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swine erysipelas

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swine erysipelas

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • swine erysipelas
  • Overview
  • Erysipelas is an important re-emerging disease of pigs, caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which is ubiquitous in the environment (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Cyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Cyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
SymptomsCyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Severe skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
TitleErysipelas - Symptoms
CaptionSevere skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
Copyright©Ranald D.A. Cameron
Severe skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
Erysipelas - SymptomsSevere skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.©Ranald D.A. Cameron
Typical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
TitleErysipelas - Symptoms
CaptionTypical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
Copyright©Ranald D.A. Cameron
Typical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
Erysipelas - SymptomsTypical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.©Ranald D.A. Cameron
Lameness in growing pigs.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLameness in growing pigs.
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Lameness in growing pigs.
SymptomsLameness in growing pigs.Lew Runnels/Purdue University
Proliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionProliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Proliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
SymptomsProliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.Lew Runnels/Purdue University
Vegetative valvular endocarditis
TitlePathology
CaptionVegetative valvular endocarditis
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Vegetative valvular endocarditis
PathologyVegetative valvular endocarditisLew Runnels/Purdue University

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • swine erysipelas

International Common Names

  • English: acute or chronic erysipelas in pigs; erysipelas, swine; erysipelothritic polyarthritis in sheep and cattle; nonsuppurative polyarthritis in lambs; polyarteritis nodosa in pigs; post-dipping lameness in sheep
  • French: rouget du porc

Local Common Names

  • Germany: schweinerotlauf
  • Italy: mal rossino; mal rosso
  • Netherlands: vlekziekte
  • Poland: rozyca
  • Spain: erisipela del cerdo
  • Sweden: rödsjuka

Overview

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Erysipelas is an important re-emerging disease of pigs, caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which is ubiquitous in the environment (Wang et al., 2010). E. rhusiopathiae can cause significant economic losses in pig production systems due to sporadic cases of acute septicaemia, subacute cutaneous lesions, or chronic arthritis, and sometimes larger outbreaks. It is among the most common causes of carcass condemnation for pigs in the USA (Bender et al., 2011). In recent years, the incidence of E. rhusiopathiae infection in pigs has increased significantly in the mid-western United States, Japan and China (Bender et al., 2011; To et al., 2012; Kwok et al., 2014; Zou et al., 2015).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)
Ovis aries (sheep)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs: All Stages

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. rhusiopathiae is identified as both a pathogen and a saprophyte for diverse hosts, ranging from fish and amphibians to birds, mammals, and insects (Clark, 2015). Swine erysipelas caused by E. rhusiopathiae is the disease of greatest prevalence and economic importance. Diseases in other animals include erysipelas of farmed turkeys, chickens, ducks and emus, and polyarthritis in sheep and lambs (Wang et al., 2010).

Systems Affected

Top of page blood and circulatory system diseases of pigs
bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in pigs
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
digestive diseases of pigs
multisystemic diseases of pigs
nervous system diseases of pigs
respiratory diseases of pigs
skin and ocular diseases of large ruminants
skin and ocular diseases of pigs
skin and ocular diseases of small ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of pigs

Distribution

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The causative organism is found worldwide.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
CameroonPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EgyptAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EswatiniPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
EthiopiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SeychellesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TunisiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BhutanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Yong-jian et al. (1990)
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JapanPresentShimoji et al. (1998); OIE Handistatus (2005)
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KuwaitAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SarawakAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VietnamPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

BelarusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CroatiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CyprusPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
DenmarkPresentStenström et al. (1992); OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FinlandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MoldovaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
North MacedoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SpainPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United KingdomPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-Northern IrelandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentBlyde and Woods (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuatemalaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
MexicoPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentBlyde and Woods (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
-IowaPresentThomson (1990); Wood and Nord (1992)
-MinnesotaPresentThomson (1990); Wood and Nord (1992)
-MissouriPresentWood and Nord (1992)
-NebraskaPresentThomson (1990)
-North DakotaPresentWood and Nord (1992)
-South CarolinaPresentMurray and Goodman (1992)
-South DakotaPresentThomson (1990); Wood and Nord (1992)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBlyde and Woods (1999); OIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ChilePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
ColombiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French GuianaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathology

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Gross lesions of acute erysipelas include discolouration of the skin of the extremities and pulmonary congestion and oedema. Haemorrhages may be seen on the heart, stomach, kidneys and lymph nodes. Splenomegaly may be observed. Lesions of chronic erysipelas include swollen joints, spondylitis, and vegetative valvular endocarditis (Wood, 1999).

Microscopic lesions include vascular lesions of congestion, microthrombi, and focal necrosis, and hyperplastic lymphadenitis with haemorrhage. Chronic lesions of proliferative synovitis can be observed (Wood, 1999).

