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Stomoxys calcitrans

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Datasheet

Stomoxys calcitrans

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Animal Disease
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stomoxys calcitrans
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
Copyright©Pavel Krok/Fir0002/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; adult at rest.©Pavel Krok/Fir0002/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly); adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly); adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
Copyright©NobbiP/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly); adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly); adult at rest. nr. Untergruppenbach, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. July 2016.©NobbiP/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
TitleHead
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
Copyright©Judy Gallagher/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.
HeadStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; close view of anterior region, with the piercing proboscis clearly visible. Leesylvania State Park, Woodbridge, Virginia, USA. October 2017.©Judy Gallagher/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
TitleAdults
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
Copyright©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Stomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA
AdultsStomoxys calcitrans (biting stable fly; mated pair. USA©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Stomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
Copyright©John W. McGarry
Stomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans; adult female: Note scale bar in mm.©John W. McGarry
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
TitleAdult
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.
AdultStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); engorged adult at rest on a fence.©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
TitleMouthparts
CaptionStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.
MouthpartsStomoxys calcitrans (stable fly); scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of stable fly mouthparts.©Jerry F. Butler
Lyperosia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
TitleLife cycle
CaptionLyperosia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Lyperosia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.
Life cycleLyperosia irritans (horn fly); life cycle of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans), with details of susceptibility to parasitoids.©Jerry F. Butler
Life cycle tables of horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
TitleLife cycle tables
CaptionLife cycle tables of horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
Copyright©Jerry F. Butler
Life cycle tables of horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).
Life cycle tablesLife cycle tables of horn fly (Lyperosia irritans) and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans).©Jerry F. Butler

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)

International Common Names

  • English: biting housefly; biting stable fly; dog fly; flies on cattle, musca autumnalis, m. domestica, stomoxys calcitrans fly; flies, biting stable; insect hypersensitivity causing skin disease in horses, cattle and sheep; stable fly; stable fly, biting; stable fly, stomoxys irritation

Parasitoses name

  • stable fly bites

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Muscidae
  •                             Genus: Stomoxys
  •                                 Species: Stomoxys calcitrans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentOriginal citation: Hafez and Gamal-Eddin (1959a)
MauritiusPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
MalaysiaPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
ThailandPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-VictoriaPresent
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1849
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresent
ColombiaPresent

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Skin pain Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Alopecia, thinning, shedding, easily epilated, loss of, hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Cracked skin, fissure Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Hyperkeratosis, thick skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Matted or dirty hair Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Moist skin, hair or feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Parasite visible, skin, hair, feathers Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Pruritus, itching skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Rough hair coat, dull, standing on end Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin hypopigmentation, decreased pigment, vitiligo Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin scales, flakes, peeling Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin ulcer, erosion, excoriation Sign

References

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Andress ER, Campbell JB, 1994. Inundative releases of pteromalid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) at confined cattle installations in west central Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(3):714-722; 24 ref

Anon., 1971. Division of Health Annual Report, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee, 103-104.

Badr, S. A., 2014. Insects and non insects species associated with pine needle trees in Alexandria Egypt. Journal of Entomology, 11(1), 49-55. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=je.2014.49.55&linkid=pdf

Beadles ML, Gingrich AR, Miller JA, 1977. Slow-release devices for livestock insect control: Cattle body surfaces conducted by five types of devices. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70:72-75

Bruce WG, Decker GC, 1958. The relationship of stable fly abundance to milk production in dairy cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 51:269-274

Butler JF, 1992. External parasite control. In: Large Dairy Herd Management. American Dairy Science Association, Champaign, Illinois, 568-584

Campbell JB, 1993. The economics of the fly problem. In: Thomas GD, Skoda SR, eds. Rural Flies in the Urban Environment. North Central Regional Research Publication Number 335, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 34-39

Campbell JB, Berry IL, Boxler DJ, Davis RL, Clanton DC, Deutscher GH, 1987. Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gain and feed efficiency of feedlot cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(1):117-119; [2 fig.]; 12 ref

Campbell JB, White RG, Wright JE, Crookshank R, Cranton DC, 1977. Effects of stable flies on weight gains and feed efficiency of calves on growing and finishing rations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(3):592-594

Catangui MA, Campbell JB, Thomas GD, Boxler DJ, 1993. Average daily gains of Brahman-crossbred and English x Exotic feeder heifers exposed to low, medium, and high levels of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(4):1144-1150; 26 ref

Cheng TH, Kesler EM, 1961. A three-year study on the effect of fly control on milk production by selected and randomized dairy herds. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54:751-757

Cilek JE, Greene GL, 1994. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in Kansas cattle feedlots. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(2):275-279; [En]

