Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Suncus murinus
(Asian house shrew)

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Datasheet

Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Suncus murinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian house shrew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Mammalia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Suncus murinus the Asian house shrew is a commensal and adaptable mammal. It is a rapid coloniser and threatens many plant and animal species through predation...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew); adult. Bangalore, India.
TitleAdult
CaptionSuncus murinus (Asian house shrew); adult. Bangalore, India.
Copyright©L. Shyamal/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5
Suncus murinus (Asian house shrew); adult. Bangalore, India.
AdultSuncus murinus (Asian house shrew); adult. Bangalore, India.©L. Shyamal/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.5

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Suncus murinus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian house shrew

Other Scientific Names

  • Suncus albicauda
  • Suncus albinus
  • Suncus andersoni
  • Suncus auriculata
  • Suncus beddomei
  • Suncus blanfordii
  • Suncus blythii
  • Suncus caerulaeus
  • Suncus caerulescens
  • Suncus caeruleus
  • Suncus celebensis
  • Suncus ceylanica
  • Suncus crassicaudus
  • Suncus duvernoyi
  • Suncus edwardsiana
  • Suncus fulvocinerea
  • Suncus fuscipes
  • Suncus geoffroyi
  • Suncus giganteus
  • Suncus griffithii
  • Suncus heterodon
  • Suncus indicus
  • Suncus kandianus
  • Suncus kroonii
  • Suncus kuekenthali
  • Suncus leucera
  • Suncus luzoniensis
  • Suncus malabaricus
  • Suncus mauritiana
  • Suncus media
  • Suncus melanodon
  • Suncus microtis
  • Suncus mulleri
  • Suncus muschata
  • Suncus myosurus
  • Suncus nemorivagus
  • Suncus nitidofulva
  • Suncus occultidens
  • Suncus palawanensis
  • Suncus pealana
  • Suncus pilorides
  • Suncus riukiuana
  • Suncus rubicunda
  • Suncus sacer
  • Suncus saturatior
  • Suncus semmeliki
  • Suncus semmelincki
  • Suncus serpentarius
  • Suncus sindensis
  • Suncus soccatus
  • Suncus sonneratii
  • Suncus swinhoei
  • Suncus temminckii
  • Suncus tytleri
  • Suncus unicolor
  • Suncus viridescens
  • Suncus waldemarii

International Common Names

  • English: Asian musk shrew; brown musk shrew; Ceylon highland shrew; common Indian musk-shrew; grey musk shrew; house shrew; Indian grey musk-rat; Indian musk shrew; Kandyan shrew; money shrew; Ryukyu musk shrew; white-tailed shrew
  • French: grande pachyure; musaraigne musquée

Local Common Names

  • East Africa: kirukanjia
  • Germany: Moschusspitzmaus
  • Mauritius: rat musquee

Summary of Invasiveness

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Suncus murinus the Asian house shrew is a commensal and adaptable mammal. It is a rapid coloniser and threatens many plant and animal species through predation and competition. Through human agency it has a large and expanding range and, to date, very little work has been done on how to effectively manage the species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Mammalia
  •                     Order: Insectivora
  •                         Family: Soricidae
  •                             Genus: Suncus
  •                                 Species: Suncus murinus

Description

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A highly variable species, S. murinus varies widely in colour, size and weight. It is small, secretive and mouse-like with a long pointed nose. The fur is short and velvety, ranging in colour from light grey-brown to black and recorded adult weights vary between 23.5g to 82.0g in females and 33.2g to 147.3g in males (Ruedi et al., 1996). The head-to-body length of S. murinus is up to 15cm, the tail length up to 8cm (Baker, 2005). A study comparing shrew populations from Guam and Madagascar showed some significant differences in appearance, body weight and length, with female shrews from Madagascar being heavier than females from Guam (Hasler et al. 1977). Chang et al. (1999a,b) found that the average weight of adult females in Taiwan was 37.4g, and the average weight of juvenile females was 23.2g, while the average weight of adult males was 58.6g, and the average weight of juvenile males was 32.9g. Musk shrews have very small eyes, thick, relatively hairless tails and make frequent shrill high pitched squeaks. The musk glands on its flanks give it a distinctive smell (BBC, 2006).

Olsen (1984) outlines a method of distinguishing the fecal pellets of shrews from those of other commensal rodents.

Distribution

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Native range: S. murinus is assumed to have originated in India. It is now widespread in surrounding areas, from eastern Africa and the Middle East to the west, and Southeast Asia and Japan to the east. This dispersal was mostly made under the influence of human transportation (Sawada, 1995; Ruedi et al., 1996).

