the irises of their eyes are brown, and their legs are brownish-red. Juveniles younger than three months also lack a well-defined collar.

Distribution

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The Eurasian population, now established throughout most of Europe, was believed to have originated in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and spread to Turkey and the Balkans in the 1700s via natural dispersal and/or human introduction (Smith, 1987; Gorski, 1993; Romagosa and McEneaney, 1999). It was not until the early 1900s that this species rapidly colonized much of Europe and northwest Africa, establishing itself throughout most of the area within about 50 years (Crooks and Soule, 1999; Rocha-Camerero and Hidalgo de Trucios, 2002; Eraud et al., 2007). 

It is found throughout most of the USA, especially the Gulf Coast and Southeastern USA. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BahrainPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BangladeshPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BhutanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Fujisaki et al., 2010
IranPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
IraqPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2004
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
JordanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
KazakhstanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
KuwaitPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
KyrgyzstanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
LebanonPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive Fujisaki et al., 2010
NepalPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
OmanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2004
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
QatarPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive Fujisaki et al., 2010
TajikistanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
TurkeyPresentIntroducedFujisaki et al., 2010
TurkmenistanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
United Arab EmiratesPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
UzbekistanPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MoroccoPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
TunisiaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MexicoPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014
USAPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2004
BarbadosPresentIntroducedSmith, 1987
BelizePresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
DominicaPresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MontserratPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2004
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Krauss, 2012; BirdLife International, 2014Escaped from captivity
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
AustriaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BelgiumPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
BulgariaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
CroatiaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
CyprusPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
DenmarkPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
EstoniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Faroe IslandsPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
FinlandPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
FrancePresentIntroducedRocha-Camerero and Hidalgo, 2002
GermanyPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
GreecePresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
HungaryPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
IcelandPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
IrelandPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
ItalyPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
LatviaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
LiechtensteinPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
LithuaniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
LuxembourgPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MacedoniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MaltaPresentIntroducedBirdLife International, 2014
MonacoPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
MontenegroPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
NetherlandsPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
PolandPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
PortugalPresentIntroducedFujisaki et al., 2010
RomaniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Western SiberiaPresentIntroducedHengeveld, 1988
SerbiaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
SlovakiaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
SloveniaPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
SpainPresentIntroducedFujisaki et al., 2010
Svalbard and Jan MayenPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
SwedenPresentNative Not invasive BirdLife International, 2014
SwitzerlandPresentIntroducedSchifferli et al., 1980
UKPresentIntroducedCoombs et al., 1981; Hengeveld, 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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It was not until the early 1900s that this species rapidly colonized much of Europe and northwest Africa, establishing itself throughout most of the area within about 50 years (Crooks and Soule, 1999; Rocha-Camerero and Hidalgo de Trucios, 2002; Eraud et al., 2007). Reasons for this rapid expansion after a long lag time may include increasing urbanization and/or climate change allowing for longer breeding seasons (Crooks and Soule, 1999). The dispersal pattern progressed in a generally northwest direction and has been shown to encompass small foci lying ahead of colonized regions.

S. decaocto was first observed in the USA in the early 1970s (Smith, 1987). This initial population resulted from the escape of 50 doves from a pet breeder in the Bahamas (Hengeveld, 1988, 1993). By the 1980s the species had dispersed from the Caribbean and successfully colonized southern Florida. Romagosa and Labisky (2000) reported that relative abundance of the species increased in Florida from 1986 to 1996 based on the National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. However, initial observations of this species may have been confounded by its similarity to the ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia risoria). By the end of the 1990s, Eurasian collared-doves had been sighted as far west as Oregon. Hooten et al. (2007) and Hooten and Wikle (2008) showed rapid population growth of the species in the USA using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Several local monitoring efforts also confirmed this species presence in locations throughout the USA (Bohlen, 1997; Drennen, 1997; Beckett et al., 2007). By 2007, it had expanded its range to the pacific coast and the Canadian border, therefore representing a large geographical area in the continental USA (Hooten and Wikle, 2008).

