Invasive Species Compendium

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Stomoxys calcitrans

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Datasheet

Stomoxys calcitrans

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stomoxys calcitrans
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
Copyright©Pavel Krok/Fir0002/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.©Pavel Krok/Fir0002/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
Copyright©NobbiP/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.©NobbiP/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
TitleHead
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
Copyright©Judy Gallagher/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
HeadStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.©Judy Gallagher/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
TitleAdults
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
Copyright©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
AdultsStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Stomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Stomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.©John W. McGarry
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
TitleMouthparts
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
MouthpartsStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.©Jerry F. Butler
Haematobia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
TitleLife cycle
CaptionHaematobia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Haematobia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
Life cycleHaematobia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.©Jerry F. Butler
Life cycle tables of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
TitleLife cycle tables
CaptionLife cycle tables of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Life cycle tables of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
Life cycle tablesLife cycle tables of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).©Jerry F. Butler

Overview

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Stable flies, both males and females, are obligate blood-feeding flies of livestock grouped under the genus Stomoxys. They are believed to have originated from Africa and it is there that most of the species are found (Mihok et al., 1996). Also Africa is where Stomoxys is least studied, mainly because of the overshadowing importance of the tsetse fly and its role in transmission of sleeping sickness. Although most Stomoxys species have remained in the temperate zones of Africa, one species, S. calcitrans, has become adapted to a wide variety of climatic zones and is found worldwide (Foil and Hogsette, 1994; Hogsette and Farkas, 2000). For this reason, this will be the stable fly referred to in the remainder of this text unless stated otherwise.

Stable flies and house flies, Musca domestica, are similar in size and appearance. Stomoxys spp. are sometimes called biting house flies. Stable fly adults are 4-7 mm in length, gray, and can be distinguished from house flies by their black, shiny proboscis, two pairs of broad dark thoracic stripes, and tessellated black abdominal pattern (Zumpt 1973). Vein m1+2 bends upward very slightly and meets costa on the posterior side of the apex. Third-instar larvae are white and 4.8-11.5 mm in length with 5-6 prospiracular lobes. Larvae can be identified easily by their characteristic widely spaced, black, rounded triangular-shaped posterior spiracles with three yellowish serpentine slits (Skidmore, 1985). Stable fly larvae are not as robust as house fly larvae and are rarely found as densely clustered in a substrate as house fly larvae (Hogsette and Farkas, 2000). Pupae are formed inside the integument of the third-instar larvae, and most of the characteristics of the third-instar larvae are retained.

Stable flies are known to transmit a number of pathogens, namely the agents of surra, cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania spp.), anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), brucellosis (Brucella spp.), equine infectious anaemia virus, and bovine diarrhoea virus (Greenberg, 1971; Zumpt, 1973; Tarry et al., 1991). However in most instances, transmission is successful only under laboratory conditions, or the possibility for transmission in the field is unlikely. S. calcitrans has been confirmed as an intermediate host for Habronema microstoma, a spirudid nematode found in the stomach of horses; a cutaneous form of habronemosis occurs when infected stable flies, which are unable to pierce the skin of the host, passively release infective larvae while feeding on open wounds and sores (Zumpt, 1973). The stable fly feeds on many hosts, but of domestic animals, ungulates in general and bovines in particular seem to be most commonly affected. A major pest of confined livestock throughout its range, the stable fly is a persistent blood feeder that feeds intermittently until it is full. Five flies per animal is an accepted damage threshold for cattle, and five or more flies per leg are not uncommon in some locations (Campbell et al., 1987). When large stable fly populations are feeding, cattle bunch together for protection resulting in economic losses through reduced feed intake and from the energy used to repulse the flies (Stork, 1979; Wieman et al., 1992). It was estimated in 1993 that the US cattle industry suffered an annual cost of US $9.80 per head (more than US $100 million total) for stable fly control and for weight losses resulting from stable fly activity (Campbell, 1993).

