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swine erysipelas

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swine erysipelas

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • swine erysipelas
  • Overview
  • Erysipelas is an important re-emerging disease of pigs, caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which is ubiquitous in the environment (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Rhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions and lethargy in a sow.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Rhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.
SymptomsRhomboid urticarial lesions in a nursery pig.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Cyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionCyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
CopyrightSandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Cyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.
SymptomsCyanosis of extremities and swollen joints indicate septicaemia.Sandra F. Amass/Purdue University
Severe skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
TitleErysipelas - Symptoms
CaptionSevere skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
CopyrightRanald D.A. Cameron
Severe skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.
Erysipelas - SymptomsSevere skin form - extensive lesions covering the entire body.Ranald D.A. Cameron
Typical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
TitleErysipelas - Symptoms
CaptionTypical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
CopyrightRanald D.A. Cameron
Typical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.
Erysipelas - SymptomsTypical diamond-shaped lesions with dark purple necrotic centre on young adult gilt.Ranald D.A. Cameron
Lameness in growing pigs.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionLameness in growing pigs.
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Lameness in growing pigs.
SymptomsLameness in growing pigs.Lew Runnels/Purdue University
Proliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionProliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Proliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.
SymptomsProliferative, nonsuppurative arthritis.Lew Runnels/Purdue University
Vegetative valvular endocarditis
TitlePathology
CaptionVegetative valvular endocarditis
CopyrightLew Runnels/Purdue University
Vegetative valvular endocarditis
PathologyVegetative valvular endocarditisLew Runnels/Purdue University

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • swine erysipelas

International Common Names

  • English: acute or chronic erysipelas in pigs; erysipelas, swine; erysipelothritic polyarthritis in sheep and cattle; nonsuppurative polyarthritis in lambs; polyarteritis nodosa in pigs; post-dipping lameness in sheep
  • French: rouget du porc

Local Common Names

  • Germany: schweinerotlauf
  • Italy: mal rossino; mal rosso
  • Netherlands: vlekziekte
  • Poland: rozyca
  • Spain: erisipela del cerdo
  • Sweden: rödsjuka

Overview

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Erysipelas is an important re-emerging disease of pigs, caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, which is ubiquitous in the environment (Wang et al., 2010). E. rhusiopathiae can cause significant economic losses in pig production systems due to sporadic cases of acute septicaemia, subacute cutaneous lesions, or chronic arthritis, and sometimes larger outbreaks. It is among the most common causes of carcass condemnation for pigs in the USA (Bender et al., 2011). In recent years, the incidence of E. rhusiopathiae infection in pigs has increased significantly in the mid-western United States, Japan and China (Bender et al., 2011; To et al., 2012; Kwok et al., 2014; Zou et al., 2015).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)
Bos taurus (cattle)
Ovis aries (sheep)
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated hostPigs: All Stages

Hosts/Species Affected

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E. rhusiopathiae is identified as both a pathogen and a saprophyte for diverse hosts, ranging from fish and amphibians to birds, mammals, and insects (Clark, 2015). Swine erysipelas caused by E. rhusiopathiae is the disease of greatest prevalence and economic importance. Diseases in other animals include erysipelas of farmed turkeys, chickens, ducks and emus, and polyarthritis in sheep and lambs (Wang et al., 2010).

Systems Affected

Top of page blood and circulatory system diseases of pigs
bone, foot diseases and lameness in large ruminants
bone, foot diseases and lameness in pigs
bone, foot diseases and lameness in small ruminants
digestive diseases of pigs
multisystemic diseases of pigs
nervous system diseases of pigs
respiratory diseases of pigs
skin and ocular diseases of large ruminants
skin and ocular diseases of pigs
skin and ocular diseases of small ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of pigs

Distribution

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The causative organism is found worldwide.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaReported present or known to be presentYong-jian et al., 1990
-Hong KongDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentShimoji et al., 1998; OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1988OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentWood, 1999; OIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentWood, 1999; OIE Handistatus, 2005
-IowaPresentThomson, 1990; Wood and Nord, 1992
-MinnesotaPresentThomson, 1990; Wood and Nord, 1992
-MissouriPresentWood and Nord, 1992
-NebraskaPresentThomson, 1990
-North DakotaPresentWood and Nord, 1992
-South CarolinaPresentMurray and Goodman, 1992
-South DakotaPresentThomson, 1990; Wood and Nord, 1992

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorLast reported1987OIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkReported present or known to be presentStenström et al., 1992; OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationNo information availableDushuk et al., 1994; OIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentWood, 1999; OIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathology

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Gross lesions of acute erysipelas include discolouration of the skin of the extremities and pulmonary congestion and oedema. Haemorrhages may be seen on the heart, stomach, kidneys and lymph nodes. Splenomegaly may be observed. Lesions of chronic erysipelas include swollen joints, spondylitis, and vegetative valvular endocarditis (Wood, 1999).

