Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)
  • Overview
  • Several streptococci can be found in pigs. Some of them can be hosted in the tonsils and bowel of healthy animals, and various species are potential pathogens. S. intestinalis, S. hyointestinalis, S. su...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The acute mild pleurisy is caused by Streptococcus suis.  The visceral pleural adhesions to the parietal pleura can be seen.
TitleOpened chest cavity; lungs showing acute pleurisy
CaptionThe acute mild pleurisy is caused by Streptococcus suis. The visceral pleural adhesions to the parietal pleura can be seen.
CopyrightStan H. Done
The acute mild pleurisy is caused by Streptococcus suis.  The visceral pleural adhesions to the parietal pleura can be seen.
Opened chest cavity; lungs showing acute pleurisyThe acute mild pleurisy is caused by Streptococcus suis. The visceral pleural adhesions to the parietal pleura can be seen.Stan H. Done

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Streptococcus and Enterococcus infections in pigs (and ruminants)

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial endocarditis and pericarditis in pigs; bacterial endocarditis in ruminants; cervical abscess; cutaneous porcine streptococcal pustules, abscesses; ear necrosis in pigs; ear, tail, teats, skin necrosis in pigs; enterococcosis; enterococcus diarrhea in piglets; Enterococcus infections in pigs; joint ill; jowl abscess; jowl abscesses of swine; mammary abscess in pigs; meningoencephalitis, meningitis, meningoventriculitis; otitis media, externa, interna, middle and inner ear infections; porcine streptococcal infections; skin necrosis in pigs; streptococcal lymphadenitis in swine, jowl abscesses; streptococcal lymphadenitis of swine; streptococcal meningitis; streptococcosis; Streptococcus infections in pigs; Streptococcus suis infections; Streptococcus, s. suis, infection in swine; tail necrosis in pigs; teat necrosis in pigs

Local Common Names

  • France: meningite a streptocoque
  • Italy: meningite streptococcica
  • Spain: meningite streptoccocica

English acronym

  • SLS

Overview

Top of page

Several streptococci can be found in pigs. Some of them can be hosted in the tonsils and bowel of healthy animals, and various species are potential pathogens. S. intestinalis, S. hyointestinalis, S. suis and S. bovis are members of the enteric flora, while S. suis, S. porcinus and S. dysgalactiae are frequently found in the tonsils. Members of the genus Enterococcus, such as E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans, are also present in the intestinal microflora.

S. suis has rapidly emerged in swine production during the 1990s. This streptococcus is also a zoonotic agent with severe consequences. This data sheet focusses on S. suis. Other streptococci are only occasionally involved in clinical diseases. Enterococci are sporadically responsible for diarrhoea in young pigs. Some further details are given below.

Streptococcus porcinus

The name S. porcinus was proposed in 1984, and includes streptococci of groups E, P, U and V (Collins et al., 1984). It is closely related to other beta-haemolytic streptococci of groups A, B and C (Facklam et al., 1995).

The organism is associated with lymphadenitis in growing pigs, jowl abscesses and cervical abscesses. Transmission is possible by contact, through drinking water, and by ingestion of food contaminated with abscess discharge or infected faeces. The initial localization is in the pharyngeal mucosa and in the tonsils; this is followed by the distribution to the neck region where abscesses are formed. The disease is documented as an important economic entity in the USA. In other countries, S. porcinus accounts for only a small proportion of abscess isolates. It can be isolated from tonsils, pharynx, nasal cavity and (occasionally) from vaginal mucus and prepuce. It is considered a secondary invader in pneumonia, enteritis and arthritis. Antibiotic treatment is not often successful. S. porcinus has also been isolated from cattle with mastitis and infertile cattle. There is no evidence of zoonotic potential.

Enterococcus spp.

Diarrhoea associated with E. durans has been described in piglets between 2 and 14 days of age; the disease is sporadic inside the farrowing units. The clinical signs are typical of a neonatal diarrhoea, but the mortality is generally negligible (Cheon and Chae, 1996). This condition has also been reported in calves (Rogers et al., 1992) and puppies (Collins et al., 1988). Enterococci are known as part of the enteric flora, but some strains have the ability to colonize the mucosa of the small intestine widely. Pathogenesis is thought to be strictly dependent on the ability of the organism to adhere to the target tissue, but this is not completely clear because diarrhoea is not associated with enterotoxin production or apparent mucosal injury. Alone or in conjunction with other agents, enterococci interfere with digestion and absorption at the brush border (Tzipori et al., 1984).

Because of the natural resistance of enterococci to some antibacterial agents, antibiotic susceptibility testing is necessary before treatment. The risk to human health of transfer of antibiotic-resistant enterococci of animal origin has been considered (VanDenBogaard et al., 1997; Davies and Roberts, 1999; Kruse et al., 1999; Aarestrup, 2000).

E. faecium has been used as a probiotic additive (Spieler, 1995).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The main host of Streptococcus suis is the domestic pig, but a wide range of animal species localize S. suis, and isolations are increasing from the enteric flora of cattle, sheep, goats and horses. In dogs and cats, S. suis has been isolated from tonsils and anal flora (Salasia et al., 1994). Clinical forms have been reported in wild boar (acute pneumonia; Higgins et al., 1997), horse (meningitis; Devriese et al., 1990), cattle (abortion, bronchopneumonia; Higgins et al., 1990), sheep (arthritis; Higgins et al., 1995), and in psittacine birds and ducks (Devriese et al., 1994).

Distribution

Top of page

Information presented in the distribution list is for Streptococcus suis.

