Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

strangles

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Datasheet

strangles

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • strangles
  • Pathogens
  • Streptococcus equi subsp. equi
  • Overview
  • Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses, donkeys and mules caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). It is one of the most prevalent equine...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • strangles

Pathogen/s

Top of page Streptococcus equi subsp. equi

Overview

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Strangles is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses, donkeys and mules caused by the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi). It is one of the most prevalent equine infectious diseases worldwide, with significant welfare and economic costs (Harrington et al. 2002; Waller, 2013). Morbidity may be high, but mortality is usually low (Mallicote, 2015).

The classical disease is an upper respiratory infection characterised by pyrexia, coughing, profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge, enlargement of the lymph nodes draining the upper respiratory tract, and subsequent abscessation of these lymph nodes (Yelle, 1987). Rarely, this lymph node enlargement can cause inspiratory stridor and dyspnoea and it is this clinical feature that gave the disease its name. Treatment is dependent on the stage and severity of disease (Sweeney et al., 2005; Taylor and Wilson, 2006).

S. equi is an obligate equine pathogen, surviving for only short periods in the environment (Weese et al. 2009). Transmission occurs through oral and nasal routes directly and through contact with contaminated surfaces indirectly (Sweeney et al., 2005). Subclinical carriers that intermittently shed bacteria may act as sources of infection for naïve animals for up to several months or even years (Newton et al., 2000). The standard site of prolonged carriage of S. equi in these horses is the guttural pouches (Sweeney et al., 2005). Recognition and detection of this category of transmission is necessary for successful elimination of the disease from a farm (Waller and Jolley, 2007; Waller et al., 2011). New qPCR and iELISA diagnostic tests have replaced culture methodologies as the gold standard for the detection of infected animals (Waller, 2013). In the future, the ability to use modern vaccines alongside conventional biosecurity and screening procedures will be critical to the large-scale prevention of strangles (Waller, 2013).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Equus asinus (donkeys)
Equus caballus (horses)
mules

Distribution

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Strangles is the most frequently diagnosed infectious disease of horses worldwide (Harris et al., 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SenegalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ZimbabwePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MongoliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ParaguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

References

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Harrington DJ; Sutcliffe IC; Chanter N, 2002. The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease. Microbes and Infection, 4(4):501-510.

Harris SR; Robinson C; Steward KF; Webb KS; Paillot R; Parkhill J; Holden MTG; Waller AS, 2015. Genome specialization and decay of the strangles pathogen, Streptococcus equi, is driven by persistent infection. Genome Research, 25(9):1360-1371. http://www.genome.org

Mallicote M, 2015. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice, 31(1):27-41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749073914001011

Newton JR; Verheyen K; Talbot NC; Timoney JF; Wood JLN; Lakhani KH; Chanter N, 2000. Control of strangles outbreaks by isolation of guttural pouch carriers identified using PCR and culture of Streptococcus equi. Equine Veterinary Journal, 32(6):515-526.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Sweeney C; Timoney JF; Newton JR; Hines MT, 2005. Review of Streptococcus equi infections in horses: guidelines for treatment, control, and prevention of strangles. In: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Seattle, Washington, USA, 3-7 December, 2005 [ed. by Brokken, T. D.]. Lexington, USA: American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP), 163-170.

Taylor SD; Wilson WD, 2006. Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (strangles) infection. Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice, 5(3):211-217. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/15347516

Waller AS, 2013. Strangles: taking steps towards eradication. Veterinary Microbiology, 167(1/2):50-60. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Waller AS; Jolley KA, 2007. Getting a grip on strangles: recent progress towards improved diagnostics and vaccines. Veterinary Journal, 173(3):492-501. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10900233

Waller AS; Paillot R; Timoney JF, 2011. Streptococcus equi: a pathogen restricted to one host. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 60(9):1231-1240. http://jmm.sgmjournals.org/

Weese JS; Jarlot C; Morley PS, 2009. Survival of Streptococcus equi on surfaces in an outdoor environment. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50(9):968-970. http://www.canadianveterinarians.net

Yelle MT, 1987. Clinical aspects of Streptococcus equi infection. Equine Veterinary Journal, 19(2):158-162.

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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