Diagnosis

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Presumptive diagnosis is based on classic clinical signs. Practical methods for definitive diagnosis of erysipelas include bacterial culture and PCR (Makino et al., 1994; Shimoji et al., 1998).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Heart murmur Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Pigs:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Pigs:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of forelimb joint, arthrogryposis front leg Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of hindlimb joint, arthrogryposis rear leg Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Chemosis, conjunctival, scleral edema, swelling Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Forelimb pain, front leg Pigs:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Pigs:All Stages Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin hyperpigmentation, excess pigment Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin plaque Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin wheal, welt Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output Sign

Disease Course

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Infection may result in subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic forms of erysipelas. The acute-onset septicaemic form of the disease is most common in growing pigs. Clinical signs include death, pyrexia, stiff gait, lethargy, inappetance and abortion. Differential diagnoses should include other causes of septicaemia such as Actinobacillus suis and Salmonella choleraesuis. Classical raised inflamed, diamond areas on the skin may be seen in animals during the acute septicaemia phase or following recovery. The skin lesions may be palpable before becoming visible. In severe cases, the skin becomes necrotic and is sloughed (Duncanson, 2013). Mild cases of the acute form of erysipelas are considered subacute. Chronic form follows subclinical, acute, or subacute forms, and clinical signs include chronic arthritis and, less often, endocarditis (Wood, 1992).

Epidemiology

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Although E. rhusiopathiae is virtually ubiquitous, the primary source of infection for pigs is other pigs. Virulent and avirulent strains of E. rhusiopathiae have been isolated from tonsils, skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and medial iliac lymph nodes of clinically normal pigs at slaughter (Kubo et al., 1993a; Kubo et al., 1993b). If external sources of this organism cannot be identified, virulent strains harboured by carrier swine are usually the source of infection in outbreaks of acute erysipelas. The organism is believed to be transmitted directly via oronasal and faecal secretions or indirectly via environmental contamination. Erysipelas is resistant to adverse environmental conditions, and may be found in contaminated fishmeal, water, and soil (Chandler and Craven, 1980; Wang et al., 2010; Dougnon et al., 2012; Hong et al., 2013). Feral and domestic animals, rodents, and possibly insects may be a source of infection for swine.

Pigs between the ages of 3 months and 3 years appear to be most susceptible to clinical erysipelas (Wood, 1992). Colostral immunity is likely to be responsible for protection of young pigs against disease. Acquired natural immunity is probably responsible for protection of older pigs.

Infection with E. rhusiopathiae may occur by ingestion of contaminated feed or water, or contamination of skin wounds. Bacteraemia develops within 24 h in the absence of an effective host immune response (Wood, 1992). Subsequent septicaemia results in the typical acute form of disease. Evidence of chronic lesions can be observed as early as 4 days after initial exposure. Articular cartilage can be destroyed within 8 months and lesions can continue to progress for at least 2 years (Wood, 1992).

Impact: Economic

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Economic losses associated with swine erysipelas are from increased numbers of deaths, treatment costs, vaccination costs, and slower growth of diseased pigs (Wood, 1984). In addition, financial loss associated with abattoir condemnations or lesion trimming is of economic significance (Bender et al., 2011).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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Although E. rhusiopathiae has been isolated from samples of pork and fish in Denmark (Stenstrom et al., 1992), disease in humans is primarily an occupational hazard of those handling animal tissues or by-products. Most commonly, human infection results in a localized skin lesion, known as erysipeloid. Endocarditis and septicaemia are rare manifestations of disease in people (Wood, 1999; Clark, 2015).

Disease Treatment

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Treatment of affected pigs with injectable antibiotics is the gold standard treatment. The organism is generally susceptible to penicillin (Wood, 1992). The addition of hyperimmune antisera to the treatment protocol may be effective if antibiotic treatment alone is unsuccessful (FitzSimmons, 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Preventive methods include optimizing biosecurity to prevent direct infection from other animals, and optimizing sanitation to avoid contamination of feedstuffs and environment. Optimization of management and environment to reduce external stressors is important for the control of clinical disease. Attenuated vaccines and bacterins against E. rhusiopathiae are commercially available for the control of erysipelas. Vaccination with a bacterin containing serotypes 2 and 10 appears to protect pigs against infection with most other known serotypes (Enoe and Norrung, 1992). Use of medicated rations does not appear to affect the efficacy of oral vaccination with live attenuated strains (Hopper, 1981). However, use of water medication is not advised. Generally, vaccination provides 2 to 6 months of immunity (Wood, 1992). Vaccination of pigs at 2-month intervals and/or vaccination of sows at weaning and pre-farrowing may be necessary if there is short-duration of immunity after vaccination (FitzSimmons, 1990).

References

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Bender JS; Irwin CK; Shen HG; Schwartz KJ; Opriessnig T, 2011. Erysipelothrix spp. genotypes, serotypes, and surface protective antigen types associated with abattoir condemnations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(1):139-142. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/1/139.full

Buchanan RE, 1918. Studies in the nomenclature and classification of the bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 3:27-61.

Chandler DS; Craven JA, 1980. Persistence and distribution of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and bacterial indicator organisms on land used for disposal of piggery effluent. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 48(3):367-375.