Streptococcus suis
Capsular type 2 is prevalent in almost all countries, while in Scandinavia type 7 predominated for several years (Sihvonen et al., 1988); however, in the 1990s type 2 outnumbered type 7. In Japan, type 2 is prevalent, followed by type 7 (Kataoka et al., 1993).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentHuang and Huang, 1995
-Hong KongPresentKay et al., 1995
IndiaPresentSingh et al., 1994
JapanPresentAzuma et al., 1983; Kataoka et al., 1993
Korea, Republic ofPresentJung et al., 1997
TaiwanPresentChu et al., 1993
ThailandPresentKramomtong et al., 1994
VietnamPresentTrinh et al., 1999

North America

CanadaWidespreadSanford and Tilker, 1982; Breton et al., 1986; Touil et al., 1988
USAWidespreadCollier and Noel, 1971; Erickson et al., 1984
-MinnesotaPresentGalina et al., 1992
-NebraskaPresentErickson et al., 1984

South America

BrazilPresentGarcia and Schonhofen, 1988
-ParanaPresentGarcia and Schonhofen, 1988
-Rio Grande do SulPresentBarcellos et al., 1995

Europe

BelgiumPresentHommez et al., 1986
CroatiaPresentHajsig and Seol, 1992; Hajsig et al., 1993
Czech RepublicPresentSmola and Novotny, 2000
DenmarkWidespreadBoetner et al., 1987
FinlandPresentSihvonen et al., 1986; Sihvonen et al., 1988
FranceWidespreadFaucqueur and Proust, 1983
GermanyWidespreadKaufhold et al., 1988
ItalyWidespreadSala et al., 1985
NetherlandsWidespreadVecht et al., 1985; van et al., 1987
NorwayPresentJordhOy, 1995
Russian FederationPresentPanin and Henriksen, 1992
SpainWidespreadPrieto et al., 1993
SwedenPresentChristensen and Kronvall, 1985
UKWidespreadElliott et al., 1977; Windsor, 1977; Heard, 1984

Oceania

AustraliaPresentRobertson and Blackmore, 1989; Gogolewski et al., 1990; Hampson et al., 1993
-New South WalesPresentOssowicz et al., 1989
New ZealandPresentRobertson, 1986; Robertson and Blackmore, 1989
Papua New GuineaPresentPaterson et al., 1993

Pathology

Top of page

Neither clinical signs nor gross lesions are associated with specific serotypes of Streptococcus suis (Reams et al., 1996). Significant microscopic lesions are typically limited to the lung, brain, heart and joints. The predominant lesions are suppurative bronchopneumonia, neutrophilic meningitis or encephalitis, and fibrinopurulent or suppurative epicarditis (Reams et al., 1994). Interstitial pneumonia is considered a lesion secondary to septicaemia. Macroscopic lesions in joints not described.

Diagnosis

Top of page

The presumptive diagnosis is based on farm epidemiology (age of animals), clinical signs and microscopic lesions. Confirmation is achieved by the observation of microscopic lesions in tissues, followed by isolation of Streptococcus suis from tissues, joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid. A PCR assay, specific for serotypes 1, 2 and 9, has recently been developed (Smith et al., 1999b). Collection of multiple haemolytic colonies from different tissues of the same animal, or from different animals of the same herd, suggests that multiple serotypes and strains can be implicated (Reams et al., 1996). Periodic culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from pigs with meningitis is useful to ensure that the capsular types on the farm have not changed (Amass, 1997). S. suis may even be isolated from tonsils of healthy pigs, but isolates from a lesion of target tissue are to be preferred in acute disease.

When serotyping is available, biochemical identification of S. suis is possible with a simple test (Higgins and Gottschalk, 1990; Tarradas et al., 1994a). Serotyping is still an important part of the routine diagnostic procedure. The majority of isolates belong to capsular types 1-8 and ½.

Identification of the pathogenicity of isolates is another essential diagnostic route (Sala and Leoni, 2000). Ribotyping has recently been applied for this purpose (Staats et al., 1998). Biomolecular and immunohistochemical techniques have also been used on tissue sections (Boye et al., 2000).

Different serological tests for S. suis antibody detection have been evaluated; ELISA using purified capsular antigens has shown the best specificity (Del Campo Sepulveda et al., 1996). Serology is more useful for vaccination studies or as a surveillance tool in high-health-status herds, than as a diagnostic tool.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Acoustic Signs / Deafness Sign
Acoustic Signs / Deafness Sign
Acoustic Signs / Purulent, mucoid discharge, excess wax, foul odour, ears Sign
Acoustic Signs / Rubbing ears, scratching Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Absent p waves Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Arrhythmia, irregular heart rate, pulse Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Atrial fibrillation Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Heart murmur Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Heart murmur Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Heart murmur Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Jugular pulse Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Muffled, decreased, heart sounds Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Palpable precordial thrill Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Peripheral venous distention, jugular distention Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Sinus tachycardia Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Ventricular premature beat, multifocal or unifocal Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Weak pulse, small pulse Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Ascites, fluid abdomen Sign
Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Grinding teeth, bruxism, odontoprisis Sign
Digestive Signs / Grinding teeth, bruxism, odontoprisis Sign
Digestive Signs / Hepatosplenomegaly, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling Sign
General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Decreased, absent thirst, hypodipsia, adipsia Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Pigs:Piglet Diagnosis
General Signs / Exercise intolerance, tires easily Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Pigs:Piglet,Pigs:Weaner Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Pigs:Piglet,Pigs:Weaner Diagnosis
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw weakness, droop, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hypothermia, low temperature Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Pigs:Piglet Diagnosis
General Signs / Kyphosis, arched back Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Laryngeal, tracheal, pharyngeal swelling, mass larynx, trachea, pharynx Sign
General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes Pigs:Piglet Sign
General Signs / Mammary gland swelling, mass, hypertrophy udder, gynecomastia Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Pigs:Piglet,Pigs:Weaner Diagnosis
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs Sign
General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Pigs:Piglet,Pigs:Weaner Sign
General Signs / Stiffness or extended neck Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Pigs:Piglet Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Tetraparesis, weakness, paralysis all four limbs Sign
General Signs / Tetraparesis, weakness, paralysis all four limbs Sign
General Signs / Torticollis, twisted neck Pigs:Piglet,Pigs:Weaner Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Forelimb spasms, myoclonus Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Hindlimb spasms, myoclonus Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Sign
Nervous Signs / Constant or increased vocalization Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Excitement, delirium, mania Sign
Nervous Signs / Excitement, delirium, mania Sign
Nervous Signs / Head pressing Sign
Nervous Signs / Head pressing Sign
Nervous Signs / Head shaking, headshaking Sign
Nervous Signs / Head tilt Sign
Nervous Signs / Head tilt Sign
Nervous Signs / Head, face, neck, tongue hypoesthesia, anesthesia Sign
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Nervous Signs / Propulsion, aimless wandering Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Nervous Signs / Tetany Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Anisocoria Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blepharospasm Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal neovascularization, pannus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal ulcer, erosion Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased or absent menace response but not blind Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Decreased tearing, lacrimation Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Exophthalmos, eyes protruding, proptosis Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Hypopyon, lipid, or fibrin, flare, of anterior chamber Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Miosis, meiosis, constricted pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Miosis, meiosis, constricted pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Mydriasis, dilated pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Pigs:Piglet Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Papilledema, increased size optic nerve Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Prolapsed third eyelid, protrusion nictitating membrane Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Ptosis, lid droop Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Purulent discharge from eye Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Strabismus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Strabismus Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Forelimb pain, front leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Forelimb pain, front leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Ocular pain, eye Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Ocular pain, eye Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain mammary gland, udder Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain on external abdominal pressure Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, head, face, jaw, ears Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Pain, neck, cervical, throat Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Reproductive Signs / Mastitis, abnormal milk Sign
Reproductive Signs / Warm mammary gland, hot, heat, udder Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Change in voice, vocal strength Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Pigs:Growing-finishing pig Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Pigs:Growing-finishing pig Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Pigs:Growing-finishing pig Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Respiratory Signs / Purulent nasal discharge Sign
Respiratory Signs / Sneezing, sneeze Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cold skin, cool ears, extremities Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Moist skin, hair or feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Pruritus, itching skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin fistula, sinus Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin pustules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin scales, flakes, peeling Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin vesicles, bullae, blisters Sign
Urinary Signs / Haematuria, blood in urine Sign
Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output Sign
Urinary Signs / Proteinuria, protein in urine Sign
Urinary Signs / Urinary incontinence, dribbling urine Sign