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)

International Common Names

  • English: biting housefly; biting stable fly; dog fly; flies on cattle, musca autumnalis, m. domestica, stomoxys calcitrans fly; flies, biting stable; insect hypersensitivity causing skin disease in horses, cattle and sheep; stable fly; stable fly, biting; stable fly, stomoxys irritation

Parasitoses name

  • stable fly bites

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Muscidae
  •                             Genus: Stomoxys
  •                                 Species: Stomoxys calcitrans

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host
Dromaius novaehollandiaeWild host
Equus
Equus asinus (donkeys)Domesticated host
Equus caballus (horses)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host
mules
Mus musculus (house mouse)
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbits)
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host
Ovis canadensisWild host
Panthera leo (lion)Wild host
Panthera pardusWild host
Panthera tigrisWild host
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild hostPigs: All Stages
UrsidaeWild host
Ursus arctosWild host

Hosts/Species Affected

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In agricultural areas, the main host of stable flies is cattle. However, the many hosts recorded in the literature include camels, donkeys (Hafez and Gamal-Eddin, 1959b), dogs, horses, and people (Hogsette et al., 1989). Historically recognized as a pest primarily around barns and stables, and subsequently in feedlot situations, stable flies have been found frequently on livestock in pastures and rangeland situations in recent years (Hogsette et al., 1989). Stableflies disperse from animal accommodation when populations build up in late summer. They often attack animals on pastures in these conditions. Adults tend to fly between 30 and 120 cm above the ground (Williams and Rogers, 1976) and usually feed on hosts at the mid to lower end of this range. Therefore stable flies usually feed below the knees and hocks of livestock hosts (Hafez and Gamal-Eddin, 1959b), but they may move onto the sides and backs if populations are large (>25 /leg). Stable flies bite humans on the reverse side of the knee and on exposed elbows (Hansens, 1951) and landing rates of 80-100 flies per minute on humans are not uncommon in some circumstances (Hogsette et al., 1987). Accounts of fly-avoidance behaviour displayed by unpenned dogs and other animals are numerous (Hogsette et al., 1987). Reasons used by flies to select hosts are not completely understood and in the case of cattle, stable flies do not tend to select hosts by breed or animal colour.

Stable flies cause considerable problems to dogs maintained in pens, including commercially produced purebred and hunting dogs. Flies feed mainly on the dogs' ears, and annoy dogs relentlessly with feeding attempts. As a result, dogs' ears may become bloody and disfigured (Hogsette et al., 1987; Urban and Broce, 1998). Stable flies can be a frustrating nuisance at zoos (Rugg, 1982), where they repeatedly attack the animals. These flies seem particularly fond of the big cats, and feed repeatedly on their ears producing large open sores that heal slowly and remain devoid of hair thereafter. It is difficult or impossible to provide relief to these animals. Stable flies have been observed in zoos feeding on exotic and indigenous ungulates and canines, biting bears through the pads on their feet, and attacking emus on the bare skin just above the scales on their legs.

Distribution

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Stomoxyscalcitrans is the most widely distributed species of stable fly and is considered to be cosmopolitan (Zumpt, 1973; Skidmore, 1985; Soós and Papp, 1986). Worldwide distribution is probably due to the fly's climatic adaptability and its tendency to travel long distances with weather systems (Hogsette and Ruff, 1985). The main component of the media used for development of the immature stages, decomposing vegetation, remains remarkably similar throughout its range.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hafez and Gamal-Eddin (1959a)
MauritiusPresentMonty (1972)
NigeriaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
RéunionPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
South AfricaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
UgandaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ZambiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ZimbabwePresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GeorgiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IndiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-AssamPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
IsraelPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
JapanPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-HonshuPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
MalaysiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
PakistanPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
PhilippinesPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
South KoreaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Sri LankaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ThailandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
UzbekistanPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BelgiumPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BulgariaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
DenmarkPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
FrancePresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
GermanyPresentSteinbrink (1989)
HungaryPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ItalyPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
LithuaniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
MaltaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
NetherlandsPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
PolandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
RomaniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
RussiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
SpainPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
SwedenPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
UkrainePresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
United KingdomPresentMorgan and Bailie (1980);