The dispersal method that has facilitated the spread of the Eurasian collared-Dove has been described as "leapfrog" or "jump and backfill". Here, new populations appear hundreds of miles from the known range and over time colonize the areas in between. Intentional introductions, such as for hunting purposes, and accidental introductions of as many as 300 birds at a time have also contributed to this method of dispersal in the USA (Ludwick and Fedynich, 2006). The extent of range expansion of the Eurasian collared-Dove is one of the largest recorded for any bird species (Coombs et al., 1981).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bahamas 1974 Pet trade (pathway cause) Yes Smith (1987) Escape of birds from a pet breeder in Nassau
Caribbean 1974 Pet trade (pathway cause) Yes Smith (1987) Escape of birds from a pet breeder in Nassau
Florida 1970s Pet trade (pathway cause) Yes Smith (1987) Escape of birds from a pet breeder in Nassau

Risk of Introduction

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S. decaocto is among one of the most successful terrestrial invaders and its spread and colonization has been closely related to human activities (Romagosa and Labisky, 2000). In the USA, it has dispersed over a wide geographical area and its range expansion within each State is likely to continue (Hooten and Wikle, 2008; Fujisaki et al., 2010). The bird’s broad diet and versatile breeding biology have been highlighted as key factors to its invasive success (Hengeveld, 1988). 

Habitat

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In Europe, habitat preferences have been well studied for this species. Its distribution is typically associated with human settlements, such as suburban gardens and town parks with a mixture of shrub and tree cover, including human-made structures (Coombs et al., 1981; Hengeveld, 1988). They are also abundant on or near the coast in mosaic landscapes that include small fields, mixed livestock pasture land, horticulture, grain farming, and marginal scrublands. They tend to avoid areas of intensive farming and woodland (Hudson, 1972). As an example of mosaic landscapes used in Europe, they seem to prefer ‘dehesas’, or parklands of the Iberian Peninsula that have Quercus sp. intermixed with cropland and Mediterranean woodland (Rocha-Camerero and Hidalgo de Trucios, 2002). In France, low detection probability and occupancy rate of the species occurred in regions with a large proportion of wooded and mountainous areas (Eraud et al., 2007). In the USA, similar environmental factors to those in Europe affect the abundance and distribution of the species (Coombs et al., 1981; Hengeveld, 1988; Beckett et al., 2007). 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Mangroves Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Disturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Arid regions Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Deserts Present, no further details
Natural forests Principal habitat Natural
Scrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

Eurasian collared-doves are monogamous and each pair may raise three or more broods (of two eggs each) per year, nesting in all but the coldest months. Adults are most aggressive when nesting, flying at an intruder or nest predator (such as a crow) and delivering blows with their wings (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009). Egg incubation period usually lasts 14-19 days. The male bird delivers more nest material than female, and that the young leave the nest 18 days after hatching (Fielder et al., 2012). Sexual maturity is usually reached by its first spring. In Europe first year mortality is 50-70%, adult mortality 33-55% annually thereafter (Romagosa, 2012).

Individuals are highly territorial, watching for intruders from high vantage points such as utility poles or trees. They are considered sly and aggressive competitors, engaging in fierce fights with rivals, striking with beak and wings, pulling feathers, and even jumping on a rival’s back. During the non-breeding season, Eurasian collared-doves roost communally, often by the hundreds, in barns or in trees in city parks (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

Longevity

The longest known lifespan of the Eurasian collared-dove is 13 years 8 months (Romagosa, 2012).      

Population Size and Structure

Rich et al. (2004) have estimated the global population at approximately 8,000,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated at 4,700,000-11,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 14,100,000-33,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International, 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a revised estimate of the global population size is 20,000,000-50,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: 100-100,000 breeding pairs in China; fewer than 100 breeding pairs in Korea and 100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs in Japan (Brazil, 2009).

