Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Iris domestica
(blackberry lily)

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Datasheet

Iris domestica (blackberry lily)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Iris domestica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • blackberry lily
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Iris domestica is a perennial herb, native to China and also likely to be native to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Far East of Russia. Through its use as an ornamental, it has been widely introduced and cultivate...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2014.
TitleFlower
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2014.
Copyright©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2014.
FlowerIris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2014.©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flowering habit. As an invasive, having escaped from cultivation throughout Illinois, USA. November 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); flowering habit. As an invasive, having escaped from cultivation throughout Illinois, USA. November 2012.
Copyright©Amos Oliver Doyle/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flowering habit. As an invasive, having escaped from cultivation throughout Illinois, USA. November 2012.
HabitIris domestica (blackberry lily); flowering habit. As an invasive, having escaped from cultivation throughout Illinois, USA. November 2012.©Amos Oliver Doyle/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2015.
TitleFlower
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2015.
Copyright©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2015.
FlowerIris domestica (blackberry lily); flower. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2015.©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); habit. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); habit. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2013.
Copyright©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); habit. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2013.
HabitIris domestica (blackberry lily); habit. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2013.©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); seed pods. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2016.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); seed pods. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2016.
Copyright©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); seed pods. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2016.
Seed podsIris domestica (blackberry lily); seed pods. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. August 2016.©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2012.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2012.
Fruiting habitIris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Pali o Waipio, Maui, Hawaii, USA. November 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Outdoor Garden at Phipps Conservatory, Pittsburgh, USA. October 2015.
TitleFruiting habit
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Outdoor Garden at Phipps Conservatory, Pittsburgh, USA. October 2015.
Copyright©Cbaile19/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Outdoor Garden at Phipps Conservatory, Pittsburgh, USA. October 2015.
Fruiting habitIris domestica (blackberry lily); fruiting habit. Outdoor Garden at Phipps Conservatory, Pittsburgh, USA. October 2015.©Cbaile19/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); ripe fruits. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. October 2016.
TitleFruits
CaptionIris domestica (blackberry lily); ripe fruits. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. October 2016.
Copyright©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Iris domestica (blackberry lily); ripe fruits. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. October 2016.
FruitsIris domestica (blackberry lily); ripe fruits. Mount Ibuki, Maibara Shiga prefecture, Japan. October 2016.©Alpsdake/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Iris domestica (L.) Goldblatt & Mabb.

Preferred Common Name

  • blackberry lily

Other Scientific Names

  • Belamcanda chinensis (L.) Redouté
  • Belamcanda flabellata Grey
  • Belamcanda pampaninii H.Lév
  • Bermudiana guttata Stokes
  • Epidendrum domesticum L.
  • Ferraria crocea Salisb.
  • Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Kuntze
  • Ixia chinensis L.
  • Ixia ensifolia Noronha
  • Moraea chinensis (L.) Thunb.
  • Moraea guttata (Stokes) Stokes
  • Pardanthus nepalensis Sweet
  • Pardanthus sinensis Van Houtte
  • Vanilla domestica (L.) Druce

International Common Names

  • English: belamcanda; leopard flower; leopard lily; shenan
  • Spanish: maravilla; mariposa
  • French: iris tigre
  • Portuguese: flor-leopardo
  • German: leopardenblume

Local Common Names

  • China: she gan
  • Cuba: belamacanda; belam-canda; belancanda; belencanda; cola de gallo; manito; mano de estrada palma
  • Dominican Republic: más te quiero; narciso
  • India: arti; chalkumra; dasbai chandi; kabo leiteng; surajakanti; torobot; tyangpatre
  • Indonesia: brojo lintang; jamaka; semprit
  • Japan: hi-ogi
  • Korea, Republic of: pompuchae
  • Philippines: abaniko; baliokoq; palma
  • Singapore: pokok kipis; salmon blood lily
  • Sweden: leopardblomma
  • Thailand: waan haangchaang; wann meetyap