North America

CanadaPresentVoegtline et al. (1965)
-AlbertaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-ManitobaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-QuebecPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
MexicoPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
United StatesPresentCampbell (1993)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-ColoradoPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-FloridaPresentKing and Lenert (1936); Williams and Rogers (1976); Newson (1977); Fye et al. (1980); Williams et al. (1980); Hogsette (1981); Hogsette et al. (1981); Meyer and Petersen (1982); Hogsette and Ruff (1985); Hogsette and Ruff (1986); Hogsette et al. (1987); Jones et al. (1991); CABI (Undated)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-IndianaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-IowaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-KansasPresentMeyer and Petersen (1982); Greene et al. (1989); Cilek and Greene (1994); Urban and Broce (1998)
-MarylandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-MichiganPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-MissouriPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-NebraskaPresentMcNeal and Campbell (1981); Stage and Petersen (1981); Meyer and Petersen (1982); Meyer and Petersen (1983); Petersen et al. (1983); Greene et al. (1989); Skoda et al. (1991); Seymour and Campbell (1993); Andress and Campbell (1994)
-New JerseyPresentHANSENS (1951)
-New YorkPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-North DakotaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-South DakotaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-TexasPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-UtahPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-New South WalesPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-QueenslandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-VictoriaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
New ZealandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Norfolk IslandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
BrazilPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-ParanaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ChilePresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
ColombiaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

References

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Andress ER, Campbell JB, 1994. Inundative releases of pteromalid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) at confined cattle installations in west central Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(3):714-722; 24 ref

Anon., 1971. Division of Health Annual Report, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee, 103-104.

Beadles ML, Gingrich AR, Miller JA, 1977. Slow-release devices for livestock insect control: Cattle body surfaces conducted by five types of devices. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70:72-75

Bruce WG, Decker GC, 1958. The relationship of stable fly abundance to milk production in dairy cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 51:269-274

Butler JF, 1992. External parasite control. In: Large Dairy Herd Management. American Dairy Science Association, Champaign, Illinois, 568-584

Campbell JB, 1993. The economics of the fly problem. In: Thomas GD, Skoda SR, eds. Rural Flies in the Urban Environment. North Central Regional Research Publication Number 335, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 34-39

Campbell JB, Berry IL, Boxler DJ, Davis RL, Clanton DC, Deutscher GH, 1987. Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gain and feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(1):117-119; [2 fig.]; 12 ref

Campbell JB, White RG, Wright JE, Crookshank R, Cranton DC, 1977. Effects of stable flies on weight gains and feed efficiency of calves on growing and finishing rations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(3):592-594

Catangui MA, Campbell JB, Thomas GD, Boxler DJ, 1993. Average daily gains of Brahman-crossbred and English x Exotic feeder heifers exposed to low, medium, and high levels of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(4):1144-1150; 26 ref

Cheng TH, Kesler EM, 1961. A three-year study on the effect of fly control on milk production by selected and randomized dairy herds. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:751-757

Cilek JE, Greene GL, 1994. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in Kansas cattle feedlots. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(2):275-279; [En]

Farkas R, Hogsette JH, 2000. Current and prospective control possibilities of filth-breeding flies in livestock and poultry production. In: Papp L, Darvas B, eds. Manual of Palearctic Diptera, Vol. 1 General and Applied Dipterology. Budapest: Science Herald, 889-904

Fye RL, Brown J, Ruff J, Buschman L, 1980. A survey of Northwest Florida for potential stable fly breeding. Florida. Entomologist 63:246251

Gersabeck EF, Merritt RW, 1985. Dispersal of adult Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from known immature developmental areas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78:617-621

Greene GL, 1990. Biological control of filth flies in confined cattle feedlots using pteromalid parasites. Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry., 29-42; 24 ref

Greene GL, 1993. Chemical, cultural, and mechanical control of stable flies and house flies. In: Thomas GD, Skoda SR, eds. Rural Flies in the Urban Environment. North Central Regional Research Publication Number 335, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 83-90

