Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aphis spiraecola
(Spirea aphid)

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Datasheet

Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphis spiraecola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Spirea aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. spiraecola has two winged migrations, in spring and again in autumn. Winged individuals can be carried for long-distances within weather systems to colonize host plants in new areas. Host plant range is large and many wild species can act as reser...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); female vivipara. A common species on several Rosaceae and other plants in North America. Yellow or green morphs are found. USA. July, 2009.
TitleFemale vivipara
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); female vivipara. A common species on several Rosaceae and other plants in North America. Yellow or green morphs are found. USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Andrew Jensen-2009 (Aphidman)/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); female vivipara. A common species on several Rosaceae and other plants in North America. Yellow or green morphs are found. USA. July, 2009.
Female viviparaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); female vivipara. A common species on several Rosaceae and other plants in North America. Yellow or green morphs are found. USA. July, 2009.©Andrew Jensen-2009 (Aphidman)/via flickr - CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
TitleInfestation
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
Copyright©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
InfestationAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
TitleInfestation
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
Copyright©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.
InfestationAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); colony on Spirea twig. Host plant, Vanhoutte spiraea (Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr.). USA.©Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara. Slide mounted specimen. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara. Slide mounted specimen. USA.
Copyright©Brendan Wray/AphID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara. Slide mounted specimen. USA.
AdultAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara. Slide mounted specimen. USA.©Brendan Wray/AphID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara, alate. Slide mounted specimen.
TitleAdult
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara, alate. Slide mounted specimen.
Copyright©Brendan Wray/AphID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara, alate. Slide mounted specimen.
AdultAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); adult, female vivipara, alate. Slide mounted specimen.©Brendan Wray/AphID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, ventral view. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
TitleApterous vivipara
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, ventral view. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
Copyright©Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, ventral view. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
Apterous viviparaAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, ventral view. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.©Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, cauda and siphunculi. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
TitleCauda and siphunculi
CaptionAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, cauda and siphunculi. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
Copyright©Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU
Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, cauda and siphunculi. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.
Cauda and siphunculiAphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); apterous vivipara, cauda and siphunculi. Ontario, Niagara, Canada. June 1962. W. Richards. Slide mounted specimen.©Simon Hinkley & Ken Walker/Museum Victoria - CC BY 3.0 AU

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphis spiraecola Patch, 1914

Preferred Common Name

  • Spirea aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Anuraphis erratica del Guercio, 1917
  • Aphis bidentis Theobald, 1929
  • Aphis citricola van der Goot, 1912
  • Aphis croomiae Shinji, 1922
  • Aphis deutziae Shinji, 1922
  • Aphis malvoides van der Goot, 1917
  • Aphis mitsubae Shinji, 1922
  • Aphis nigricauda van der Goot, 1917
  • Aphis pirifoliae Shinji, 1922
  • Aphis pseudopomi Bertels, 1973
  • Aphis pseudopomi Blanchard, 1939
  • Aphis virburnicolens Swain, 1919

International Common Names

  • English: green citrus aphid; Spiraea aphid
  • Spanish: afido verde de la naranja; pulgón amarillo; pulgón de la espirea; pulgón de los citricos; pulgón verde de los citrus (Arg); pulgón verde del naranja
  • French: puceron de la spiree; puceron spiraecole; puceron vert de l'oranger

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Grüne Citrus-Blattlaus; Grüne Zitrusblattlaus; Spierstrauch-Blattlaus
  • Japan: yukiyanagi-no-aburamusi

EPPO code

  • APHISI (Aphis spiraecola)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. spiraecola has two winged migrations, in spring and again in autumn. Winged individuals can be carried for long-distances within weather systems to colonize host plants in new areas. Host plant range is large and many wild species can act as reservoirs for crop infestation. Eggs or colonies can be spread in trade on planting material or fruits (especially citrus and apple). This aphid has spread to many new regions during the twentieth century and it is now widespread. However, it is not currently listed by the IUCN as a quarantine pest and is not on any related 'alert lists' of invasive species.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Aphis
  •                                         Species: Aphis spiraecola

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Aphis spiraecola was first described by Patch in 1914. Meanwhile, Aphis citricola was described by van der Groot in 1912, from aphids collected in Chile. A. citricola eventually became treated as a synonym of another citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida; but Hille Ris Lambers (1975) showed that it was not this species but in fact A. spiraecola. Therefore, A. spiraecola became a synonym of A. citricola.

