Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

strangles

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Datasheet

strangles

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • strangles
  • Overview
  • Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses, donkeys and mules caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). It is one of the most prevalent equine...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • strangles

Overview

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Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses, donkeys and mules caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). It is one of the most prevalent equine infectious diseases worldwide, with significant welfare and economic costs (Harrington et al. 2002; Waller, 2013). Morbidity may be high, but mortality is usually low (Mallicote, 2015).

The classical disease is an upper respiratory infection characterised by pyrexia, coughing, profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge, enlargement of the lymph nodes draining the upper respiratory tract, and subsequent abscessation of these lymph nodes (Yelle, 1987). Rarely, this lymph node enlargement can cause inspiratory stridor and dyspnoea and it is this clinical feature that gave the disease its name. Treatment is dependent on the stage and severity of disease (Sweeney et al., 2005; Taylor and Wilson, 2006).

S. equi is an obligate equine pathogen, surviving for only short periods in the environment (Weese et al. 2009). Transmission occurs through oral and nasal routes directly and through contact with contaminated surfaces indirectly (Sweeney et al., 2005). Subclinical carriers that intermittently shed bacteria may act as sources of infection for naïve animals for up to several months or even years (Newton et al., 2000). The standard site of prolonged carriage of S. equi in these horses is the guttural pouches (Sweeney et al., 2005). Recognition and detection of this category of transmission is necessary for successful elimination of the disease from a farm (Waller and Jolley, 2007; Waller et al., 2011). New qPCR and iELISA diagnostic tests have replaced culture methodologies as the gold standard for the detection of infected animals (Waller, 2013). In the future, the ability to use modern vaccines alongside conventional biosecurity and screening procedures will be critical to the large-scale prevention of strangles (Waller, 2013).

Distribution

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Strangles is the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide (Harris et al., 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Last reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported1967OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

References

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Harrington DJ; Sutcliffe IC; Chanter N, 2002. The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease. Microbes and Infection, 4(4):501-510.

Harris SR; Robinson C; Steward KF; Webb KS; Paillot R; Parkhill J; Holden MTG; Waller AS, 2015. Genome specialization and decay of the strangles pathogen, Streptococcus equi, is driven by persistent infection. Genome Research, 25(9):1360-1371. http://www.genome.org

Mallicote M, 2015. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice, 31(1):27-41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749073914001011

Newton JR; Verheyen K; Talbot NC; Timoney JF; Wood JLN; Lakhani KH; Chanter N, 2000. Control of strangles outbreaks by isolation of guttural pouch carriers identified using PCR and culture of Streptococcus equi. Equine Veterinary Journal, 32(6):515-526.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Sweeney C; Timoney JF; Newton JR; Hines MT, 2005. Review of Streptococcus equi infections in horses: guidelines for treatment, control, and prevention of strangles. In: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Seattle, Washington, USA, 3-7 December, 2005 [ed. by Brokken, T. D.]. Lexington, USA: American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), 163-170.

Taylor SD; Wilson WD, 2006. Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (strangles) infection. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice, 5(3):211-217. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15347516

Waller AS, 2013. Strangles: taking steps towards eradication. Veterinary Microbiology, 167(1/2):50-60. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Waller AS; Jolley KA, 2007. Getting a grip on strangles: recent progress towards improved diagnostics and vaccines. Veterinary Journal, 173(3):492-501. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233

Waller AS; Paillot R; Timoney JF, 2011. Streptococcus equi: a pathogen restricted to one host. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 60(9):1231-1240. http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/

Weese JS; Jarlot C; Morley PS, 2009. Survival of Streptococcus equi on surfaces in an outdoor environment. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50(9):968-970. http://www.canadianveterinarians.net

Yelle MT, 1987. Clinical aspects of Streptococcus equi infection. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19(2):158-162.

Distribution Maps

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