Known introduced range: Egypt, Tanzania, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Bahrain, Iraq, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Kuwait, Madagascar, Mauritius, La Réunion, Comoros, Maldives, Palau, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Brunei, Philippines, Japan and Singapore.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
BahrainPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
-XinjiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
IraqPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
JapanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
MaldivesPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
MyanmarPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
NepalPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
OmanPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
South East AsiaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
Sri LankaPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive ISSG, 2011
YemenPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Africa

ComorosPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
EgyptPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011
MauritiusPresentIntroduced1760 Invasive ISSG, 2011
RéunionPresentIntroduced1730 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Rodriguez IslandPresentIntroduced1997 Invasive ISSG, 2011
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Oceania

GuamPresentIntroducedc.1953 Invasive ISSG, 2011
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedISSG, 2011

Habitat

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S. murinus is a robust and highly adaptable species. It has a lower metabolic rate than European shrews and is therefore less susceptible to environmental stress. It is found on many islands, in forests or in agricultural land. It is particularly associated with human activity, and this has undoubtedly assisted its geographic spread. The species poses a growing threat as humans continue to facilitate its range expansion. Yang and Zhuge (1989) found that the home range size averaged 1227m2 for male shrews, and 241m2 for females. In Guam, S. murinus nests can be found in open, grassy areas, and beneath or beside large rocks, logs, brush piles and similar materials (Peterson, 1956).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Nutrition
Although nominally an insectivore, S. murinus is an opportunistic feeder and in some areas feeds predominantly on plant material (Advani and Rana, 1981). It also eats a wide range of invertebrates, and shrews on Mauritius showed a preference for snails during bait trial experiments (Varnham et al., 2002). A Bangladeshi study found that the diet of S. murinus was composed of 62% animal food (mostly insects), 29% plant food and 9% miscellaneous food items (Sarker and Parveen, 1986). Laboratory research has shown that S. murinus will eat bread, cake, pastry, jellies, peanut butter, boiled rice, boiled potato, boiled egg, and a wide range of insect species (Peterson, 1956). Taber et al. (1967) report that S. murinus can be easily attracted with peanut butter. S. murinus exhibits a definite preference for protein-rich materials in India, with food intake per gram body weight being higher in females than males. Feeding peaks at predawn hours, with a minimum occurring in the afternoon (Balakrishnan and Alexander, 1979b). S. murinus are generally solitary and have a high metabolic rate necessitating frequent feeding. Prey is killed by a characteristic neck bite, and the death-shake is seen when S. murinus feed on earthworms or rats. S. murinus have also been observed hoarding food when a large number of insects was offered (Balakrishnan and Alexander, 1979a).

    Reproduction
    S. murinus has no behavioural oestrus cycle and follicular development and ovulation are both induced by mating (Gill & Rissman, 1997). The family Soricidae have retained a number of primitive features including a cloaca and internal male testes (Churchfield, 1990), which makes distinguishing the sexes difficult in some cases.

    Average litter size varies geographically with recorded values ranging from 2.1 to 4.7 correlated with female body weight, and number of offspring per litter varies between 1 and 8 (Hasler et al., 1977; Nowak et al., 1983). Females reach sexual maturity at around 35 days (Hasler et al., 1977; Gill & Rissman, 1997). Breeding takes place throughout the year, with females usually bearing two litters per year (BBC, 2006). Chang et al. (1999b) reported that the house shrew in Taiwan is a continuous breeder, with greater activity and intensity occurring in spring and summer. A comparison between breeding populations from Guam and Madagascar showed some significant differences. Shrews from Madagascar had larger litters (average 2.8 young per litter) and shorter gestation periods (29.6 days) than shrews from Guam (2.1 young per litter, gestation 30.3 days). There were also a number of behavioural differences apparent (Hasler et al., 1977). A study on shrews in Guam found that food availability was the primary cue for reproduction in males, with social and photoperiod signals playing a modulatory role (Wayne and Rissman, 1990).

      Lifecycle stages
      Gestation period of around 30 days, weaned at 15-20 days (Hasler et al., 1977; Gill & Rissman, 1997). Lifespan in captivity ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 or 3 years (Dryden, 1969; E. Rissman, pers. comm.), with one individual living 3.2 years (AnAge, undated).