Summary of Invasiveness

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Iris domestica is a perennial herb, native to China and also likely to be native to Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Far East of Russia. Through its use as an ornamental, it has been widely introduced and cultivated, mostly in temperate and subtropical areas. In many places it has escaped from cultivation, particularly in the USA. In Wisconsin, it is considered a species to watch, capable of expanding but generally spreading slowly and with a minimal dispersal range. It is considered a transformer species and potentially invasive in Cuba, however, any impacts on habitats and biodiversity have not reported.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Liliales
  •                         Family: Iridaceae
  •                             Genus: Iris
  •                                 Species: Iris domestica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Iridaceae family contains about 300 species, including ornamentals and species used in traditional medicine (Goldblatt and Mabberley, 2005; PROTA, 2018). One of the important ornamental genera is Iris, which is native to Eurasia, North America and Africa. Named in 1763, Belamcanda chinensis has now been reclassified as Iris domestica based on molecular studies (Goldblatt and Mabberley, 2005). The latter name was proposed by Goldblatt and Mabberley (2005) because the name Iris chinensis was already in use. The morphology of I. domestica is very similar to I. dichotoma, which is considered a sister species based on molecular analysis (Goldblatt and Mabberley, 2005).  

Mavrodiev et al. (2014) argue that Iris, as currently circumscribed, is too heterogeneous and difficult to define, and proposed to split the genus into 23 genera, based on molecular and taxonomic data. In their work the authors also recognize I. domestica as a sister group to I. dichotoma, but the authors suggest that both species should be included within the Pardancanda genus. These changes have not yet been widely accepted. Consequently, I. domestica is here recognized as the valid name for the species.

B. punctata is an illegitimate name for I. domestica (The Plant List, 2018). The common names of the species ‘blackberry lily’ and ‘leopard lily’ refer to the fruits resembling blackberries and for the red-spotted orange flowers (NC State Extension, 2018).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018):

Plants 0.6-1 m. Rhizomes just below ground level, horizontal, flesh usually orange. Stems usually 3-5-branched. Leaves 8-14 per stem; blade narrowly lanceolate, 1/2 to ± equalling stem, 10-20 mm wide, glaucous. Rhipidia usually 3-6-flowered; spathes ± equal, 10-20 mm. Tepals ascending proximally, ± spreading distally, light orange to reddish (rarely yellow), with large, irregularly scattered spots of darker pigment, lanceolate, 16-35 mm; filaments (6-)10-12 mm; anthers 6-8 mm; ovary narrowly ovoid-3-angled, (4-)6-8 mm; style 3-angled proximally, thickened in distal 1/2, dividing opposite anther apices, branches ca 2 mm. Capsules ovoid, 18-26 mm, apex truncate. Seeds persisting on placentas after capsule dehiscence, black, ca 4 mm diameter, shiny.

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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I. domestica is believed to be native to China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Far East of Russia (Goldblatt and Mabberley, 2005). However, because it has been in cultivation for a long time, its native distribution is somewhat uncertain. According to the Flora of China it is native to China but it is also listed as present in Japan, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, India, the Philippines and Russia, without stating where it is native or introduced (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). The USDA-ARS (2018) also record the species as native to Japan, Korea and Russia but introduced to Myanmar, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Indonesia and the Philippines. According to Marr (1972), I. domestica is not native to India, but is native to China and possibly to the Himalayas.

It has been widely introduced for cultivation in North and South America and the Caribbean (Acevedo Rodríguez et al., 2012; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018). It is also cultivated in Sweden, the UK and Australia (Foster and Chongxi, 1992; Forbes et al. 2010).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HeilongjiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HenanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-JilinPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-LiaoningPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-NingxiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-XinjiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroducedGoldblatt and Mabberley, 2005Also cultivated
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018
-JavaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PROTA, 2018
-MoluccasPresentIntroduced Not invasive PROTA, 2018
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced Not invasive PROTA, 2018
-SumatraPresentIntroduced Not invasive PROTA, 2018
JapanPresentGoldblatt and Mabberley, 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018Native status uncertain
-ShikokuPresentPROTA, 2018
Korea, Republic ofPresentNativeGoldblatt and Mabberley, 2005
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2018
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2018
MyanmarPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018
NepalPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2018
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedGoldblatt and Mabberley, 2005; PROTA, 2018Also cultivated
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedChong et al., 2009
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018Also cultivated
VietnamPresentIntroducedGoldblatt and Mabberley, 2005Also cultivated