Greene GL, Broce AB, 1985. Control of stable flies with ear tags and dye distribution on feedlot cattle from ear tags. In: 1985 Cattle Feeders' Day Report of Progress 474. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kansas, 49-56

Greene GL, Hogsette JA, Patterson RS, 1989. Parasites that attack stable fly and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia during the winter on dairies in northwestern Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(2):412-415; 15 ref

Hafez M, Gamal-Eddin FM, 1959a. Ecological studies on Stomoxys calcitrans L. and sitiens Rond. In Egypt, with suggestions on their control. Bulletin de la Société Entomological d'Egypte, 43:245-283

Hafez M, Gamal-Eddin FM, 1959b. On the feeding habits of Stomoxys calcitrans L. and sitiens Rond., with special reference to their biting cycle in nature. Bulletin de la Société Entomological d'Egypte, 43:291-301

Hall RD, Smith JP, Thomas GD, 1989. Effect of predatory arthropods on the survival of immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:33-40; 35 ref

Hansens EJ, 1951. The stable fly and its effect on seashore recreational areas in New Jersey. Journal of Economic Entomology, 44:482-487

Hogsette JA, 1981. Fly control by composting manure at a south Florida equine facility. In: Patterson RS, Koehler PG, Morgan PB, Harris RL, eds. Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, Proceedings of a Workshop. Gainesville, Florida: USDA-SEA, 105-113

Hogsette JA, Farkas R, 2000. Secretophagous and hematophagous higher Diptera. In: Papp L, Darvas B, eds. Manual of Palearctic Diptera, Vol. 1 General and Applied Dipterology. Budapest: Science Herald, 769-792

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1985. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) migration in northwest Florida. Environmental Entomology, 14:170-175

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1986. Evaluation of flucythrinate- and fenvalerate-impregnated ear tags and permethrin ear tapes for fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on beef and dairy cattle in northwest Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(1):152-157; [3 fig.]; 17 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1996. Permethrin-Impregnated Yarn: Longevity of Efficacy and Potential Use on Cylindrical Fiberglass Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89:1521-1525

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, Jones CJ, 1987. Stable fly biology and control in Northwest Florida. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 4(1):1-11; [1 fig.]; 40 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, Jones CJ, 1989. Dispersal behavior of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:23-32; 38 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, McGowan MJ, 1981. Stable fly integrated pest management (IPM) in Northwest Florida. Journal of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association, 52:48-52

Jones CJ, Hogsette JA, Patterson RS, Milne DE, Propp GD, Milio J F, Rickard LG, Ruff JP, 1991. Origin of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on west Florida beaches: Electrophoretic analysis of dispersal. Journal of Medical Entomology, 28:787-795

Killough RA, McKinstry DM, 1965. Mating and oviposition studies of the stable fly. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58:489-491

King WV, Lenert LG, 1936. Outbreaks of Stomoxys calcitrans L. ("dog flies") along Florida's northwest coast. Florida Entomologist, 19:33-39

Koehler PG, Patterson RS, 1982. Stable fly control with fiberglass panels. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service Livestock Protection Pointer No. 14, Gainesville, Florida, 4 pp

Larsen EB, Thomsen M, 1940. The influence of temperature on the development of some species of diptera. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Bd. 104:1-75

Levine ND, 1968. Nematode Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Pub. Co., 600 pp

Lysyk TJ, 1993. Adult resting and larval developmental sites of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairies in Alberta. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(6):1746-1753; 11 ref

McNeal CD, Campbell JB, 1981. Insect pest management in Nebraska feedlots and dairies; a pilot integrated pest management project. Nebraska University Department of Entomology Report. No. 10

Meifert DW, Patterson RS, Whitfield T, LaBrecque GC, Weidhaas DE, 1978. A unique attractant-toxicant system to control stable fly populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71: 290-292

Meyer JA, Petersen JJ, 1982. Sampling stable fly and house fly pupal parasites on beef feedlots and dairies in eastern Nebraska. Southwestern Entomologist 7:119-123

Meyer JA, Petersen JJ, 1983. Characterization and seasonal distribution of breeding sites of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on eastern Nebraska feedlot and dairies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76:103-108