         

        Means of Movement and Dispersal

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        Introduction pathways to new locations
        Ignorant possession: Due to it's commensal habit, this species is most likely transported unknowingly in cargoes or personal effects.
        Road vehicles (long distance):
        Seafreight (container/bulk):

        Local dispersal methods
        Boat: Due to it's commensal habit, this species is most likely transported unknowingly in cargoes or personal effects.
        People sharing resources (local):
        Road vehicles:

          Pathway Causes

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          CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Biological control Yes

          Pathway Vectors

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          VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
          Bulk freight or cargo Yes Yes

          Impact Summary

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          CategoryImpact
          Native fauna Negative
          Native flora Negative

          Impact

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          S. murinus can reach high densities and impact upon a wide range of other species, including plants, invertebrates and vertebrates, either through predation or competition. S. murinus is strongly implicated in the extirpation of several island lizard species (Jones 1993, Rodda & Fritts 1992, Fritts & Rodda 1998). It can damage seeds and young plants by digging for food (pers. obs.). S. murinus can also act as a reservoir for the plague (Duplantier et al., 2005).

          Risk and Impact Factors

          Top of page Impact outcomes
          • Threat to/ loss of native species
          Impact mechanisms
          • Competition - monopolizing resources
          • Pest and disease transmission
          • Predation

          Uses

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          S. murinus may have been deliberately introduced to some areas in an attempt to keep away rats and snakes (Prater, 1947; Murray, 1884; in Taber et al., 1967). S. murinus has been successfully domesticated for use as a laboratory animal in the USA and Japan (Tsuji et al., 1999).

          Uses List

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          Environmental

          • Biological control

          General

          • Laboratory use

          Prevention and Control

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          There has been little research into the control of S. murinus and more research is urgently needed, especially in regard to potential poisons. Very little management work has so far been attempted with this species. Limited studies show this species to be relatively unsusceptible to brodifacoum and 1080 (Morris & Morris, 1991; Bell & Bell, 1996), though it is readily live trapped.

          Preventative measures: Rodent-proof structures can exclude shrews (Schmidt, 1994).

          Cultural: Mowing around structures may decrease preferred habitat and food for shrews (Schmidt, 1994).

          Physical: Shrews can be trapped using mouse traps (snap traps), a small box trap, or pit traps. Pit traps are more useful in assessing the presence or absence of shrews in a particular location, as snap trapping appears to understate the abundance of shrews. Traps can be baited with a mixture of peanut butter and rolled oats. A small amount of bacon grease or hamburger may increase the attractiveness of the bait (Schmidt, 1994). Lee (1997) reported that aluminium live traps caught significantly more S. murinus than Japanese plastic snap traps. Live trapping has been used to successfully eradicate the musk shrew from a two hectare island in Mauritius, although a similar attempt failed on the neighbouring island of Ile aux Aigrettes (25 ha) (Varnham et al. 2002). A study by Seymour and colleagues (2005) suggests that the best hypotheses to explain the failure of the campaign was probably the survival of trap-shy shrews. It is observed that shrews target very specific prey, and are not attracted to conventional rodent baits; standard traps rarely work for shrews (B. Coblentz, pers. comm., 2003). Pitfall traps are often favoured for catching shrews (F.W. Schueler, pers. comm., 2003). As they nest under rocks and logs, grids of boards or other flat objects might be placed (and then uncovered periodically) to entice shrews. It may be possible to use dogs to track down survivors of trapping programmes. On Saipan (where shrews often raid pet bowls) snake traps baited with dog or cat food are used. The snake trap is a modified minnow trap with a flap over each door. The local boonie dogs are accustomed to hunting shrews as a part of their diet and are effective hunters (C. Kessler, pers. comm., 2003).

          Chemical: Anticoagulant poisons such as brodifacoum have been used successfully to eradicate rats from many islands, however, insectivores such as the shrew S. murinus are less susceptible to the application of toxins such as brodifacoum or 1080; studies have suggested the toxin would have to be applied at unacceptably high concentrations to kill the animal (Eason et al. 2002, Morris and Morris 1991, in Seymour et al., 2005). Secondary poisoning of birds, which has occurred in the Seychelles for example, suggests that native or endangered birds may face undue risk because of excess use of such toxins (Shah 2001, Thorsen et al., 2000, in Seymour et al., 2005).

          Biological: Cats may reduce shrew densities around structures - although they seldom eat them. Owls will consume large numbers of shrews. Mowing grass around structures may increase predation of shrews (Schmidt, 1994).