Disease Course

Top of page

Overcrowding, poor ventilation, excessive temperature fluctuation and mixing of pigs with an age spread of more than 2 weeks are the most important stress factors in the development of streptococcal disease (Dee et al., 1983).

The [Streptococcus suis] bacterium initially localizes in the nasopharynx; the mechanism that enables it to disseminate in the organism is not understood, especially in case of meningitis (Gottschalk and Segura, 2000). A possible step is the entry into blood from tonsils, followed by uptake by monocytes, transport to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via the choroid plexus, and cytokine production by monocytes/macrophages which causes an inflammatory infiltration of CSF (Chanter et al., 1993). Otitis interna is a frequent sequela of meningitis (Madsen et al., 2001). The pathogenesis of infection is influenced by the immune status of the host, environmental factors and the virulence of the infectious agent.

The pathogenesis of pneumonia has not been investigated, but adhesion is essential in the pathogenesis of streptococcal disease (Gottschalk et al., 1991; Lalonde et al., 2000).

It is possible that concomitant viral infections could potentiate the development of lesions, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus is at present the main door-opener for Streptococcus suis infection; pigs are also more susceptible during pregnancy and lactation (Thanawongnuwech et al., 2000; Feng et al., 2001).

The initial symptom is a rise in body temperature (up to 42.5°C), usually without other obvious signs. It is associated with bacteraemia which, if untreated, may persist for up to 3 weeks, together with irregular fever, inappetence, depression and lameness (Clifton-Hadley, 1984). In peracute disease, pigs may be found dead without premonitory symptoms. In these cases meningitis is the most obvious diagnostic hypothesis. Early nervous signs include incoordination and unusual stances, rapidly followed by inability to stand, paddling, opisthotonus, convulsions and nystagmus (Clifton-Hadley et al., 1986). Among other manifestations of S. suis infection are endocarditis, rhinitis, abortion and vaginitis (Sanford and Tilker, 1982). In North America, S. suis is the infectious agent most frequently isolated from cases of endocarditis.

Epidemiology

Top of page

Streptococcus suis is a natural inhabitant of the superior respiratory tract (tonsils and nasal cavity) of pigs (Clifton-Hadley et al., 1985). It can also be found in the genital tract and in the bowel. The movement of healthy carrier pigs (gilts, boars and weaners) between herds is the main method of transmission.

Type 2 survives in water at 4°C for 1-2 weeks, in experimentally inoculated faeces at 0°C, 9°C and 22-25°C for 104 days, 10 days and 8 days, respectively, and in dust for 54 days, 25 days and 0 days, respectively (Clifton-Hadley and Enright, 1984).

Sows infect piglets via the respiratory route (Torremorell et al., 1998), and also during birth and suckling. Transmission is also possible via fomites (Dee and Corey, 1993), and some strains have been isolated from the troughs used by piglets and sows (Robertson et al., 1991). Vertical transmission has also been observed (Amass et al., 1997). Flies can carry S. suis for 5 days, and can cause contamination during feeding for at least 4 days (Enright et al., 1987). Carriage by humans also seems possible (Sala et al., 1989).

Although many weaned piglets carry S. suis strains, only a few of these strains are able to induce clinical disease after weaning (Pijoan, 1996). Persistence of infection is also possible in a closed pig population (Torremorell and Pijoan, 1998).

No vector is important.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

Top of page

Streptococcus suis is a significant zoonotic agent. In spite of its high prevalence in pigs, human cases are infrequent but severe. Over 110 cases have been reported worldwide, mostly from northern Europe and South-East Asia. Meningitis is the most common manifestation, followed by septicaemia and endocarditis. In Europe, there are reports from The Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, France, UK, Belgium, Italy and Germany (Colaert et al., 1985; Lutticken et al., 1986; Perseghin et al., 1995). Cases have also occurred in Hong Kong (Kay et al., 1995), Taiwan (Yen et al., 1994), New Zealand (Robertson and Blackmore, 1989) and Canada (Michaud et al., 1996). S. suis interactions with the human brain have recently been investigated (Charland et al., 2000). It is likely that the disease in humans is underdiagnosed, because many laboratories are unaware of this organism. Hence, it can easily be mistaken for an enterococcus, pneumococcus, or even Listeria species (Arends and Zaanen, 1988).

The vast majority of human cases have been attributed to capsular type 2. Only one case was associated with type 4 (Arends and Zanen, 1988) and 14. The latter strain was designated as the reference strain of this serotype (Gottschalk et al., 1991a).

The infection risk for people has been investigated, and it appears to be related to close contacts with pigs or pork products (Elbers et al., 1999). The most frequent route of transmission is through skin abrasions or cuts (Michaud et al., 1996). S. suis capsular type 2 has been isolated from the tonsils of two clinically healthy abattoir workers, confirming the risk to people in contact with pigs (Sala et al., 1989).