North America

USAPresentIntroducedFoster and Chongxi, 1992; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-ArizonaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-DelawarePresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-FloridaPresentIntroducedGilman, 1999; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced1946Mill et al., 1985
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-IndianaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-IowaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-KansasPresentIntroducedWood et al., 2005; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-MainePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-MarylandPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-MassachusettsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-MichiganPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-MinnesotaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-MississippiPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-MissouriPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-MontanaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-New HampshirePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-New YorkPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-OhioPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-OregonPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-TennesseePresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-TexasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Nesom, 2009Few localities
-UtahPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-VermontPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDave's Garden, 2018
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedFlora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Not invasive Dave's Garden, 2018; Wisconsin DNR, 2018

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2018Potentially invasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; New York Botanical Garden, 2018
JamaicaPresentIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2018
MartiniquePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedNew York Botanical Garden, 2018
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez et al., 2005; New York Botanical Garden, 2018; Smithsonian Museum of Natural History, 2018Uncommon in open, disturbed places between 200-800 m. Adjuntas, Bayamón, Juncos, Yabucoa

South America

ArgentinaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Keller, 2008Misiones
BoliviaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2018Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
-BahiaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
-ParanaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedFlora do Brasil, 2018
ParaguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2018Central, Cordillera, Guairá, Paraguarí
PeruPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2018Lima
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedLasser et al., 1974; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018Distrito Federal, Miranda, Monagas

Europe

Russian FederationPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2018
-Russian Far EastPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2018
SwedenPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1748Foster and Chongxi, 1992Botanical garden in Upssala
UKPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Foster and Chongxi, 1992; PROTA, 2018Introduced from China

Oceania

AustraliaPresent only in captivity/cultivationCultivated based on regional distribution
-South AustraliaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Not invasive Forbes et al., 2010Adelaide Botanic Gardens

History of Introduction and Spread

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I. domestica was introduced from east Asia as an ornamental plant and is often cultivated in gardens because of its attractive flowers (PROTA, 2018). Seeds of the species were collected by Jesuit missionaries in China and brought to Europe in the eighteenth century. It was cultivated in a botanical garden in Uppsala, Sweden by 1748 and in English gardens by 1759. It is reported to have been present in USA gardens by 1825 and naturalized in the eastern part of the country by the nineteenth century (Foster and Chongxi, 1992). It has been present in the Caribbean region since the late 1880s (New York Botanical Garden, 2018).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Sweden China 1748 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Foster and Chongxi (1992) Uppsala botanical gardens
UK 1759 Horticulture (pathway cause) No No Foster and Chongxi (1992)
USA 1825 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Foster and Chongxi (1992)

Risk of Introduction

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I. domestica is a species with a high risk of introduction in temperate and subtropical areas with mild winter temperatures, where it can be grown as an ornamental. If its use and popularity as a medicinal plant increases, the risk of introduction could also increase. Although reported as present on some Caribbean islands, it is not common in the region, possibly due to the environmental conditions not being best suited for the species. In Wisconsin, it is considered a species to watch, capable of expanding but generally spreading slowly and with a minimal dispersal range (Wisconsin DNR, 2018). It is not considered invasive in North America according to the Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health (2018).

Habitat

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I. domestica grows in grasslands, pastures, woodland clearings, disturbed limestone glades, rocky outcrops, hillsides, fallow fields, roadsides, coastal plains, sandy meadows, savannas, forest edges, scrublands and near railroads and sites of old homesteads (Foster and Chongxi, 1992; Flora & Fauna Web, 2018; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018; NC State Extension, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

It is best suited to the mountainous regions in South East Asia, in shrublands and banks in the Himalayas (PROTA, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for I. domestica is 2n = 32 (PROTA, 2018). DNA sequence information is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD, 2018).

Hybrids between I. dichotoma and I. domestica have been produced since 1967 for the selection of dwarf plants, large numbers of flowers and novel flower colours (Ruan et al., 2017).

Reproductive Biology

I. domestica reproduces by rhizomes or by seed (EOL, 2018) and apomixis can occur in this species (PROTA, 2018). In cultivation, the seeds should be sown in a cold frame when ripe, and should then germinate in 2-8 weeks at 20°C (PFAF, 2018; RHS, 2018). Stratification is reported as aiding germination (PROTA, 2018). The species can also be vegetatively propagated by dividing the rhizomes in spring or early autumn (PROTA, 2018). Larger divisions can be planted straight away, while smaller pieces should be potted and kept in a cold frame until they are sturdier (PFAF, 2018).