Farkas R, Hogsette JH, 2000. Current and prospective control possibilities of filth-breeding flies in livestock and poultry production. In: Papp L, Darvas B, eds. Manual of Palearctic Diptera, Vol. 1 General and Applied Dipterology. Budapest: Science Herald, 889-904

Fye RL, Brown J, Ruff J, Buschman L, 1980. A survey of Northwest Florida for potential stable fly breeding. Florida. Entomologist 63:246251

Gersabeck EF, Merritt RW, 1985. Dispersal of adult Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from known immature developmental areas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78:617-621

Greene GL, 1990. Biological control of filth flies in confined cattle feedlots using pteromalid parasites. Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry., 29-42; 24 ref

Greene GL, 1993. Chemical, cultural, and mechanical control of stable flies and house flies. In: Thomas GD, Skoda SR, eds. Rural Flies in the Urban Environment. North Central Regional Research Publication Number 335, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 83-90

Greene GL, Broce AB, 1985. Control of stable flies with ear tags and dye distribution on feedlot cattle from ear tags. In: 1985 Cattle Feeders' Day Report of Progress 474. Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Manhattan, Kansas, 49-56

Greene GL, Hogsette JA, Patterson RS, 1989. Parasites that attack stable fly and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia during the winter on dairies in northwestern Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 82(2):412-415; 15 ref

Hafez M, Gamal-Eddin FM, 1959a. Ecological studies on Stomoxys calcitrans L. and sitiens Rond. In Egypt, with suggestions on their control. Bulletin de la Société Entomological d'Egypte, 43:245-283

Hafez M, Gamal-Eddin FM, 1959b. On the feeding habits of Stomoxys calcitrans L. and sitiens Rond., with special reference to their biting cycle in nature. Bulletin de la Société Entomological d'Egypte, 43:291-301

Hall RD, Smith JP, Thomas GD, 1989. Effect of predatory arthropods on the survival of immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:33-40; 35 ref

Hansens EJ, 1951. The stable fly and its effect on seashore recreational areas in New Jersey. Journal of Economic Entomology, 44:482-487

Hogsette JA, 1981. Fly control by composting manure at a south Florida equine facility. In: Patterson RS, Koehler PG, Morgan PB, Harris RL, eds. Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, Proceedings of a Workshop. Gainesville, Florida: USDA-SEA, 105-113

Hogsette JA, Farkas R, 2000. Secretophagous and hematophagous higher Diptera. In: Papp L, Darvas B, eds. Manual of Palearctic Diptera, Vol. 1 General and Applied Dipterology. Budapest: Science Herald, 769-792

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1985. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) migration in northwest Florida. Environmental Entomology, 14:170-175

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1986. Evaluation of flucythrinate- and fenvalerate-impregnated ear tags and permethrin ear tapes for fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on beef and dairy cattle in northwest Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 79(1):152-157; [3 fig.]; 17 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, 1996. Permethrin-Impregnated Yarn: Longevity of Efficacy and Potential Use on Cylindrical Fiberglass Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 89:1521-1525

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, Jones CJ, 1987. Stable fly biology and control in Northwest Florida. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 4(1):1-11; [1 fig.]; 40 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, Jones CJ, 1989. Dispersal behavior of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:23-32; 38 ref

Hogsette JA, Ruff JP, McGowan MJ, 1981. Stable fly integrated pest management (IPM) in Northwest Florida. Journal of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association, 52:48-52

Jones CJ, Hogsette JA, Patterson RS, Milne DE, Propp GD, Milio J F, Rickard LG, Ruff JP, 1991. Origin of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on west Florida beaches: Electrophoretic analysis of dispersal. Journal of Medical Entomology, 28:787-795

Killough RA, McKinstry DM, 1965. Mating and oviposition studies of the stable fly. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58:489-491

King WV, Lenert LG, 1936. Outbreaks of Stomoxys calcitrans L. ("dog flies") along Florida's northwest coast. Florida Entomologist, 19:33-39

Koehler PG, Patterson RS, 1982. Stable fly control with fiberglass panels. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service Livestock Protection Pointer No. 14, Gainesville, Florida, 4 pp

Larsen EB, Thomsen M, 1940. The influence of temperature on the development of some species of diptera. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Bd. 104:1-75

Levine ND, 1968. Nematode Parasites of Domestic Animals and of Man. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Burgess Pub. Co., 600 pp

Lysyk TJ, 1993. Adult resting and larval developmental sites of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairies in Alberta. Journal of Economic Entomology, 86(6):1746-1753; 11 ref

McNeal CD, Campbell JB, 1981. Insect pest management in Nebraska feedlots and dairies; a pilot integrated pest management project. Nebraska University Department of Entomology Report. No. 10

Meifert DW, Patterson RS, Whitfield T, LaBrecque GC, Weidhaas DE, 1978. A unique attractant-toxicant system to control stable fly populations. Journal of Economic Entomology, 71: 290-292