          Bibliography

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          Advani, R. and Rana, B. D. 1981. Food of the house shrew, Suncus murinus sindensis in the Indian Desert. Acta Theriologica 26: 133-134.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

          Barbehenn, K. R. 1962. The house shrew on Guam. In Storer T. I. (ed.) Pacific Island rat ecology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 225: 247–256.

          Bell, B. D. and Bell, E. 1996. Mauritius offshore islands project phase II. Implementation of management recommendations. Unpublished report by Wildlife Management International Ltd., to the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation and Government of Mauritius.

          Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

          Churchfield, S. 1990. The natural history of shrews.

          Conservationevidence.com., undated. The implementation of a live trapping programme in an attempted eradication of the Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus on Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius http://www.conservationevidence.com/ViewSummary.aspx?ID=10434

          Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.

          Dryden, G. L. 1969. Reproduction in Suncus murinus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 6: 377-396.

          Fritts, T. H. and Rodda, G. H. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113-140.

          Gill, C. J. and Rissman, E. F. 1997. Female sexual behaviour is inhibited by short- and long-term food restriction. Physiology and Behaviour 61(3): 387-394.

          Hasler, M. J., Hasler, J. F. and Nalbandov, A. V. 1977. Comparative breeding biology of musk shrews (Suncus murinus) from Guam and Madagascar. Journal of Mammalogy 58(3): 285-290.

          Ishikawa, A., Yamagata, T. and Namikawa, T. 1991. An attempt at reciprocal crosses between laboratory strains of large and small musk shrews (Suncus murinus): influence of body weight difference between sexes on mating success. Experimental Animals 40.

          IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

          Jones, C. G. 1993. The ecology and conservation of Mauritian skinks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius 5: 71-95.

          Morris, P. A. and Morris, M. J. 1991. Removal of shrews from the Ile aux Aigrettes. Unpublished report to the Mauritian Wildlife Appeal Fund.

          Moutou, F. 1983. Introduction dans les îles: l'exemple de l'île de la Réunion. C.R Soc. Biogéogr. 59 (2) : 201-211

          Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Suncus murinus Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=418760

          Nowak, R. M. and Paradiso, J. L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World.

          Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la Réunion. Azalées Editions. 168 pp.

          Probst J.-M. 1999. Catalogue des Vertébrés de l’île de la Réunion. Amphibiens, Reptiles, Oiseaux et Mammifères se reproduisant sur l’île. Rapport DIREN. 167 pp.

          Rodda, G.H. & Fritts, T.H. 1992. The impact of the introduction of the colubrid snake Boiga irregularis on Guam's lizards. Journal of Herpetology 26(2): 166-174.

          Ruedi, M., Courvoisier, C., Vogel, P. and Catzeflis, F. M. 1996. Genetic differentiation and zoogeography of the Asian house shrew Suncus murinus (Mammalia: Soricidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 57(4): 307-316.

          Seymour A, Varnham K, Sugoto Roy, Stephen Harris, Lucy Bhageerutty, Stuart Church, Alex Harris, Nancy V. Jennings, Carl Jones, Ashok Khadun, John Mauremootoo, Tabetha Newman, Vikash Tatayah, Charlotte Webbon, Gavin Wilson, 2005. Mechanisms underlying the failure of an attempt to eradicate the invasive Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus from an island nature reserve. Biological Conservation Volume 125, Issue 1, September 2005, Pages 23-35

          Varnham, K.K., S.S. Roy., A. Seymour., J. Mauremootoo., C.G. Jones and S. Harris., 2002. Eradication of Indian musk shrews (Suncus murinus, Soricidae from Nauritian offshore islands. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 311-318. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Yosida, T. H. 1982. Cytogenetical studies on Insectivora, 2: Geographical variation of chromosomes in the house shrew, Suncus murinus (Sorcicidae), in east, southeast and southwest Asia, with a note on the karyotype, evolution and distribution. Japanese Journal of Genetics 57: 101-111.


          Suncus murinus

          Advani, R. and Rana, B. D. 1981. Food of the house shrew, Suncus murinus sindensis in the Indian Desert. Acta Theriologica 26: 133-134.

          Atkinson, I. A. E. and Atkinson, T. J. 2000. Land vertebrates as invasive species on islands served by the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. In: Invasive Species in the Pacific: A Technical Review and Draft Regional Strategy. South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa: 19-84.

          Barbehenn, K. R. 1962. The house shrew on Guam. In Storer T. I. (ed.) Pacific Island rat ecology. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 225: 247–256.