I. domestica seeds can be stored in long-term cold conditions (MSB, 2018). The fleshy pulp needs to be removed from the seeds before storing (Dave’s Garden, 2018). Seeds stored for 14 years had a reduction in germination success from 100% to 90% (PROTA, 2018). Germplasm collections are available at various institutions (MSB, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

I. domestica flowers from June to August (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2018). After its germination, plants grow slowly and flowering usually occurs within two years. The flowers are open for a few hours only, from dawn to noon, with 1-2 flowers opening at a time within one cyme. The seed pods open in the autumn (EOL, 2018; Wisconsin DNR, 2018).

Longevity

I. domestica is short-lived, surviving for 2-5 years in temperate areas (Manda and Nicu, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

I. domestica grows best in rich, moist soils (PFAF, 2018). The species is drought resistant and will not grow well in water-logged soils (NC State Extension, 2018). It can grow well in all soil types if they are well drained; growing in light (sandy), medium (loamy) or rocky soils with a pH of 6.1 to 7.8 (PFAF, 2018; PROTA, 2018). Although it prefers full sun conditions, it can grow in the shade (NC State Extension, 2018; PFAF, 2018). The species is hardy, tolerating short episodes of temperatures as low as -15°C (RHS, 2018). It will tolerate moderate frosts, but needs protection with dry mulch from severe cold (PROTA, 2018). It grows from sea level to elevations up to 2500 m (Foster and Chongxi, 1992; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 19 0 2500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -15
Mean annual temperature (ºC) -10 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall4752400mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amauromyza belamcandae Herbivore Leaves not specific
Chrysomphalus aonidum Herbivore Leaves not specific
Pestalotia disseminata Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Tomato spotted wilt virus Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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I. domestica is rarely bothered by diseases or pests (PROTA, 2018). However, it is affected by the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and a mosaic virus that also affects other Iris species. The fungus Pestalotia disseminata [Pestalotiopsis disseminata] is reported as causing leaf spots. Insects reported to affect I. domestica are the leaf miner Amauromyza belamcandae, the scale insect Chrysomphalus aonidum, slugs and aphids (Mathis, 1947; PROTA, 2018). The species is also reported as suffering from crown rot in waterlogged soils (Flora & Fauna Web, 2018).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Intentional Introduction

I. domestica has been intentionally introduced to temperate and subtropical areas as an ornamental because of its attractive flowers and fruits (PROTA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Lasser et al., 1974
Breeding and propagation Yes
Cut flower tradeBranches with flowers and seeds used in arrangements Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Acevedo Rodríguez et al., 2005
Garden waste disposalPossible, from its cultivation Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Internet salesAvailable from various internet sites Yes Yes ,
Medicinal useEthnobotanical uses reported Yes Yes PROTA, 2018
Nursery tradeAvailable at various nurseries Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2018
Off-site preservation Germplasm preserved at various institutions Yes Yes MSB, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Dave's Garden, 2018; PROTA, 2018
ResearchPharmacological research mainly for cancer treatment Yes Yes Woźniak and Matkowski, 2015
Seed tradeSeed sold by various internet sites and nurseries Yes Yes Dave’s Garden, 2018; PROTA, 2018

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
GermplasmGermplasm preserved at various institutions Yes Yes MSB, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018
MailMailed from various sites, locally and internationally Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelPossible, from its cultivation Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Impact: Environmental

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Impact on Habitats

I. domestica persists where planted, and has spread as an escape from cultivation (Acevedo Rodríguez et al., 2005; Goldblatt and Mabberley, 2005). Although it is reported as an invasive in Cuba, there is no information available on how it is affecting habitats and native species (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Impact: Social

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I. domestica seeds are toxic when ingested (PROTA, 2018). Rhizome extracts are reported to cause miscarriages in pregnant women (Flora & Fauna Web, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Hybridization
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

I. domestica is commercially available as an ornamental. It is sold over the internet and at local nurseries, both as seeds and as potted plants (Dave’s Garden, 2018). Cultivars are also available for sale (Mahr, 2007). Flowers and fruits are used in flower arrangements (Mahr, 2007; PFAF, 2018).