Disease Treatment

Top of page

The choice of antibacterial treatment must be based on the susceptibility of the bacterium [Streptococcus suis], the type of infection, the mode of administration and the method of excretion. The susceptibility of the isolates to penicillin is between 80 and 95% in the Kirby-Bauer method, while sensitivity to minimal inhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin and ampicillin is around 90% (Tarradas et al., 1994b). Therefore, it is recommended that penicillin be used only in cases where sensitivity of the isolate has been demonstrated.

The majority of S. suis isolates have a high degree of resistance to some antibacterial agents such as tetracyclines, macrolides and aminoglycosides (Salmon et al., 1995), while susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is variable (Tarradas et al., 1994). The most active antibiotics seem to be amoxicillin, ampicillin, enrofloxacin and ceftiofur (Salmon et al., 1995). The level of the resistance of S. suis to antimicrobial agents is certainly increasing (Pineda et al., 1996; Aarestrup et al., 1998; Sala et al., 1999).

Suitable detection of the early clinical signs of meningitis, followed by immediate and complete parenteral treatment with an appropriate antibiotic is at present the best method to maximize pig survival (Amass, 1997). When initial symptoms are difficult to detect, the groups of pigs should be checked two or three times daily. Adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapy is recommended in acute meningitis (Amass, 1997).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

[Streptococcus suis]


Husbandry methods and good practice


Management practices such as all-in/all-out can help to reduce the incidence of disease. Dividing large buildings into small rooms can minimize temperature fluctuations and the age spread between pigs. Cleaning each room between groups of pigs reduces the infection rate, and improves health status, average daily gain and feed conversion (Dee et al., 1993). Disinfectants and cleaners commonly used in piggeries can destroy S. suis in less than 1 minute, even at concentrations lower than those recommended by the producers. The presence of organic material can reduce the efficacy of disinfection, and hence the removal of dirt is fundamental (Clifton-Hadley and Enright, 1984).

Medicated early weaning (MEW) and segregated early weaning have been used to reduce the infection rate (Alexander et al., 1980), but their capacity to reduce or eliminate early colonizers such as S. suis is questionable (Pijoan, 1996). More recently, early experimental exposure to a pathogenic strain has been tested (Torremorell et al., 1999), and caesarean section has been considered as a method to derive pigs free of S. suis (Amass et al., 1996).


Preventive medication


An assessment of the use of antimicrobial preventive medication has to take into account bioavailability, route of administration (feed or water), competition (overcrowded pens), co-infections (Halbur et al., 2000) and serum concentrations needed to kill S. suis (Amass, 1997). Procaine penicillin in feed significantly reduces the prevalence of streptococcal meningitis. Amoxicillin and ampicillin are widely used in control and prevention of streptococcal infection during the weaning period, because they have some advantages over natural penicillins for mass medication. Their bioavailability is similar, but the body clearance is lower than of penicillin V, and higher serum concentrations can thus be obtained (Del Castillo et al., 1998).


Vaccines


Most vaccines used to protect against S. suis are autogenous bacterins, but the results are often inconsistent. The reasons for vaccine failure are probably related to degradation of protective antigens, weak immunogenicity of capsulated bacteria, production of antibodies to antigens not associated with virulence, and the absence of some strains or serotypes involved in the pathological process. The presence of multiple serotypes in a single herd may explain the inefficacy of vaccination.

Live attenuated vaccines, such as streptomycin-dependent or temperature-sensitive mutants of capsular type ½ gave inconsistent results in mice (Foster et al., 1994) but better results in pigs (Busque et al., 1997). In fact, the virulence of S. suis strains appears to be host specific (Vecht et al., 1997).

Humoral immunity is important, and can be transferred (Holt et al., 1988). Nonetheless, S. suis survives for a period of time in leukocytes, and the use of live vaccines could stimulate humoral and active cellular immunity.

A vaccine made of purified suilysin gave good results in pigs, comparable to those already reported in mice (Jacobs et al., 1996). In contrast, only partial protection was obtained using an EF vaccine (Vecht et al., 1991), but the results were better with a vaccine containing MRP and EF (Wisselink et al., 2001).

References

Top of page

Aarestrup FM, 2000. Characterization of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) from broilers and pigs in Denmark: genetic evidence that persistence of GRE in pig herds is associated with coselection by resistance to macrolides. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38(7):2774-2777; 31 ref.

Aarestrup FM; Rasmussen SR; Artursson K; Jensen NE, 1998. Trends in the resistance to antimicrobial agents of Streptococcus suis isolates from Denmark and Sweden. Veterinary Microbiology, 63(1):71-80; 21 ref.

Alexander TJL; Thornton K; Boon G; Lysons RJ; Gush AF, 1980. Medicated early weaning to obtain pigs free from pathogens endemic in the herd of origin. Veterinary Record, 106:114-119.

Allgaier A; Goethe R; Wisselink HJ; Smith HE; Valentin-Weigand P, 2001. Relatedness of Streptococcus suis isolates of various serotypes and clinical backgrounds as evaluated by macrorestriction analysis and expression of potential virulence traits. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(2):445-453; 36 ref.

Amass SF, 1997. Eradication, prevention and treatment of meningitis in weaned pigs caused by Streptococcus suis. In:Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Practitionners, 411-414. Quebec, Canada.

Amass SF; SanMiguel P; Clark LK, 1997. Demonstration of vertical transmission of Streptococcus suis in swine by genomic fingerprinting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35(6):1595-1959; 10 ref.

Amass SF; Struve R; Clark LK; Wu CC, 1996. Cesarean section: a surgical method to derive pigs free of Streptococcus suis. Swine Health and Production, 4(4):196-198; 15 ref.

Arends JP; Zanen HC, 1988. Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis in humans. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 10(1):131-137; 44 ref.

Azuma R; Hara F; Oonuma Y; Sugimoto C, 1983. Streptococcus R (Streptococcus suis type II) infection in pigs in Japan. National Institute of Animal Health Quarterly, Japan, 23(4):117-126; 35 ref.

Barcellos DESN; Borowski SM; Oliveira SJ, 1995. Infection of pigs with Streptococcus suis type II in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: determination of carriers by bacteriological examination of tonsils in abattoirs. Arquivos da Faculdade de Veterinária, UFRGS, 23:101-106; 9 ref.

Benkirane R; Gottschalk MG; Jacques M; Dubreuil JD, 1998. Immunochemical characterization of an IgG-binding protein of Streptococcus suis. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 20(2):121-127; 12 ref.