          Bell, B. D. and Bell, E. 1996. Mauritius offshore islands project phase II. Implementation of management recommendations. Unpublished report by Wildlife Management International Ltd., to the Mauritian Wildlife Foundation and Government of Mauritius.

          Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra. http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf

          Churchfield, S. 1990. The natural history of shrews.

          Conservationevidence.com., undated. The implementation of a live trapping programme in an attempted eradication of the Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus on Ile aux Aigrettes, Mauritius http://www.conservationevidence.com/ViewSummary.aspx?ID=10434

          Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.

          Dryden, G. L. 1969. Reproduction in Suncus murinus. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 6: 377-396.

          Fritts, T. H. and Rodda, G. H. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113-140.

          Gill, C. J. and Rissman, E. F. 1997. Female sexual behaviour is inhibited by short- and long-term food restriction. Physiology and Behaviour 61(3): 387-394.

          Hasler, M. J., Hasler, J. F. and Nalbandov, A. V. 1977. Comparative breeding biology of musk shrews (Suncus murinus) from Guam and Madagascar. Journal of Mammalogy 58(3): 285-290.

          Ishikawa, A., Yamagata, T. and Namikawa, T. 1991. An attempt at reciprocal crosses between laboratory strains of large and small musk shrews (Suncus murinus): influence of body weight difference between sexes on mating success. Experimental Animals 40.

          IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers Involved in the Prevention, Eradication, Management and Control of the Spread of Invasive Alien Species that are a Threat to Native biodiversity and Natural Ecosystems.

          Jones, C. G. 1993. The ecology and conservation of Mauritian skinks. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius 5: 71-95.

          Morris, P. A. and Morris, M. J. 1991. Removal of shrews from the Ile aux Aigrettes. Unpublished report to the Mauritian Wildlife Appeal Fund.

          Moutou, F. 1983. Introduction dans les îles: l'exemple de l'île de la Réunion. C.R Soc. Biogéogr. 59 (2) : 201-211

          Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle [Ed]. 2003-2006 . Suncus murinus Inventaire national du Patrimoine naturel http://inpn.mnhn.fr/isb/servlet/ISBServlet?action=Espece&typeAction=10&pageReturn=ficheEspeceDescription.jsp&numero_taxon=418760

          Nowak, R. M. and Paradiso, J. L. 1983. Walker's Mammals of the World.

          Probst J.-M. 1997. Animaux de la Réunion. Azalées Editions. 168 pp.

          Probst J.-M. 1999. Catalogue des Vertébrés de l’île de la Réunion. Amphibiens, Reptiles, Oiseaux et Mammifères se reproduisant sur l’île. Rapport DIREN. 167 pp.

          Rodda, G.H. & Fritts, T.H. 1992. The impact of the introduction of the colubrid snake Boiga irregularis on Guam's lizards. Journal of Herpetology 26(2): 166-174.

          Ruedi, M., Courvoisier, C., Vogel, P. and Catzeflis, F. M. 1996. Genetic differentiation and zoogeography of the Asian house shrew Suncus murinus (Mammalia: Soricidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 57(4): 307-316.

          Seymour A, Varnham K, Sugoto Roy, Stephen Harris, Lucy Bhageerutty, Stuart Church, Alex Harris, Nancy V. Jennings, Carl Jones, Ashok Khadun, John Mauremootoo, Tabetha Newman, Vikash Tatayah, Charlotte Webbon, Gavin Wilson, 2005. Mechanisms underlying the failure of an attempt to eradicate the invasive Asian musk shrew Suncus murinus from an island nature reserve. Biological Conservation Volume 125, Issue 1, September 2005, Pages 23-35

          Varnham, K.K., S.S. Roy., A. Seymour., J. Mauremootoo., C.G. Jones and S. Harris., 2002. Eradication of Indian musk shrews (Suncus murinus, Soricidae from Nauritian offshore islands. In Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species: 311-318. Veitch, C.R. and Clout, M.N.(eds). IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland. Switzerland and Cambridge. UK.

          Yosida, T. H. 1982. Cytogenetical studies on Insectivora, 2: Geographical variation of chromosomes in the house shrew, Suncus murinus (Sorcicidae), in east, southeast and southwest Asia, with a note on the karyotype, evolution and distribution. Japanese Journal of Genetics 57: 101-111.

          Links to Websites

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          WebsiteURLComment
          GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
          Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

          Contributors

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          Reviewed by: Karen Varnham

              Original text compiled by: Karen Varnham & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
             
              Last Modified: Thursday, April 06, 2006

             

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