The population is suspected to be increasing as ongoing habitat degradation is creating new areas of suitable habitat. In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (BirdLife International, 2004).

Nutrition

S. decaocto feeds primarily on seed and cereal grain but also consumes fruits, berries, plants, and small invertebrates. It relies heavily on food provided by humans including bird feeders, agricultural grain and animal feed. Most of its feeding is done on the ground pecking seeds but it is known to feed on elevated bird feeders and berries on bushes and trees (Romagosa, 2012).

By storing large amounts of food in its crop and using a special siphoning technique to drink large volumes of water, the Eurasion-collared dove is able to roost for long periods between feedings, reducing the amount of time it must spend in dangerous, open areas (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

Environmental Requirements

The species climatic limit is uncertain. Although they originated in and initially colonized tropical, subtropical, temperate and arid regions, Eurasion-collared doves have successfully colonized countries within various climatic zones (Romagosa and McEneaney, 1999). In Europe, the distribution of this species is generally restricted to relatively warmer regions but it may also inhabit areas of low-temperature, such as western Siberia (Hengeveld, 1988). However, generally it is absent in areas of low minimum temperature (Fujisaki et al., 2010).

In its native range in India, the species can be found at elevations of 2500-3000 m (Cramp, 1985; Hengeveld, 1988). As it was rarely found at elevations over 3000 m, it has been suggested that elevation could be a potential limiting factor for the species distribution. In the UK, occurrence is mainly below 300 m (Hengeveld, 1988) and in Switzerland the species was found below 650 m and later up to 1000 m (Schifferli et al., 1980).

Presence of specific landscape features such as parks, gardens and animal food mills may also affect abundance of the species, as association of the species with these features was reported in Britain (Coombs et al., 1981).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Tolerated Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Tolerated Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Accipiter cooperii Predator All Stages not specific Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009
Buteo brachyurus Predator All Stages not specific Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009
Felis catus Predator All Stages not specific Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009 N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Predators of the Eurasian collared-dove include Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperi), the short-tailed hawk (Buteo brachyurus) and feral cats (Felis catus) (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The extent of range expansion of the Eurasian collared-dove is one of the largest recorded for any bird species and its far-reaching dispersal has been described as "leapfrog" or "jump and backfill" (Hudson, 1972; Coombs et al., 1981; Romagosa and Labisky, 2000). This is reportedly where new populations appear hundreds of miles from the known range and over time colonize the areas in between. Intentional introductions (e.g. for hunting purposes) and accidental introductions of as many as 300 birds at a time have also contributed to this method of dispersal in the USA (Ludwick and Fedynich, 2006).

As the species is common in captivity multiple releases (both intentional and accidental) might have contributed to their range expansion (Fujisaki et al., 2010).

Occurrence and abundance of this species are associated with human-modified landscapes within Florida (Bonter et al., 2010). Range expansion in Florida was most prevalent along the coast (Romagosa and Labisky, 2000), agreeing with observations in Britain where the bird is abundant around the coastal belt (Hudson, 1972). Romagosa and Labisky (2000) also reported possible dispersal pattern along rivers in Florida.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal productionFor hunting, deliberate introduction Yes Yes Ludwick and Fedynich, 2006
Pet tradeAccidental Yes Yes Smith, 1987

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Pets and aquarium species Yes Yes Hengeveld, 1988; Hengeveld, 1993

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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The bird is considered a crop pest in Pakistan and it is known to eat and foul grain products (Roberts, 1991). Although it has been suggested that large flocks of doves could damage agricultural crops, significant impacts have not yet been reported and research is needed to evaluate these potential effects (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

Eurasian collared-doves are extremely successful colonizers and breeders. Some believe that they may be competing with other bird species, such as the turtledove (Streptopelia turtur) and native North American doves including the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), although negative effects have yet to be explicitly demonstrated. In California, Eurasian collared-doves may be competitively displacing another non-native dove, the spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis). When present in large numbers, they can discourage other species from using bird feeders, and may even aggressively defend these food sources, chasing other birds away.                  