Berthelot-Herault F; Morvan H; Keribin AM; Gottschalk M; Kobish M, 2000. Production of muraminidase-released protein (MRP), extracellular factor and suilysin by field isolates of Streptococcus suis capsular types 2, ½ 9 and 3 isolated from swine in France. Veterinary Research, 31:473-479.

Boetner AG; Binder M; Bille-Hansen V, 1987. Streptococcus suis infections in Danish pigs and experimental infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7. Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica, 95(4):233-239; 21 ref.

Boye M; Feenstra AA; Tegtmeier C; Andresen LO; Rasmussen SR; Bille-Hansen V, 2000. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 12(3):224-232; 23 ref.

Breton J; Mitchell WR; Rosendal S, 1986. Streptococcus suis in slaughter pigs and abattoir workers. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 50(3):338-341; 28 ref.

Brisebois LM; Charlebois R; Higgins R; Nadeau M, 1990. Prevalence of Streptococcus suis in four to eight week old clinically healthy piglets. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 54(1):174-177; 34 ref.

Busque P; Higgins R; Caya F; Quessy S, 1997. Immunization of pigs against Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection using a live avirulent strain. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 61(4):275-279; 26 ref.

Castillo Jdel; Roy JJ; Messier S; Higgins R; Besner JG; Martineau GP, 1998. Metaphylaxis of Streptococcus suis in weaned pigs with oral amoxicillin: a study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France, 30:411-416; 19 ref.

Chanter N; Jones PW; Alexander TJL, 1993. Meningitis in pigs caused by Streptococcus suis - a speculative review. Veterinary Microbiology, 36(1/2):39-55; 87 ref.

Charland N; Nizet V, Rubens CE. Kim KS, Lacouture S, Gottschalk M, 2000. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 interactions with human brain microvascular endotelial cells. Infection and Immunity, 68:637-643.

Cheon DooSung; Chae Chanhee, 1996. Outbreak of diarrhea associated with Enterococcus durans in piglets. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 8(1):123-124; 8 ref.

Christensen P; Kronvall G, 1985. A case of Streptococcus suis meningitis:a new occupational disease in Sweden? Lakartidningen, 82:119-120.

Chu KN; Shieh WY; Liao CC; Shen YM, 1993. Etiological and epidemiological studies on septicemia in pigs. English Summary of Annual Research Report - Animal Industry Research Institute, Taiwan Sugar Corporation, No. 1992/93:17; [abst. of Annual Research Report, Animal Industry Research Institute, Taiwan Sugar Corporation (1993) pp. 141-148].

Clifton-Hadley FA, 1984. Studies of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in pigs. Veterinary Research Communications, 8(3):217-227; 43 ref.

Clifton-Hadley FA; Alexander TJL; Enright MR, 1985. Diagnosis of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in pigs. Pig Veterinary Society Proceedings, 14:27-34; 19 ref.

Clifton-Hadley FA; Alexander TJL; Enright MR, 1986. The epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control of Streptococcus suis type 2 infection in pigs. Proceedings of the American Association of Swine Practitioners, 473-491.

Clifton-Hadley FA; Enright MR, 1984. Factors affecting the survival of Streptococcus suis type 2. Veterinary Record, 114(24):584-586; 12 ref.

Colaert J; Allewaert M; Magerman H; Vandeven J; Vandepitte J, 1985. Streptococcus suis meningitis in man. Acta Clinica Belgica, 40:314-317.

Collier JR; Noel J, 1971. Streptococcic lymphadenitis of swine:an immune carrier of Streptococcus suis. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 32:1507-1509.

Collins JE; Bergeland ME; Lindeman CJ; Duimstra JR, 1988. Enterococcus (Streptococcus) durans adherence in the small intestine of a diarrheic pup. Veterinary Pathology, 25(5):396-398; 10 ref.

Collins MD; Farrow JAE; Katic V; Kandler O, 1984. Taxonomic studies on streptococci of serological groups E, P, U and V: description of Streptococcus porcinus sp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 5(3):402-413; 26 ref.

Davies R; Roberts TA, 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci recovered from commercial swine carcasses: effect of feed additives. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 29(5):327-333; 22 ref.

Dee SA; Carlson AR; Winkelman NL; Corey MM, 1993. Effect of management practices on the Streptococcus suis carrier rate in nursery swine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 203(2):295-299; 18 ref.

Dee SA; Corey MM, 1993. The survival of Streptococcus suis on farm and veterinary equipment. Swine Health and Production, 1(1):17-20; 4 ref.

Del Campo Sepulveda EM; Altman E; Kobisch M; D'Allaire S; Gottschalk M, 1996. Detection of antibodies against Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 using a purified capsular polysaccharide antigen-based indirect ELISA. Veterinary Microbiology, 52:113-125.

Devriese LA; Haesebrouck F; Herdt Pde; Dom P; Ducatelle R; Desmidt M; Messier S; Higgins R, 1994. Streptococcus suis infections in birds. Avian Pathology, 23(4):721-724; 10 ref.

Devriese LA; Sustronck B; Maenhout T; Haesebrouck F, 1990. Streptococcus suis meningitis in a horse. Veterinary Record, 127(3):68; 3 ref.

Elbers ARW; Vecht U; Osterhaus ADME; Groen J; Wisselink HJ; Diepersloot RJA; Tielen MJM, 1999. Low prevalence of antibodies against the zoonotic agents Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Streptococcus suis serotype II, Hantavirus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus among veterinarians and pig farmers in the southern part of the Netherlands. Veterinary Quarterly, 21(2):50-53; 51 ref.

Elliott SD, 1966. Streptococcal infection in young pigs. I. An immunological study of the causative agent (PM streptococcus). Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge, 64:205-212.

Elliott SD; McCarty M; Lancefield RC, 1977. Teichoic acids of group D streptococci with special reference to strains from pig meningitis (Streptococcus suis). Journal of Experimental Medicine, 145:490-499.

Elliott SD; Tai J, 1978. The type-specific polysaccharides of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 148:1699-1704.

Enright MR; Alexander TJL; Clifton-Hadley FA, 1987. Role of houseflies (Musca domestica) in the epidemiology of Streptococcus suis type 2. Veterinary Record, 121(6):132-133; 8 ref.

Erickson ED; Doster AR; Pokorny TS, 1984. Isolation of Streptococcus suis from swine in Nebraska. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 185(6):666-668; 17 ref.

