Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

swine vesicular disease virus

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Datasheet

swine vesicular disease virus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • swine vesicular disease virus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Picornaviridae
  •         Genus: Enterovirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
An electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
TitleVirus particles
CaptionAn electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
CopyrightID-Lelystad
An electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.
Virus particlesAn electron-micrograph of SVD virus particles negatively stained with phospho-tungstic acid.ID-Lelystad

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • swine vesicular disease virus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Picornaviridae
  •                 Genus: Enterovirus
  •                     Species: swine vesicular disease virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AzerbaijanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BangladeshDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
USADisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
HondurasDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaLast reported1979OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceLast reported1983OIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported1979OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported1978OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1972OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalNativeOIE, 2004; OIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1975OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported1982OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineLast reported1977OIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is classified as an enterovirus within the family of Picornaviridae. The family comprises important animal and human viruses, for example foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and a wide range of rhinoviruses. Picornaviridae are non-enveloped viruses and contain a single stranded RNA, with a positive polarity. The genome of SVDV consists of approximately 7400 nucleotides, which encodes a single polyprotein of 2815 amino acids (Inoue et al., 1989). This polyprotein is post-translationally cleaved into 11 proteins. Four of these proteins, 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D, form the virus capsid. One protein, 3B, is linked to the RNA and is therefore also a structural protein. The other proteins are involved in virus replication and host-cell shut off.

Several epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been mapped on the viral capsid (Kanno et al., 1995; Nijhar et al., 1999; Dekker et al., 2000a). In these studies the structure of polio-, human rhino- or Coxsackie B-3 viral proteins was used as template to model the structure of SVDV. This indicated a great structural homology between the different enteroviruses. Most but not all epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies had homologous sites on poliovirus (Nijhar et al., 1999).

SVDV is very resistant to environmental factors and many commonly used disinfectants. The virus remains infectious for months in carcasses and processed meat, for example salami or pepperoni sausages (Hedger and Mann, 1989). The virus can be grown on primary or secondary porcine kidney cells and a wide range of pig kidney-derived cell lines. SVDV can be differentiated from FMDV on the basis of several physicochemical properties (see table below) and its inability to grow on primary bovine thyroid cells. SVDV can, however, be cultured in secondary lamb kidney cells (Dekker, Institute for Animal Science and Health, Netherlands, personal communication, 2000). SVDV is a zoonosis (Brown et al., 1976), and the virus is lethal to newborn mice (Nardelli et al., 1968). Within the group of enteroviruses only Coxsackie viruses can infect mice (Graves, 1973). Not only based on host tropism but also antigenically SVDV is related to Coxsackie B-5 virus (Brown et al., 1973; Graves, 1973). Based on this antigenic relationship, it was suggested that SVDV was a swine adapted Coxsackie B-5 isolate (Graves, 1973). Sequence data show that SVDV has approximately 75-85 % nucleotide homology with Coxsackie B-5 virus (Knowles and McCauley, 1997). Phylogenetic analysis shows that SVD and Coxsackie B-5 probably shared a common ancestor in the period between 1945 and 1965.

Physicochemical properties of SVDV and FMDV (Nardelli et al. 1968)

 


 


Property

SVDV

FMDV

Stability at pH 5

Stable

Labile

Stabilisation by 1M MgCl2 at 50°C

Stabilized

Not stabilized

Ether-resistance

Resistant

Resistant

Sedimentation coefficient (S)

150

140

Buoyant density (g/ml)

1.34

1.43

Size (nm)

30 - 32

24

Morphology

Roughly spherical

Roughly spherical


 

 

SVDV is considered a single serotype, but isolates can be divided into four distinct phylogenetic groups by comparing monoclonal antibody reaction patterns and nucleotide sequencing of the 1D gene (Brocchi et al., 1997).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Ovis aries (sheep)Experimental settings
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host, Wild host
TayassuidaeWild host

References

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Brocchi E; Zhang G; Knowles NJ; Wilsden G; McCauley JW; Marquardt O; Ohlinger VF; Simone Fde, 1997. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94. Epidemiology and Infection, 118(1):51-61; 32 ref.

Brown F; Goodridge D; Burrows R, 1976. Infection of man by swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 86:409-414.

Brown F; Talbot P; Burrows R, 1973. Antigenic differences between isolates of swine vesicular disease virus and their relationship to Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:315-316.

Dekker A; Leendertse CH, Poelwijk F et al. , 2000. Chimeric SVD viruses produced by fusion PCR. A new method for epitope mapping. Journal of virological methods, 86:131-141.

Graves JH, 1973. Serological realtionship of swine vesicular disease and Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:314-315.

Hedger RS; Mann JA, 1989. Swine vesicular disease virus. Virus infections of porcines., 241-250; 30 ref.

Inoue T; Suzuki T; Sekiguchi K, 1989. The complete nucleotide sequence of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 70(4):919-934; 53 ref.

Kanno T; Inoue T; Wang YiFei; Sarai A; Yamaguchi S, 1995. Identification of the location of antigenic sites of swine vesicular disease virus with neutralization-resistant mutants. Journal of General Virology, 76(12):3099-3106; 28 ref.

Knowles NJ; McCauley JW, 1997. Coxsackievirus B5 and the relationship to swine vesicular disease virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Coxsackie B viruses, 223: 153-167.

Nardelli L; Lodetti E, Gualandi FL et al. , 1968. A foot-and-mouth disease syndrome in pigs caused by an enterovirus. Nature, 219:1275-1276.

Nijhar SK; Mackay DKJ; Brocchi E; Ferris NP; Kitching RP; Knowles NJ, 1999. Identification of neutralizing epitopes on a European strain of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 80(2):277-282; 22 ref.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2004. Swine vesicular disease in Portugal. Disease Information, 17, No. 3.

Zhang G; Haydon DT; Knowles NJ; McCauley JW, 1999. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 80(3):639-651; 54 ref.

Distribution Maps

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