Microscopic lesions include vascular lesions of congestion, microthrombi, and focal necrosis, and hyperplastic lymphadenitis with haemorrhage. Chronic lesions of proliferative synovitis can be observed (Wood, 1999).

Diagnosis

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Presumptive diagnosis is based on classic clinical signs. Practical methods for definitive diagnosis of erysipelas include bacterial culture and PCR (Makino et al., 1994; Shimoji et al., 1998).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Heart murmur Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Pigs:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Forelimb swelling, mass in fore leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Pigs:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb swelling, mass in hind leg joint and / or non-joint area Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Polydipsia, excessive fluid consumption, excessive thirst Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Pigs:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of forelimb joint, arthrogryposis front leg Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Decreased mobility of hindlimb joint, arthrogryposis rear leg Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Chemosis, conjunctival, scleral edema, swelling Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, injection, abnormal vasculature Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Conjunctival, scleral, redness Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Forelimb pain, front leg Pigs:All Stages Sign
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Hindlimb pain, hind leg Pigs:All Stages Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin crusts, scabs Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin erythema, inflammation, redness Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin hyperpigmentation, excess pigment Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin plaque Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin wheal, welt Pigs:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Warm skin, hot, heat Sign
Urinary Signs / Polyuria, increased urine output Sign

Disease Course

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Infection may result in subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic forms of erysipelas. The acute-onset septicaemic form of the disease is most common in growing pigs. Clinical signs include death, pyrexia, stiff gait, lethargy, inappetance and abortion. Differential diagnoses should include other causes of septicaemia such as Actinobacillus suis and Salmonella choleraesuis. Classical raised inflamed, diamond areas on the skin may be seen in animals during the acute septicaemia phase or following recovery. The skin lesions may be palpable before becoming visible. In severe cases, the skin becomes necrotic and is sloughed (Duncanson, 2013). Mild cases of the acute form of erysipelas are considered subacute. Chronic form follows subclinical, acute, or subacute forms, and clinical signs include chronic arthritis and, less often, endocarditis (Wood, 1992).

Epidemiology

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Although E. rhusiopathiae is virtually ubiquitous, the primary source of infection for pigs is other pigs. Virulent and avirulent strains of E. rhusiopathiae have been isolated from tonsils, skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and medial iliac lymph nodes of clinically normal pigs at slaughter (Kubo et al., 1993a; Kubo et al., 1993b). If external sources of this organism cannot be identified, virulent strains harboured by carrier swine are usually the source of infection in outbreaks of acute erysipelas. The organism is believed to be transmitted directly via oronasal and faecal secretions or indirectly via environmental contamination. Erysipelas is resistant to adverse environmental conditions, and may be found in contaminated fishmeal, water, and soil (Chandler and Craven, 1980; Wang et al., 2010; Dougnon et al., 2012; Hong et al., 2013). Feral and domestic animals, rodents, and possibly insects may be a source of infection for swine.

Pigs between the ages of 3 months and 3 years appear to be most susceptible to clinical erysipelas (Wood, 1992). Colostral immunity is likely to be responsible for protection of young pigs against disease. Acquired natural immunity is probably responsible for protection of older pigs.

Infection with E. rhusiopathiae may occur by ingestion of contaminated feed or water, or contamination of skin wounds. Bacteraemia develops within 24 h in the absence of an effective host immune response (Wood, 1992). Subsequent septicaemia results in the typical acute form of disease. Evidence of chronic lesions can be observed as early as 4 days after initial exposure. Articular cartilage can be destroyed within 8 months and lesions can continue to progress for at least 2 years (Wood, 1992).

Impact: Economic

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Economic losses associated with swine erysipelas are from increased numbers of deaths, treatment costs, vaccination costs, and slower growth of diseased pigs (Wood, 1984). In addition, financial loss associated with abattoir condemnations or lesion trimming is of economic significance (Bender et al., 2011).