Facklam R; Elliott J; Pigott N; Franklin AR, 1995. Identification of Streptococcus porcinus from human sources. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33:385-388.

Faucqueur B; Proust J, 1983. Streptococcus suis meningitis. An occupational disease. Presse Medicale, 12:1821-1822.

Feng WH; Laster SM; Tompkins M; Brown T; Xu JS; Altier C; Gomez W; Benfield D; McCaw MB, 2001. In utero infection by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus is sufficient to increase susceptibility of piglets to challenge by Streptococcus suis type II. Journal of Virology, 75:4889-4895.

Field HI; Buntain D; Done JT, 1954. Studies on piglets mortality. I. Streptococcal meningitis and arthritis. Veterinary Record, 66:453-455.

Foster N; Staats JJ; Chengappa MM, 1994. Isolation, characterization and protection studies in mice of a streptomycin-dependent mutant of Streptococcus suis type 1/2. Veterinary Research Communications, 18(3):155-163; 17 ref.

Galina L; Collins JE; Pijoan C, 1992. Porcine Streptococcus suis in Minnesota. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(2):195-196; 8 ref.

Garcia RGF; Schonhofen CA, 1988. Meningoencephalitis in pigs caused by Streptococcus suis type II. Revista do Setor de Ciências Agrárias, 10(1-2):207-209; 18 ref.

Gogolewski RP; Cook RW; O'Connell CJ, 1990. Streptococcus suis serotypes associated with disease in weaned pigs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 67(6):202-204; 23 ref.

Gottschalk M; Higgins R; Jacques M; Beaudoin M; Henrichsen J, 1991. Isolation and characterization of Streptococcus suis capsular types 9-22. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 3(1):60-65; 35 ref.

Gottschalk M; Lebrun A; Jacques M; Higgins R, 1990. Hemagglutination properties of Streptococcus suis.. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 28(9):2156-2158; 15 ref.

Gottschalk M; Petitbois S; Higgins R; Jacques M, 1991. Adherence of Streptococcus suis capsular type 2 to porcine lung sections. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 55(3):302-304; 15 ref.

Gottschalk M; Segura M, 2000. The pathogenesis of the meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: the unresolved questions. Veterinary Microbiology, 76(3):259-272; 46 ref.

Hajsig D; Seol B, 1992. Importance of Streptococcus suis infections in pigs. Veterinarska Stanica, 23(3):143-147; 29 ref.

Hajsig D; Seol B; Bilic V; Humski A; Jurmanovic J, 1993. Isolation and some properties of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from pigs in Croatia. Praxis Veterinaria (Zagreb), 41(2/3):161-164; 19 ref.

Halbur P; Thanawongmuwech R; Brown G; Kinyon J; Roth J; Thacker E; Thaccker B, 2000. Efficacy of antimicrobial treatments and vaccinations regimens for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Streptococcus suis coinfection of nursery pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38:1156-1160.

Hampson DJ; Trott DJ; Clarke IL; Mwaniki CG; Robertson ID, 1993. Population structure of Australian isolates of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 31(11):2895-2900; 28 ref.

Heard T, 1984. Streptococcus suis type 2 in British pig herds. In Practice, 6(3):69-71; 4 ref.

Higgins R; Gottschalk M, 1990. An update on Streptococcus suis identification. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 2(3):249-252; 26 ref.

Higgins R; Gottschalk M; Boudreau M; Lebrun A; Henrichsen J, 1995. Description of six new capsular types (29-34) of Streptococcus suis. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 7(3):405-406; 12 ref.

Higgins R; Gottschalk M; Fecteau G; Sauvageau R; Guise Sde; Tremblay Ddu, 1990. Isolation of Streptococcus suis from cattle. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 31(7):529; 3 ref.

Higgins R; Lagacé A; Messier S; Julien L, 1997. Isolation of Streptococcus suis from a young wild boar. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 38(2):114; 2 ref.

Holt ME; Enright MR; Alexander TJL, 1988. Immunisation of pigs with live cultures of Streptococcus suis type 2. Research in Veterinary Science, 45(3):349-352; 13 ref.

Hommez J; Devriese LA; Henrichsen J; Castryck F, 1986. Identification and characterization of Streptococcus suis. Veterinary Microbiology, 11(4):349-355; 17 ref.

Huang YM; Huang YX, 1995. Serological identification of Streptococcus suis type 2. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science, 15(1):63-65; 5 ref.

Jacobs AAC; Berg AJGvan den; Loeffen PLW, 1996. Protection of experimentally infected pigs by suilysin, the thiol-activated haemolysin of Streptococcus suis. Veterinary Record, 139(10):225-228; 15 ref.

Jacobs AAC; Loeffen PLW; Berg AJGvan den; Storm PK, 1994. Identification, purification, and characterization of a thiol-activated hemolysin (suilysin) of Streptococcus suis. Infection and Immunity, 62(5):1742-1748; 32 ref.

Jacques M; Gottschalk M; Foiry B; Higgins R, 1990. Ultrastructural study of surface components of Streptococcus suis.. Journal of Bacteriology, 172(6):2833-2838; 42 ref.

Jansen EJ; van Dorssen CA, 1951. Meningoencephalitis bij varkens door streptococcen. Tijdschrift Diergeneeskunde, 76:815-832.

JordhOy H, 1995. Streptococcus suis infection in pigs. Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift, 107(1):21-25; 14 ref.

Jung ByeongYeal; Jung SukChan; Kim BongHwan; Park YongHo; Park JeungMoon, 1997. Prevalence and serotypes of Streptococcus suis from pigs in Korea. Korean Journal of Veterinary Research, 37(3):577-582; 23 ref.

Kataoka Y; Sugimoto C; Nakazawa M; Morozumi T; Kashiwazaki M, 1993. The epidemiological studies of Streptococcus suis infections in Japan from 1987 to 1991. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 55(4):623-626; 28 ref.

Kaufhold A; Lütticken R; Litterscheid S, 1988. Systemic infection caused by Streptococcus suis.. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 113(42):1642-1643; 19 ref.

Kay R; Cheng AF; Tse CY, 1995. Streptococcus suis infection in Hong Kong. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 88(1):39-47; 65 ref.

Kramomtong I; Pramoolsinsap T; Kongkrong J, 1994. Study of streptococcosis in pigs. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 24(3):157-170; 14 ref.