Clark AE, 2015. The occupational opportunist: an update on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection, disease pathogenesis, and microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 37(18):143-151. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01964399

Dougnon JT; Edorh AP; Bankole HS; Sezonlin M; Guedenon P; Kpodekon M; Gbeassor M, 2012. Bacteriological study of the fishmeal used in feed for imported chicken in Atlantic department. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4(1):53-57. http://maxwellsci.com/print/ijava/v4-53-57.pdf

Duncanson GR, 2013. Multisystemic diseases. In: Veterinary treatment of pigs [ed. by Duncanson, G. R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 119-124. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20133419201

Dushuk RV; Podlesnykh LA; Tikhonov LI, 1994. Vaccine prophylaxis of swine erysipelas. Proceedings: The 13th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Bangkok, Thailand, 26-30 June 1994., 229; 3 ref.

Enoe C; Norrung V, 1992. Experimental infection of pigs with serotypes of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Proceedings International Pig Veterinary Society. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Pig Veterinary Society, 345-345.

FitzSimmons M, 1990. Acute erysipelas. Proceedings Minnesota Swine Conference for Veterinarians, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 416-418.

Hong PY; Yannarell AC; Dai QH; Ekizoglu M; Mackie RI, 2013. Monitoring the perturbation of soil and groundwater microbial communities due to pig production activities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(8):2620-2629. http://aem.asm.org/content/79/8/2620.abstract

Hopper RJ; Miller M, 1981. Efficacy of swine erysipelas vaccine given simultaneously with medicated rations. Veterinary Medicine/Small Animal Clinician, 1345-1347.

Kubo K; Takahashi T; Sawada T; Doda I, 1993. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from apparently healthy slaughter pigs. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 46(8):691-694; 14 ref.

Kubo K; Yoshimoto M; Doda I; Takahashi T; Sawada T, 1993. Isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from apparently healthy slaughter pigs. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 46(8):687-690; 23 ref.

Kwok AHY; Li YuFeng; Jiang JingWei; Jiang Ping; Leung FC, 2014. Complete genome assembly and characterization of an outbreak strain of the causative agent of swine erysipelas - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae SY1027. BMC Microbiology, 14(176):(2 July 2014). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-14-176.pdf

Makino S et al., 1994. Direct and rapid detection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae DNA in animals by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 32:1526-1531.

Migula W, 1900. System der Bakterien, Vol. 2. Germany, Jena: Gustav Fischer.

Murray JG; Goodman DE, 1992. Erysipelas in the Southeast: Indications of a resurgence. Proceedings American Association of Swine Practitioners. Nashville, Tennessee, USA: American Association of Swine Practitioners, 499-503.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Shimoji Y; Mori Y; Hyakutake K; Sekizaki T; Yokomizo Y, 1998. Use of an enrichment broth cultivation-PCR combination assay for rapid diagnosis of swine erysipelas. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36(1):86-89; 16 ref.

Stenström IM; Norrung V; Ternström A; Molin G, 1992. Occurrence of different serotypes of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in retail pork and fish. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 33(2):169-173; 30 ref.

Thomson JU, 1990. Swine erysipelas: A retrospective study of the 1989 epidemic. Proceedings George A. Young Swine Conference, Lincoln, Nebraska, 83-86.

Timoney JF; Gillespie JH; Scott FW; Barlough JE; eds, 1988. Hagan and Bruner's Microbiology and Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals, edition 8. Ithaca, NY, USA: Comstock Publishing Associates.

To H; Sato H; Tazumi A; Tsutsumi N; Nagai S; Iwata A; Nagano T, 2012. Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains isolated from recent swine erysipelas outbreaks in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 74(7):949-953. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jvms/-char/en

Wang QinNing; Chang BJ; Riley TV, 2010. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Veterinary Microbiology, 140(3/4):405-417. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03781135

Wood RL, 1984. Swine erysipelas- a review of prevalence and research. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 184(8):944-949.

Wood RL, 1992. Erysipelas. In: Leman A, Straw B, Mengeling W, D'Allaire S, Taylor D, eds. Diseases of Swine. 7 Ed. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, 475-486.

Wood RL, 1999. Erysipelas. In: Straw B, D'Allaire S, Mengeling W, Taylor D, eds. Diseases of Swine. 8 Ed. Ames, USA: Iowa State University Press, 419-430.

Wood RL; Nord NA, 1992. Serotypes of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from field cases of swine erysipelas, 1981-91. Proceedings of the United States Animal Health Association, 96:143-144; 6 ref.

Yong-jian S, Wei H. , 1990. Serotyping E. rhusipathiae. Proceedings International Pig Veterinary Society. Lausanne, Switzerland: International Pig Veterinary Society, 193-193.

Zou Yao; Zhu XiaoMing; Muhammad HM; Jiang Ping; Li YuFeng, 2015. Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strains isolated from acute swine erysipelas outbreaks in Eastern China. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 77(6):653-660. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jvms/-char/en

Distribution References

Blyde D J, Woods R, 1999. Erysipelas in malleefowl. Australian Veterinary Journal. 77 (7), 434-435. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1999.tb12084.x

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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