The species can also carry the disease-causing parasite Trichomonas gallinae, which may be spread to native doves at feeders or birdbaths, or to the native hawks that predate upon Eurasian collared-doves (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

It is also a carrier and amplifying species for West Nile virus since antibodies have been recorded in the Eurasion collared-dove. Researchers have indicated it as an amplifying bird, meaning a species which lives in areas of abundant ornithophilic mosquitoes and can act as a host, contributing to the proliferation of the virus (Jourdain et al., 2007). It is also a carrier of the pigeon circovirus which causes illness and mortality in the Columbidae family (Kubicek and Taras, 2005).

Social Impact

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When present and roosting in large numbers, Eurasian collared-doves can become a significant noise nuisance. They also produce large amounts of unsightly faeces, which could spread disease to humans or pets (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Fouling
  • Hybridization
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Economic Value

The Eurasian collared-dove is a popular game bird (Romagosa, 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Sport (hunting, shooting, fishing, racing)

Human food and beverage

  • Meat/fat/offal/blood/bone (whole, cut, fresh, frozen, canned, cured, processed or smoked)

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The Eurasian collared-dove and the introduced ringed turtle-dove (Streptopelia risoria), are almost identical in appearance and may easily be confused. The white-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica) and the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) are also very similar in size and appearance to the Eurasian collared-dove but both lack the black collar. The call of the Eurasian collared-dove is a rhythmic coo slightly lower in pitch than that of the more common mourning dove or a harsh nasal “krreew” given during display flights.

Prevention and Control

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Since non-native species are not protected, it may be possible to manage their numbers in some areas through hunting (Johnson and Donaldson-Fortier, 2009).

In the USA, it is a popular species for hunting, which is generally encouraged. However, hunting is often limited to native dove seasons and differs from state to state. Hunting is expected to reduce populations in rural areas but suburban populations are likely to remain unaffected.

References

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Beckett SM; Komar N; Doherty Jr PF, 2007. Population estimates for Eurasian Collared-dove in northeastern Colorado. Wilson J. Ornithol, 119:471-475.

BirdLife International, 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

BirdLife International, 2014. BirdLife International IUCN Red List for birds. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. http://www.birdlife.org

Bohlen HD, 1997. A new dove colonizing Illinois. Living Mus, 59:6-7.

Bonter DN; Zuckerberg B; Dickinson JL, 2010. Invasive birds in a novel landscape: habitat associations and effects on established species. Ecography, 33(3):494-502. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/eco

Brazil M, 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. London, UK: Christopher Helm, 528 pp.

Coombs CFB; Isaacson AJ; Murton RK; Thearle RJP; Westwood WJ, 1981. Collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in urban habitats. Appl. Ecol, 18:41-62.

Cramp S, 1985. Handbook of the Bird of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol 4, 4. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.

Crooks JA; Soulé ME, 1999. Lag times in population explosions of invasive species: causes and implications. In: Invasive species and biodiversity management. Based on papers presented at the Norway/United Nations (UN) Conference on Alien Species, 2nd Trondheim Conference on Biodiversity, Trondheim, Norway, 1-5 July 1996 [ed. by Sandlund, O. T.\Schei, P. J.\Viken, Å.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 103-125.

Drennen DJ, 1997. Nesting of Eurasian Collared-doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Barbour County, Alabama. Alabama Birdlife, 43:1-7.

Eraud C; Boutin JM; Roux D; Faivre B, 2007. Spatial dynamics of an invasive bird species assessed using robust design occupancy analysis: the case of the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) in France. Journal of Biogeography, 34(6):1077-1086. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jbi

Fielder JMR; Kannan DAJ; Cunningham J, 2012. Status, Dispersal, and Breeding Biology of the Exotic Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) in Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 66.