The species is also in cultivation for medicinal purposes in China, India and Japan (Foster and Chongxi, 1992; IPK Gatersleben, 2018; PROTA, 2018). I. domestica is listed as an official drug in the 1985 Chinese Pharmacopeia and is used to prepare prescriptions. It is cultivated at a local commercial scale for medicinal purposes in some Chinese provinces (Foster and Chongxi, 1992). The rhizomes, dried and sliced, are available in markets in China for medical uses (PROTA, 2018).

There is active research being done on some chemical compounds of I. domestica for their potential in cancer treatments (Woźniak and Matkowski, 2015). The isoflavones have shown antiproliferative effects on prostate cancer cells (Thelen et al., 2005). Research is also being carried out to investigate its inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease (PROTA, 2018).

Social Benefit

I. domestica is an important plant for use in Chinese herbal medicine, and is also used in Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese and Philippine traditional medicines (Woźniak and Matkowski, 2015). The part that is mostly used for medicinal purposes is the rhizome (PROTA, 2018).

The reported medicinal uses of I. domestica include: antidote to snakebites, analgesic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, depurative, febrifuge, purgative, treatment for stomach aches and a tonic. It is prescribed to treat swellings, asthma, wheezing, chronic phlegm, irregular menstrual cycles, dermatitis, contusions, rheumatism, asthma, swollen liver and spleen, gonorrhoea, malaria and arrow poisoning. It is used in the treatment of acute laryngitis, acute tonsillitis and oedema of the glottis. The juice of the root is also used in Nepal to improve appetite. In Indonesia, it is chewed with Piper betle leaves after childbirth. It is used in Peninsular Malaysia as a medicinal bath after childbirth (Foster and Chongxi, 1992; EOL, 2018; PFAF, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

As an ornamental, the species is used for landscapes, borders and woodland gardens (PFAF, 2018).

Environmental Services

The flowers offer nectar and pollen to insects and other floral visitors, but there are no specific species reports. There are anecdotal reports of seeds being consumed by birds (PROTA, 2018). It is reported in Singapore as being pollinated by butterflies and moths (Flora & Fauna Web, 2018).

The species has shown some allelochemical activity. The heavy metal uptake by Echinochloa crus-galli is enhanced when exposed to I. domestica root exudates (Woźniak and Matkowski, 2015).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Wildlife habitat

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Sociocultural value

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • Potted plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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I. domestica is a perennial herb that is quite distinctive when in flower or fruit. However, it can be confused vegetatively with other Iris species. The flowers can be confused with those of Lilium, though I. domestica has three distinct stamens, while Lillium have six. I. domestica also differs from other Iris species by its globose, smooth, shiny black seeds. The fruits resemble blackberries, hence the common name, blackberry lily (EOL, 2018).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

The seedlings of I. domestica are easy to identify and are not difficult to remove. The removal of the flower stalks before the seed pods mature is also recommended (Mahr, 2007).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More information is needed on the spread and impact of I. domestica (Wisconsin DNR, 2018). The only report of I. domestica as a potentially invasive species is from Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). More information is needed about its invasiveness and impact on habitats and biodiversity in this location. This information is needed to properly assess the risk of introducing the species into tropical areas.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 52, 415 pp.

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Mahr S, 2007. Blackberry Lily, Belamcanda chinensis or Iris domestica. In: Master Gardener Program , USA: University of Wisconsin.

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PFAF, 2018. Plants for a Future Database. http://pfaf.org/user/Default.aspx

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Ruan LiLi, Gao YiKe, Wu Qi, Fu Mu, Yang ZhanHui, Zhang QiXiang, 2017. An analysis of the genetic variation in ornamental traits in hybrids of Iris dichotoma and I. domestica. Euphytica, 213(1), 8. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10681 doi: 10.1007/s10681-016-1797-9

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Wozniak, D., Matkowski, A., 2015. Belamcandae chinensis rhizoma - a review of phytochemistry and bioactivity. Fitoterapia, 107, 1-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0367326X doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.08.015

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Healthhttps://www.invasive.org/

Contributors

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22/02/18 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez

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