Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

swine vesicular disease virus

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Datasheet

swine vesicular disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 September 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • swine vesicular disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Picornaviridae
  •         Genus: Enterovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
An electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionAn electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
CopyrightID-Lelystad
An electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
Virus particlesAn electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.ID-Lelystad

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • swine vesicular disease virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Picornaviridae
  •                 Genus: Enterovirus
  •                     Species: swine vesicular disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
AngolaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Burkina FasoAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)
CameroonAbsent, No presence record(s)
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChadAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EswatiniAbsent, No presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Guinea-BissauAbsent, No presence record(s)
KenyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)
MalawiAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaliAbsent, No presence record(s)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoroccoAbsent, No presence record(s)
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
NamibiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NigeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RéunionAbsent, No presence record(s)
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)
SenegalAbsent, No presence record(s)
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)
TanzaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
UgandaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZambiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, No presence record(s)

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IndonesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)
MongoliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)
NepalAbsent, No presence record(s)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
QatarAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)
South KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)
TajikistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkeyAbsent, No presence record(s)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)
YemenAbsent, No presence record(s)

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
ItalyPresent
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PortugalPresentNative
RussiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)
United Kingdom
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuadeloupeAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasAbsent, No presence record(s)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsent, No presence record(s)
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is classified as an enterovirus (species: Enterovirus B) within the family of Picornaviridae. The family comprises important animal and human viruses, for example foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and a wide range of rhinoviruses. Picornaviridae are non-enveloped viruses and contain a single stranded RNA, with a positive polarity. The genome of SVDV consists of approximately 7400 nucleotides, which encodes a single polyprotein of 2185 amino acids (Inoue et al., 1989). This polyprotein is post-translationally cleaved into 11 proteins. Four of these proteins, 1A (VP4), 1B (VP2), 1C (VP3) and 1D (VP1) form an icosahedral capsid of approximately 25-30 nm in diameter. One protein, 3B, is linked to the RNA and is therefore also a structural protein. The other proteins are involved in virus replication and host-cell shut off.

Several epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been mapped on the viral capsid (Kanno et al., 1995; Nijhar et al., 1999; Dekker et al., 2000). In these studies the structure of polio-, human rhino- or Coxsackie B-3 viral proteins was used as template to model the structure of SVDV. This indicated a great structural homology between the different enteroviruses. Most but not all epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies had homologous sites on poliovirus (Nijhar et al., 1999).

SVDV is very resistant to environmental factors and many commonly used disinfectants. The virus remains infectious for months in carcasses and processed meat, for example salami or pepperoni sausages (Hedger and Mann, 1989). The virus can be grown on primary or secondary porcine kidney cells and a wide range of pig kidney-derived cell lines. SVDV can be differentiated from FMDV on the basis of several physicochemical properties (see table below) and its inability to grow on primary bovine thyroid cells. SVDV can, however, be cultured in secondary lamb kidney cells (Dekker, Institute for Animal Science and Health, Netherlands, personal communication, 2000). SVDV is a zoonosis (Brown et al., 1976), and the virus is lethal to newborn mice (Nardelli et al., 1968). Within the group of enteroviruses only Coxsackie viruses can infect mice (Graves, 1973). Not only based on host tropism but also antigenically SVDV is related to Coxsackie B-5 virus (Brown et al., 1973; Graves, 1973). Based on this antigenic relationship, it was suggested that SVDV was a swine adapted Coxsackie B-5 isolate (Graves, 1973). Sequence data show that SVDV has approximately 75-85 % nucleotide homology with Coxsackie B-5 virus (Knowles and McCauley, 1997). Phylogenetic analysis shows that SVD and Coxsackie B-5 probably shared a common ancestor in the period between 1945 and 1965.

Physicochemical properties of SVDV and FMDV (Nardelli et al. 1968)

Property

SVDV

FMDV

Stability at pH 5

Stable

Labile

Stabilisation by 1M MgCl2 at 50°C

Stabilized

Not stabilized

Ether-resistance

Resistant

Resistant

Sedimentation coefficient (S)

150

140

Buoyant density (g/ml)

1.34

1.43

Size (nm)

30 - 32

24

Morphology

Roughly spherical

Roughly spherical

SVDV is considered a single serotype, but isolates can be divided into four distinct phylogenetic groups by comparing monoclonal antibody reaction patterns and nucleotide sequencing of the 1D gene (Brocchi et al., 1997).

Swine vesicular disease, caused by SVDV, was previously included in the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) due to the similarity of its lesions to those produced by foot and mouth disease. However, the disease is often mild in nature and SVDV may infect pigs subclinically. Due to this and to the ease of laboratory differential diagnosis, swine vesicular disease is no longer a listed disease (OIE, 2020).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Ovis aries (sheep)Experimental settings
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host; Wild host
TayassuidaeWild host

References

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Brocchi E, Zhang G, Knowles NJ, Wilsden G, McCauley JW, Marquardt O, Ohlinger VF, Simone Fde, 1997. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94. Epidemiology and Infection, 118(1):51-61; 32 ref

Brown F, Goodridge D, Burrows R, 1976. Infection of man by swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 86:409-414

Brown F, Talbot P, Burrows R, 1973. Antigenic differences between isolates of swine vesicular disease virus and their relationship to Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:315-316

Dekker A, Leendertse CH, Poelwijk F et al. , 2000. Chimeric SVD viruses produced by fusion PCR. A new method for epitope mapping. Journal of virological methods, 86:131-141

Graves JH, 1973. Serological realtionship of swine vesicular disease and Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:314-315

Hedger RS, Mann JA, 1989. Swine vesicular disease virus. Virus infections of porcines., 241-250; 30 ref

Inoue T, Suzuki T, Sekiguchi K, 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 70(4):919-934; 53 ref

Kanno T, Inoue T, Wang YiFei, Sarai A, Yamaguchi S, 1995. Identification of the location of antigenic sites of swine vesicular disease virus with neutralization-resistant mutants. Journal of General Virology, 76(12):3099-3106; 28 ref

Knowles NJ, McCauley JW, 1997. Coxsackievirus B5 and the relationship to swine vesicular disease virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Coxsackie B viruses, 223: 153-167

Nardelli L, Lodetti E, Gualandi FL et al. , 1968. A foot-and-mouth disease syndrome in pigs caused by an enterovirus. Nature, 219:1275-1276

Nijhar SK, Mackay DKJ, Brocchi E, Ferris NP, Kitching RP, Knowles NJ, 1999. Identification of neutralizing epitopes on a European strain of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 80(2):277-282; 22 ref

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE, 2004. Swine vesicular disease in Portugal. Disease Information, 17, No. 3

OIE, 2020. Swine vesicular disease (updated January 2020). In: OIE Technical disease cards Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health.https://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Animal_Health_in_the_World/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/SWINE_VESICULAR_DISEASE.pdf

Zhang G, Haydon DT, Knowles NJ, McCauley JW, 1999. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 80(3):639-651; 54 ref

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Distribution Maps

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