Fujisaki I; Pearlstine EV; Mazzotti FJ, 2010. The rapid spread of invasive Eurasian Collared Doves Streptopelia decaocto in the continental USA follows human-altered habitats. Ibis (London), 152(3):622-632. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/123526851/HTMLSTART

Gorski W, 1993. Long-term dynamics of an urban population of collared dove (Streptopelia decaoto) from southern Baltic coast. The Ring, 15:86-96.

Hengeveld R, 1988. Mechanisms of biological invasions. Journal of Biogeography, 15(5-6):819-828.

Hengeveld R, 1993. What to do about the North American invasion by the Collared Dove? Journal of Field Ornithology, 64:477-489.

Hooten MB; Wikle CK, 2008. A hierarchical Bayesian non-linear spatio-temporal model for the spread of invasive species with application to the Eurasian Collared-Dove. Environmental and Ecological Statistics [New Development of Statistical Analysis in Wildlife, Fisheries, and Ecological Research Conference, University of Missouri, USA, 13-16 October, 2004.], 15(1):59-70. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100167

Hooten MB; Wikle CK; Dorazio RB; Royle JA, 2007. Hierarchical spatiotemporal matrix models for characterizing invasions. Biometrics, 63:558-567.

Hudson R, 1972. Collared Doves in Britain and Ireland during 1965-1970. British Birds, 65:139-155.

Johnson SA; Donaldson-Fortier G, 2009. Florida?s Introduced Birds: Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto). Florida, USA: University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/UW/UW30100.pdf

Jourdain E; Toussaint Y; Leblond A; Bicout DJ; Sabatier P; Gauthier-Clerc M, 2007. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 7(1):15-33.

Krauss U, 2012. 161 Invasive Alien Species present in Saint Lucia and their current status. Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf

Kubícek O; Taras L, 2005. Incidence of pigeon circovirus in Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) detected by nested PCR. Acta Veterinaria Brno, 74(3):361-368.

Ludwick TJ; Fedynich AM, 2006. Make Way for the Eurasian Collared-Dove, 10(1). Texas, USA: Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, 1-2.

Poling TD; Hayslette SE, 2006. Dietary overlap and foraging competition between Mourning Doves and Eurasian Collared-doves. J. Wildl. Manage, 70:998-1004.

Rich TD; Beardmore CJ; Berlanga H; Blancher PJ; Bradstreet MSW; Butcher GS; Demarest DW; Dunn EH; Hunter WC; Inigo-Elias EE; Kennedy JA; Martell AM; Panjabi AO; Pashley DN; Rosenberg KV; Rustay CM; Wendt JS; Will TC, 2004. Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. http://www.partnersinflight.org/cont_plan/default.htm

Roberts TJ, 1991. The birds of Pakistan. Vol 1. Regional studies and non-passeriformes, 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 666 pp.

Rocha-Camerero G; Hidalgo Trucios SJde, 2002. The spread of the Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto in Europe: colonization patterns in the west of the Iberian Peninsula. Bird Study, 49:11-16.

Romagosa CM, 2012. Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto), The Birds of North America Online [ed. by Poole, A.]. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell Lab of Ornithology.

Romagosa CM; Labisky RF, 2000. Establishment and dispersal of the Eurasian collared-dove in Florida. Journal of Field Ornithology, 71(1):159-166.

Romagosa CM; McEneaney T, 1999. Eurasian Collareddove in North America and the Caribbean. North American Birds, 53:348-353.

Schifferli A; Geroudet P; Winkler R, 1980. Verbreitungsatlas der Brutvogel der Schweiz (Verbreitungsatlas der Brutvogel der Schweiz). 462 pp.

Smith PW, 1987. The Eurasian Collared-dove arrives in the Americas. Am. Birds, 41:1370-1379.

Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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21/01/14 Original text by:
 
Eduardo Ventosa, Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico

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