Meyer JA, Petersen JJ, 1982. Sampling stable fly and house fly pupal parasites on beef feedlots and dairies in eastern Nebraska. Southwestern Entomologist 7:119-123

Meyer JA, Petersen JJ, 1983. Characterization and seasonal distribution of breeding sites of stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on eastern Nebraska feedlot and dairies. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76:103-108

Miller RW, Pickens LG, Morgan NO, Thimijan RW, Wilson RL, 1973. Effect of stable flies on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66:711-713

Mock DE, Greene GL, 1989. Current approaches in chemical control of stable flies. In: Petersen JJ, Greene GL, eds. Current Status of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Research. Lanham, Maryland: Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publication 74, 46-53

Monty J, 1972. A review of the stable fly problem in Mauritius. Revue Agricole Sucriere. Ile Maurice. 51:13-29

Morgan DWT, Bailie HD, 1980. A field trial to determine the effect of fly control using permethrin on milk yields in dairy cattle in the UK. Veterinary Record, 106:121-123

Morgan NO, Pickens LG, Thimijan RW, 1970. House flies and stable flies captured by two types of traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 63:672-673

Newson HD, 1977. Arthropod problems in recreation areas. Annual Review of Entomology, 22:333-353

Papp L, Garzó P, 1985. Flies (Diptera) of pasturing cattle: some new data and new aspects. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 46(2):153-168; 42 ref

Patterson RS, Koehler PG, Morgan PB, Harris RL eds, 1981. Status of biological control of filth flies, proceedings of a workshop. University of Florida, Gainesville: USDA-SEA, 212 pp

Patterson RS, Rutz DA, 1986. Biological control of muscoid flies. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 61:vi + 174pp.; [many fig.]; many ref

Petersen JJ, 1989. Potential for biological control of stable flies associated with confined livestock. In: Petersen JJ, Greene GL, eds. Current Status of Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Research. Lanham, Maryland: Entomological Society of America Miscellaneous Publication, 74, 41-45

Petersen JJ, Greene GL, 1989. Current status of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) research. Proceedings of a symposium presented at the National Conference of the Entomological Society of America, December 1986, Reno, Nevada. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America, No. 74:53 pp.; [many fig.]; many ref

Petersen JJ, Meyer JA, Stage DA, Morgan PB, 1983. Evaluation of sequential releases of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for control of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) associated with confined livestock in eastern Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76:283-286

Pickens LG, 1991. Battery-powered, electrocuting trap for stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 28(6):822-830; 32 ref

Pickens LG, Hayes DK, 1984. Evaluation of a new face fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) trap which segregates the catch of the two species. Environmental Entomology, 13:1256-1260

Pickens LG, Miller RW, 1987. Techniques for trapping flies on farms. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 4:305-313

Pickens LG, Miller RW, Grasela JJ, 1977. Sticky panels as traps for Musca autumnalis. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70:549-552

Pickens LG, Mills GDJr, 1993. Solar-powered electrocuting trap for controlling house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 30(5):872-877; 21 ref

Rugg D, 1982. Effectiveness of Williams traps in reducing the numbers of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 75:857-859

Rutz DA, Patterson RS, 1990. Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry. Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry., x + 316 pp.; [15.3x22.3 cm, Book in series Westview Studies in Insect Biology]; many ref

Schmidtmann ET, 1991. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:3956-3960

Schreck CE, Posey K, Gouck HK, 1975. Evaluation of the electrocutor grid trap baited with carbon dioxide against the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 12:338-340

Seymour RC, Campbell JB, 1993. Predators and parasitoids of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in cattle confinements in west central Nebraska. Environmental Entomology, 22(1):212-219; 47 ref

Skidmore P, 1985. The Biology of the Muscidae of the World. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, 550 pp

Skoda SR, Thomas GD, Campbell JB, 1991. Developmental sites and relative abundance of immature stages of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in beef cattle feedlot pens in eastern Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology, 84(1):191-197; 18 ref

Soós Á, Papp L, 1986. Catalogue of palaearctic Diptera, Vol. 11: Scathophagidae-Hypodermatidae. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 346 pp

Stage DA, Petersen JJ, 1981. Mass release of pupal parasites for control of stable flies and house flies in confined feedlots in Nebraska. In: Patterson RS, Koehler PG, Morgan PB, Harris RL, eds. Status of Biological Control of Filth Flies, Proceedings of a Workshop. Gainesville, Florida: USDA-SEA, 52-58

Steelman CD, 1976. Effects of external and internal arthropod parasites on domestic livestock production. Annual Revue of Entomology, 21:155-178

Steinbrink H, 1989. On the distribution of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera, Muscidae) in stalls. Angewandte Parasitologie, 30(1):57-61; 11 ref