Miller RW, Pickens LG, Morgan NO, Thimijan RW, Wilson RL, 1973. Effect of stable flies on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66:711-713

Mock DE, Greene GL, 1989. Current approaches in chemical control of stable flies. In: Petersen JJ, Greene GL, eds. Current Status of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Research. Lanham, Maryland: Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publication 74, 46-53

Monty J, 1972. A review of the stable fly problem in Mauritius. Revue Agricole Sucriere. Ile Maurice. 51:13-29

Morgan DWT, Bailie HD, 1980. A field trial to determine the effect of fly control using permethrin on milk yields in dairy cattle in the UK. Veterinary Record, 106:121-123

Morgan NO, Pickens LG, Thimijan RW, 1970. House flies and stable flies captured by two types of traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:672-673

Newson HD, 1977. Arthropod problems in recreation areas. Annual Review of Entomology, 22:333-353

Papp L, Garzó P, 1985. Flies (Diptera) of pasturing cattle: some new data and new aspects. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 46(2):153-168; 42 ref

Patterson RS, Koehler PG, Morgan PB, Harris RL eds, 1981. Status of biological control of filth flies, proceedings of a workshop. University of Florida, Gainesville: USDA-SEA, 212 pp

Patterson RS, Rutz DA, 1986. Biological control of muscoid flies. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 61:vi + 174pp.; [many fig.]; many ref

Petersen JJ, 1989. Potential for biological control of stable flies associated with confined livestock. In: Petersen JJ, Greene GL, eds. Current Status of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Research. Lanham, Maryland: Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publication, 74, 41-45

Petersen JJ, Greene GL, 1989. Current status of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) research. Proceedings of a symposium presented at the National Conference of the Entomological Society of America, December 1986, Reno, Nevada. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:53 pp.; [many fig.]; many ref

Petersen JJ, Meyer JA, Stage DA, Morgan PB, 1983. Evaluation of sequential releases of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for control of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) associated with confined livestock in eastern Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76:283-286

Pickens LG, 1991. Battery-powered, electrocuting trap for stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 28(6):822-830; 32 ref

Pickens LG, Hayes DK, 1984. Evaluation of a new face fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) trap which segregates the catch of the two species. Environmental Entomology, 13:1256-1260

Pickens LG, Miller RW, 1987. Techniques for trapping flies on farms. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 4:305-313

Pickens LG, Miller RW, Grasela JJ, 1977. Sticky panels as traps for Musca autumnalis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70:549-552

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Distribution References

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Skoda S R, Thomas G D, Campbell J B, 1991. Developmental sites and relative abundance of immature stages of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in beef cattle feedlot pens in eastern Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology. 84 (1), 191-197. DOI:10.1093/jee/84.1.191

Stage D A, Petersen J J, 1981. Mass release of pupal parasites for control of stable flies and house flies in confined feedlots in Nebraska. In: Patterson, R. S. (Chairman): Status of biological control of filth flies. Proceedings of a workshop. February 4-5, 1981, University of Florida, Gainesville. [Patterson, R. S. (Chairman): Status of biological control of filth flies. Proceedings of a workshop. February 4-5, 1981, University of Florida, Gainesville.], New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: Agricultural Research (Southern Region), Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture. 52-58.

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Urban J E, Broce A, 1998. Flies and their bacterial loads in greyhound dog kennels in Kansas. Current Microbiology. 36 (3), 164-170. DOI:10.1007/PL00006761

Voegtline AC, Ozburn GW, Gill GD, 1965. The relation of weather to biting activity of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) along Lake Superior. In: Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science Arts and Letters, 50 107-114.

Williams D F, Rogers A J, 1976. Vertical and lateral distribution of stable flies in northwestern Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology. 13 (1), 95-98. DOI:10.1093/jmedent/13.1.95

Williams D F, Rogers A J, Hester P, Ruff J, Levy R, 1980. Preferred breeding media of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in northwestern Florida. Mosquito News. 40 (2), 276-279.

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