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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Although E. rhusiopathiae has been isolated from samples of pork and fish in Denmark (Stenstrom et al., 1992), disease in humans is primarily an occupational hazard of those handling animal tissues or by-products. Most commonly, human infection results in a localized skin lesion, known as erysipeloid. Endocarditis and septicaemia are rare manifestations of disease in people (Wood, 1999; Clark, 2015).

Disease Treatment

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Treatment of affected pigs with injectable antibiotics is the gold standard treatment. The organism is generally susceptible to penicillin (Wood, 1992). The addition of hyperimmune antisera to the treatment protocol may be effective if antibiotic treatment alone is unsuccessful (FitzSimmons, 1990).

Prevention and Control

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Preventive methods include optimizing biosecurity to prevent direct infection from other animals, and optimizing sanitation to avoid contamination of feedstuffs and environment. Optimization of management and environment to reduce external stressors is important for the control of clinical disease. Attenuated vaccines and bacterins against E. rhusiopathiae are commercially available for the control of erysipelas. Vaccination with a bacterin containing serotypes 2 and 10 appears to protect pigs against infection with most other known serotypes (Enoe and Norrung, 1992). Use of medicated rations does not appear to affect the efficacy of oral vaccination with live attenuated strains (Hopper, 1981). However, use of water medication is not advised. Generally, vaccination provides 2 to 6 months of immunity (Wood, 1992). Vaccination of pigs at 2-month intervals and/or vaccination of sows at weaning and pre-farrowing may be necessary if there is short-duration of immunity after vaccination (FitzSimmons, 1990).

References

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Bender JS; Irwin CK; Shen HG; Schwartz KJ; Opriessnig T, 2011. Erysipelothrix spp. genotypes, serotypes, and surface protective antigen types associated with abattoir condemnations. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 23(1):139-142. http://vdi.sagepub.com/content/23/1/139.full

Buchanan RE, 1918. Studies in the nomenclature and classification of the bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 3:27-61.

Chandler DS; Craven JA, 1980. Persistence and distribution of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and bacterial indicator organisms on land used for disposal of piggery effluent. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 48(3):367-375.

Clark AE, 2015. The occupational opportunist: an update on Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection, disease pathogenesis, and microbiology. Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 37(18):143-151. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01964399

Dougnon JT; Edorh AP; Bankole HS; Sezonlin M; Guedenon P; Kpodekon M; Gbeassor M, 2012. Bacteriological study of the fishmeal used in feed for imported chicken in Atlantic department. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 4(1):53-57. http://maxwellsci.com/print/ijava/v4-53-57.pdf

Duncanson GR, 2013. Multisystemic diseases. In: Veterinary treatment of pigs [ed. by Duncanson, G. R.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI, 119-124. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20133419201

Dushuk RV; Podlesnykh LA; Tikhonov LI, 1994. Vaccine prophylaxis of swine erysipelas. Proceedings: The 13th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress, Bangkok, Thailand, 26-30 June 1994., 229; 3 ref.

Enoe C; Norrung V, 1992. Experimental infection of pigs with serotypes of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. Proceedings International Pig Veterinary Society. The Hague, The Netherlands: International Pig Veterinary Society, 345-345.

FitzSimmons M, 1990. Acute erysipelas. Proceedings Minnesota Swine Conference for Veterinarians, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 416-418.

Hong PY; Yannarell AC; Dai QH; Ekizoglu M; Mackie RI, 2013. Monitoring the perturbation of soil and groundwater microbial communities due to pig production activities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79(8):2620-2629. http://aem.asm.org/content/79/8/2620.abstract

Hopper RJ; Miller M, 1981. Efficacy of swine erysipelas vaccine given simultaneously with medicated rations. Veterinary Medicine/Small Animal Clinician, 1345-1347.

Kubo K; Takahashi T; Sawada T; Doda I, 1993. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolated from apparently healthy slaughter pigs. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 46(8):691-694; 14 ref.

Kubo K; Yoshimoto M; Doda I; Takahashi T; Sawada T, 1993. Isolation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae from apparently healthy slaughter pigs. Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association, 46(8):687-690; 23 ref.

Kwok AHY; Li YuFeng; Jiang JingWei; Jiang Ping; Leung FC, 2014. Complete genome assembly and characterization of an outbreak strain of the causative agent of swine erysipelas - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae SY1027. BMC Microbiology, 14(176):(2 July 2014). http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2180-14-176.pdf

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