swine vesicular disease virus
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- swine vesicular disease virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Picornaviridae
- Genus: Enterovirus
- Species: swine vesicular disease virus
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Pathogen CharacteristicsTop of page
Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) is classified as an enterovirus within the family of Picornaviridae. The family comprises important animal and human viruses, for example foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), poliovirus, hepatitis A virus and a wide range of rhinoviruses. Picornaviridae are non-enveloped viruses and contain a single stranded RNA, with a positive polarity. The genome of SVDV consists of approximately 7400 nucleotides, which encodes a single polyprotein of 2815 amino acids (Inoue et al., 1989). This polyprotein is post-translationally cleaved into 11 proteins. Four of these proteins, 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D, form the virus capsid. One protein, 3B, is linked to the RNA and is therefore also a structural protein. The other proteins are involved in virus replication and host-cell shut off.
Several epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been mapped on the viral capsid (Kanno et al., 1995; Nijhar et al., 1999; Dekker et al., 2000a). In these studies the structure of polio-, human rhino- or Coxsackie B-3 viral proteins was used as template to model the structure of SVDV. This indicated a great structural homology between the different enteroviruses. Most but not all epitopes recognized by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies had homologous sites on poliovirus (Nijhar et al., 1999).
SVDV is very resistant to environmental factors and many commonly used disinfectants. The virus remains infectious for months in carcasses and processed meat, for example salami or pepperoni sausages (Hedger and Mann, 1989). The virus can be grown on primary or secondary porcine kidney cells and a wide range of pig kidney-derived cell lines. SVDV can be differentiated from FMDV on the basis of several physicochemical properties (see table below) and its inability to grow on primary bovine thyroid cells. SVDV can, however, be cultured in secondary lamb kidney cells (Dekker, Institute for Animal Science and Health, Netherlands, personal communication, 2000). SVDV is a zoonosis (Brown et al., 1976), and the virus is lethal to newborn mice (Nardelli et al., 1968). Within the group of enteroviruses only Coxsackie viruses can infect mice (Graves, 1973). Not only based on host tropism but also antigenically SVDV is related to Coxsackie B-5 virus (Brown et al., 1973; Graves, 1973). Based on this antigenic relationship, it was suggested that SVDV was a swine adapted Coxsackie B-5 isolate (Graves, 1973). Sequence data show that SVDV has approximately 75-85 % nucleotide homology with Coxsackie B-5 virus (Knowles and McCauley, 1997). Phylogenetic analysis shows that SVD and Coxsackie B-5 probably shared a common ancestor in the period between 1945 and 1965.
Physicochemical properties of SVDV and FMDV (Nardelli et al. 1968)
Stability at pH 5
Stabilisation by 1M MgCl2 at 50°C
Sedimentation coefficient (S)
Buoyant density (g/ml)
30 - 32
SVDV is considered a single serotype, but isolates can be divided into four distinct phylogenetic groups by comparing monoclonal antibody reaction patterns and nucleotide sequencing of the 1D gene (Brocchi et al., 1997).
Host AnimalsTop of page
ReferencesTop of page
Brocchi E; Zhang G; Knowles NJ; Wilsden G; McCauley JW; Marquardt O; Ohlinger VF; Simone Fde, 1997. Molecular epidemiology of recent outbreaks of swine vesicular disease: two genetically and antigenically distinct variants in Europe, 1987-94. Epidemiology and Infection, 118(1):51-61; 32 ref.
Brown F; Goodridge D; Burrows R, 1976. Infection of man by swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 86:409-414.
Brown F; Talbot P; Burrows R, 1973. Antigenic differences between isolates of swine vesicular disease virus and their relationship to Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:315-316.
Dekker A; Leendertse CH, Poelwijk F et al. , 2000. Chimeric SVD viruses produced by fusion PCR. A new method for epitope mapping. Journal of virological methods, 86:131-141.
Graves JH, 1973. Serological realtionship of swine vesicular disease and Coxsackie B5 virus. Nature, 245:314-315.
Hedger RS; Mann JA, 1989. Swine vesicular disease virus. Virus infections of porcines., 241-250; 30 ref.
Kanno T; Inoue T; Wang YiFei; Sarai A; Yamaguchi S, 1995. Identification of the location of antigenic sites of swine vesicular disease virus with neutralization-resistant mutants. Journal of General Virology, 76(12):3099-3106; 28 ref.
Knowles NJ; McCauley JW, 1997. Coxsackievirus B5 and the relationship to swine vesicular disease virus. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; Coxsackie B viruses, 223: 153-167.
Nardelli L; Lodetti E, Gualandi FL et al. , 1968. A foot-and-mouth disease syndrome in pigs caused by an enterovirus. Nature, 219:1275-1276.
Nijhar SK; Mackay DKJ; Brocchi E; Ferris NP; Kitching RP; Knowles NJ, 1999. Identification of neutralizing epitopes on a European strain of swine vesicular disease virus. Journal of General Virology, 80(2):277-282; 22 ref.
OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
OIE, 2004. Swine vesicular disease in Portugal. Disease Information, 17, No. 3.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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