Stork MG, 1979. The epidemiological and economic importance of fly infestation of meat and milk producing animals in Europe. Veterinary Record, 105:341-343

Tarry DW, Bernal L, Edwards S, 1991. Transmission of bovine virus diarrhoea virus by blood feeding flies. Veterinary Record, 128(4):82-84; 17 ref

Thomson RCM, 1937. Observations on the biology and larvae of the Anthomyidae. Parasitology, 19: 273-358

Tseng JM, Hogsette JA, Patterson RS, 1986. Effect of yarn on attractiveness of the Williams trap to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. Florida Entomologist, 69:261-263

Urban JE, Broce A, 1998. Flies and their bacterial loads in greyhound dog kennels in Kansas. Current Microbiology, 36(3):164-170; 20 ref

Voegtline AC, Ozburn GW, Gill GD, 1965. The relation of weather to biting activity of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) along Lake Superior. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science Arts and Letters, 50:107-114

Weidhaas DE, Haile DG, 1978. A theoretical model to determine the degree of trapping required for insect population control. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 24 (1):18-20

Wieman GA, Campbell JB, DeShazer JA, Berry IL, 1992. Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and heat stress on weight gain and feed efficiency of feeder cattle. Journal of Economic Entomology, 85(5):1835-1842; 18 ref

Williams DF, 1973. Sticky traps for sampling populations of Stomoxys calcitrans. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66:1279-1280

Williams DF, Rogers AJ, 1976. Vertical and lateral distribution of stable flies in Northwestern Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology, 13: 95-98

Williams DF, Rogers AJ, Hester P, Ruff J, Levy R, 1980. Preferred breeding media of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in Northwestern Florida. Mosquio News, 40:276-279

Zumpt F, 1973. The Stomoxyine Biting Flies of the World. Diptera: Muscidae. Taxonomy, Biology, Economic Importance and Control Measures. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 175 pp

Distribution References

Andress E R, Campbell J B, 1994. Inundative releases of pteromalid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) for the control of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) at confined cattle installations in west central Nebraska. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (3), 714-722. DOI:10.1093/jee/87.3.714

Badr S A, 2014. Insects and non insects species associated with pine needle trees in Alexandria Egypt. Journal of Entomology. 11 (1), 49-55. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=je.2014.49.55&linkid=pdf

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Campbell JB, 1993. The economics of the fly problem. In: Rural Flies in the Urban Environment. North Central Regional Research Publication Number 335, [ed. by Thomas GD, Skoda SR]. Lincoln, University of Nebraska. 34-39.

Cilek J E, Greene G L, 1994. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) insecticide resistance in Kansas cattle feedlots. Journal of Economic Entomology. 87 (2), 275-279. DOI:10.1093/jee/87.2.275

Fye R L, Brown J, Ruff J, Buschman L, 1980. A survey of northwest Florida for potential stable fly breeding. Florida Entomologist. 63 (2), 246-251. DOI:10.2307/3494446

Greene G L, Hogsette J A, Patterson R S, 1989. Parasites that attack stable fly and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) puparia during the winter on dairies in northwestern Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology. 82 (2), 412-415. DOI:10.1093/jee/82.2.412

Hansens E J, 1951. The Stable Fly and its Effect on Seashore recreational Areas in New Jersey. Journal of Economic Entomology. 44 (4), 482-487 pp. DOI:10.1093/jee/44.4.482

Hogsette J A, 1981. Fly control by composting manure at a south Florida equine facility. In: Patterson, R. S. (Chairman): Status of biological control of filth flies. Proceedings of a workshop. February 4-5, 1981, University of Florida, Gainesville. [Patterson, R. S. (Chairman): Status of biological control of filth flies. Proceedings of a workshop. February 4-5, 1981, University of Florida, Gainesville.], New Orleans, Louisiana, USA: Agricultural Research (Southern Region), Science and Education Administration, United States Department of Agriculture. 105-113.

Hogsette J A, Ruff J P, 1985. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) migration in northwest Florida. Environmental Entomology. 14 (2), 170-175. DOI:10.1093/ee/14.2.170

Hogsette J A, Ruff J P, 1986. Evaluation of flucythrinate- and fenvalerate-impregnated ear tags and permethrin ear tapes for fly (Diptera: Muscidae) control on beef and dairy cattle in northwest Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology. 79 (1), 152-157. DOI:10.1093/jee/79.1.152

Hogsette J A, Ruff J P, Jones C J, 1987. Stable fly biology and control in Northwest Florida. Journal of Agricultural Entomology. 4 (1), 1-11.

Hogsette J A, Ruff J P, McGowan M J, 1981. Stable fly integrated pest management (IPM) in northwest Florida. Journal of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association. 52 (1), 48-52.

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