Kruse H; Johansen BK; Rorvik LM; Schaller G, 1999. The use of avoparcin as a growth promoter and the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus species in Norwegian poultry and swine production. Microbial Drug Resistance, 2:135-139.

Lalonde M; Segura M; Lacouture S; Gottschalk M, 2000. Interactions between Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and different epithelial cell lines. Microbiology (Reading), 146(8):1913-1921; 40 ref.

Lutticken R; Temme N; Hahn G; Bartelheimer EW, 1986. Meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis: case report and review of the literature. Infection, 14:181-185.

Madsen LW; Svensmark B; Elvestad K; Jensen HE, 2001. Otitis interna is a frequent sequela to Streptococcus suis meningitis in pigs. Veterinary Pathology, 38(2):190-195; 26 ref.

Michaud S; Duperval R; Higgins R, 1996. Streptococcus suis meningitis: First case reported in Quebec. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 7:329-331.

Monter Flores JL; Higgins R; D'Allaire SD; Charette R; Boudreau M; Gottschalk M, 1993. Distribution of the different capsular types of Streptococcus suis in nineteen swine nurseries. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 34(3):170-171; 11 ref.

Okwumabua O; Abdelmagid O; Chengappa MM, 1999. Hybridization analysis of the gene encoding a hemolysin (suilysin) of Streptococcus suis type 2: evidence for the absence of gene in some isolates. FEMS Microbiological Letters, 181:113-121.

Ossowicz CJ; Pointon AM; Davies PR, 1989. Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs in South Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(11):377-378; 13 ref.

Panin AN; Henriksen E, 1992. Characteristics of Streptococcus suis isolated from swine in USSR. Soviet Agricultural Sciences, No.10:44; 11 ref.

Paterson RA; Robertson ID; Sanders RC; Siba PM; Clegg A; Hampson DJ, 1993. The carriage of Streptococcus suis type 2 by pigs in Papua New Guinea. Epidemiology and Infection, 110(1):71-78; 19 ref.

Perseghin P; Bezzi G; Gallina M, 1995. Streptococcus suis meningitis in an Italian blood donor. Lancet, 346:1305-1306.

Pijoan C, 1996. Bacterial respiratory pathogens:what is their impact? In: Proceedings of the 4th Annual Swine Disease Conference of Swine Practitioners, 45-47.

Pineda Y; Lopez AGde; Aponte Fde; Parra Cde; Santander J, 1996. Isolation of Streptococcus suis strains and in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Veterinaria Tropical, 21(2):155-165; 26 ref.

Prieto C; Pena J; Suarez P; Imaz M; Castro JM, 1993. Isolation and distribution of Streptococcus suis capsular types from diseased pigs in Spain. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 40(8):544-548; 22 ref.

Quessy S; Busque P; Higgins R; Jacques M; Dubreuil JD, 1997. Description of an albumin binding activity for Streptococcus suis serotype 2. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 147(2):245-250; 18 ref.

Rasmussen SR; Aarestrup FM; Jensen NE; Jorsal SE, 1999. Associations of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 ribotype profiles with clinical disease and antimicrobial resistance. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(2):404-408; 31 ref.

Reams RY; Giickman LT; Harrington DD; Thacker HL; Bowersock TL, 1994. Streptococcus suis infection in swine: a retrospective study of 256 cases. Part II. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, and coexisting microorganisms. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 6(3):326-334; 32 ref.

Reams RY; Harrington DD; Glickman LT; Thacker HL; Bowersock TL, 1996. Multiple serotypes and strains of Streptococcus suis in naturally infected swine herds. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 8(1):119-121; 20 ref.

Robertson ID, 1986. Streptococcus suis type 2-a zoonotic agent in New Zealand. New Zealand Medical Journal, 99(797):167-168.

Robertson ID; Blackmore DK, 1989. Prevalence of Streptococcus suis types 1 and 2 in domestic pigs in Australia and New Zealand. Veterinary Record, 124(15):391-394; 23 ref.

Robertson ID; Blackmore DK; Hampson DJ; Fu ZF, 1991. A longitudinal study of natural infection of piglets with Streptococcus suis types 1 and 2. Epidemiology and Infection, 107(1):119-126; 10 ref.

Rogers DG; Zeman DH; Erickson ED, 1992. Diarrhea associated with Enterococcus durans in calves. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 4(4):471-472; 5 ref.

Sala V; Antonini M; Carli S; Fantini M, 1999. Changes in the antibiotic sensitivity of Streptococcus suis in Italy. Obiettivi e Documenti Veterinari, 20(3):61-65; 19 ref.

Sala V; Colombo A; Gerola L, 1989. Infection risks of Streptococcus suis type 2 localizations in slaughtered swine. Archivio Veterinario Italiano, 40:180-184.

Sala V; Leoni S, 2000. Pathogenicity of isolates of Streptococcus suis in relation to clinical disease. Summa, 17:41-43.

Sala V; Socci A; Redaelli G, 1985. Isolation of Streptococcus suis type II from diseases of swine. Clinica Veterinaria, 108(1):24-30; 28 ref.

Salasia SIO; Lämmler C; Devriese LA, 1994. Serotypes and putative virulence markers of Streptococcus suis isolates from cats and dogs. Research in Veterinary Science, 57(2):259-261; 16 ref.

Salmon SA; Watts JL; Case CA; Hoffman LJ; Wegener HC; Yancey RJJr, 1995. Comparison of MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada, and Denmark. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(9):2435-2444; 42 ref.

Sanford SE; Tilker AME, 1982. Streptococcus suis type II-associated disease in swine: Observations of a one-year study. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association, 181:673-676.

Segers RPAM; Kenter T; Haan LAMde; Jacobs AAC, 1998. Characterisation of the gene encoding suilysin from Streptococcus suis and expression in field strains. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 167(2):255-261; 17 ref.

Serhir B; Higgins R; Foiry B; Jacques M, 1993. Detection of immunoglobulin-G-binding proteins in Streptococcus suis. Journal of General Microbiology, 139(12):2953-2958; 33 ref.

Sihvonen L; Kurl DN; Henrichsen J, 1988. Streptococcus suis isolated from pigs in Finland. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 29(1):9-13; 10 ref.

Sihvonen L; Kurl DN; Salmela P, 1986. Infection with Streptococcus suis serotypes 1 and 2 in the same diseased pig. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 27(4):626-628; 8 ref.

Singh DP; Chaturvedi VK; Gupta RN, 1994. Prevalence of Streptococcus suis in India. Proceedings: The 13th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Bangkok, Thailand, 26-30 June 1994., 207; 7 ref.

Smith HE; Damman M; Velde Jvan der; Wagenaar F; Wisselink HJ; Stockhofe-Zurwieden N; Smits MA, 1999. Identification and characterization of the cps locus of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: the capsule protects against phagocytosis and is an important virulence factor. Infection and Immunity, 67(4):1750-1756; 43 ref.

Smith HE; Veenbergen V; Velde Jvan der; Damman M; Wisselink HJ; Smits MA, 1999. The cps genes of Streptococcus suis serotypes 1, 2, and 9: development of rapid serotype-specific PCR assays. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37(10):3146-3152; 35 ref.

Smola J; Novotny L, 2000. Streptococcus suis as a causative agent of porcine infections. Veterinárství, 50(5):200-202; 9 ref.

Spieler A, 1995. Influencing the gastrointestinal and faecal flora of piglets by the administration of a probiotic feed additive in the form of Enterococcus faecium strain Cernelle 68. Zur Beeinflussung der Gastrointestinal- und Faecalflora von Ferkeln durch Verabreichung eines probiotischen Futterzusatzes in Form des Stammes Enterococcus faecium Cernelle 68., 139 pp.; 177 ref.

Staats JJ; Plattner BL; Nietfeld J; Dritz S; Chengappa MM, 1998. Use of ribotyping and hemolysin activity to identify highly virulent Streptococcus suis type 2 isolates. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36(1):15-19; 39 ref.

Tarradas C; Arenas A; Maldonado A; Luque I; Miranda A; Perea A, 1994. Identification of Streptococcus suis isolated from swine: proposal for biochemical parameters. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32(2):578-580; 20 ref.

Tarradas C; Borge C; Arenas A; Maldonado A; Astorga R; Miranda A; Luque I, 2001. Suilysin production by Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased and healthy carrier pigs in Spain. Veterinary Record, 148(6):183-184; 10 ref.

Tarradas MC; Arenas A; Maldonado A; Vicente S; Miranda A; Perea A, 1994. Susceptibility of Streptococcus suis to various antimicrobial agents. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Series B, 41(10):685-688; 22 ref.

Thanawongnuwech R; Brown GB; Halbur PG; Roth JA; Royer RL; Thacker BJ, 2000. Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced increase in susceptibility to Streptococcus suis infection. Veterinary Pathology, 37(2):143-152; 33 ref.

Tikkanen K; Haataja S; Finne J, 1996. The galactosyl-(1-4)-galactose-binding adhesin of Streptococcus suis: occurrence in strains of different hemagglutination activities and induction of opsonic antibodies. Infection and Immunity, 64(9):3659-3665; 54 ref.

Torremorell M; Calsamiglia M; Pijoan C, 1998. Colonization of suckling pigs by Streptococcus suis with particular reference to pathogenic serotype 2 strains. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(1):21-26; 32 ref.

Torremorell M; Pijoan C, 1998. Prolonged persistence of an epidemic Streptococcus suis strain in a closed pig population. Veterinary Record, 143(14):394-395; 15 ref.

Torremorell M; Pijoan C; Dee S, 1999. Experimental exposure of young pigs using a pathogenic strain of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and evaluation of this method for disease prevention. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 63(4):269-275; 18 ref.

Touil F; Higgins R; Nadeau M, 1988. Isolation of Streptococcus suis from diseased pigs in Canada. Veterinary Microbiology, 17(2):171-177; 25 ref.

Trinh Phu Ngoc; Le Van Tao; Nguyen Ngoc Nhien, 1999. Some bacteriological properties of Streptococcus isolates from pigs in North Vietnam. Khoa Hoc Ky Thuat Thu Y (Veterinary Sciences and Techniques), 6(2):47-49.

Tzipori S; Hayes J; Sims L; Withers M, 1984. Streptococcus durans: an unexpected enteropathogen of foals. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 150(4):589-593; 9 ref.

van den Bogaard AE; Mertens P; London NH; Stobbering EE, 1997. High prevalence of colonization with vancomycin and pristinamycin-resistant enterococci in healthy humans and pigs in The Netherlands:is the addition of antibiotics to animal feeds to blame? Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 40:454-456.

van Leengoed LA; Vecht U; Verheyen ER, 1987. Streptococcus suis infections in pigs in the Netherlands (Part II). Veterinary Quarterly, 9:111-117.

Vecht U; Stockhofe-Zurwieden N; Tetenburg BJ; Wisselink HJ; Smith HE, 1997. Virulence of Streptococcus suis type 2 for mice and pigs appeared host-specific. Veterinary Microbiology, 58(1):53-60; 25 ref.

Vecht U; van Leengoed LA; Verheijen ER, 1985. Streptococcus suis infections in pigs in the Netherlands (Part I). Veterinary Quarterly, 7:315-321.

Vecht U; Wisselink HJ; Jellema ML; Smith HE, 1991. Identification of two proteins associated with virulence of Streptococcus suis type 2. Infection and Immunity, 59(9):3156-3162; 26 ref.

Windsor RS, 1977. Meningitis in pigs caused by Streptococcus suis type II. Veterinary Record, 101:378-379.

Wisselink HJ; Smith HE; Stockhofe-Zurwieden N; Peperkamp K; Vecht U, 2000. Distribution of capsular types and production of muramidase-released protein (MRP) and extracellular factor (EF) of Streptococcus suis strains isolated from diseased pigs in seven European countries. Veterinary Microbiology, 74(3):237-248; 32 ref.

Wisselink HJ; Vecht U; Stockhofe-Zurwieden M; Smith HE, 2001. Protection of pigs against challenge with virulent Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strains by a muramidase-released protein and extracellular factor vaccine. Veterinary Record, 14:473-477.

Yen MY; Liu YC; Wang JH; Chen YS; Wang YH; Cheng D, 1994. Streptococcus suis meningitis complicated with permanent perceptive deafness: Report of a case. Journal of Formosan Medical Association, 93:349-351.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Group de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses du Porchttp://www.medvet.umontreal.ca/gremip/Université de Montréal, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map