Eastop and Blackman (1988) re-examined the original material from which A. citricola had been described, however, and found part of it to be Aphis fabae. They suggested that the widespread pest aphid on citrus and other trees and shrubs should therefore revert to the name used for it formerly: A. spiraecola. This is now the accepted name. Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers (1976) listed synonyms but under the name citricola van der Groot. A. spiraecola is in the tribe Aphidini, within the subfamily Aphidinae of the Aphididae family.

Blackman et al. (2007) review the taxonomic issues affecting economically important aphid species, including A. spiraecola.

Description

Top of page A. spiraecola is a relatively small aphid. Alatae are 1.2-2.2 mm and apterae 1.2-2.2 mm, with largest body sizes in the spring. Its body colour is bright greenish-yellow or yellowish-green to apple-green. It has a brown head, mainly pale legs and antennae, but siphunculi and cauda that are dark-brown to black. Alatae have a dark-brown head and thorax, and a yellowish-green abdomen with dusky lateral patches on each segment (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

Distribution

Top of page A. spiraecola probably had its origin in the Far East. Blackman and Eastop (2000) listed it as being present in North America at least since 1907; while introductions occurred to the Mediterranean region around 1939, Africa in 1961, Australia in 1926 and New Zealand in 1931. The species now has a worldwide distribution in temperate and tropical regions.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
ChinaPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-FujianPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-GuangdongPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HebeiPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HenanPresentNative Invasive Zhang et al., 1997
-Hong KongPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HubeiPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SichuanPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-YunnanPresentNative Invasive Tai et al., 2004
-ZhejiangPresentNative Invasive Chen et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Georgia (Republic of)PresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-BiharPresentIntroduced Invasive Prasad and Sarkar, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced Invasive Naidu, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KeralaPresentIntroduced Invasive Naidu, 1980; Lyla et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Stáry and Ghosh, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SikkimPresent Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Irian JayaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-JavaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SulawesiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
IranPresentIntroduced Invasive Hodjat and Eastop, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001
IsraelPresentIntroduced1970 Invasive Swirski et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
JapanPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HokkaidoPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HonshuWidespreadNative Invasive Komazaki, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KyushuWidespreadNative Invasive Shindo, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
JordanPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadNative Invasive Cho et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LaosPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
LebanonPresentIntroduced Invasive Tremblay et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2001
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SabahPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SarawakPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MaldivesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
NepalPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
PakistanPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
PhilippinesPresentNative Invasive Quimio and Calilung, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001
SingaporePresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
SyriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Kaf, 2002
TaiwanPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
ThailandPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
TurkeyPresentIntroduced Invasive Uygun et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
VietnamPresentNative Invasive Stáry and Zeleny, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Dartigues, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BeninPresentIntroducedCABI/EPPO, 2001
BurundiPresentIntroduced Invasive Seco et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2001
CameroonPresentIntroduced Invasive Dejean et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Central African RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
CongoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Invasive Wijs, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2001
EgyptPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
EthiopiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
GhanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Seif, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2001
LibyaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MalawiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MoroccoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
NigeriaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
RéunionPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
RwandaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
SenegalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2001
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1990 Invasive Gilbert, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
CanadaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-QuebecPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MexicoWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AlabamaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-CaliforniaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-DelawarePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-FloridaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-HawaiiWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IdahoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-IndianaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MississippiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MissouriPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MontanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-TexasPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-UtahPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-VermontPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-VirginiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WashingtonWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Mayer and Lunden, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-West VirginiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-WyomingPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
BarbadosPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
BelizePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
BonairePresentIntroduced Invasive
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
DominicaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
HondurasPresentIntroduced Invasive Castro, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced Invasive Maes and Tellez, 1988
PanamaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Portillo, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2001
BoliviaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
BrazilPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-AmazonasPresentIntroduced Invasive Hamada et al., 1998
-CearaPresentIntroduced Invasive Bastos, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001; Martins et al., 2016
-GoiasPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Mato GrossoPresentIntroduced Invasive Michelotto and Busoli, 2003
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced Invasive Rossi et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ParaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-ParanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced Invasive Leal et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-PiauiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
ChileWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Stáry et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
French GuianaPresentIntroduced Invasive
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
PeruPresentIntroduced Invasive Ortiz, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Mallqui and Cobián, 2011
SurinamePresentIntroduced Invasive Segeren, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2001
UruguayPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced Invasive Sanchez et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2001

Europe

BulgariaPresentAndreev et al., 2007; Rasheva and Andreev, 2007
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
CyprusPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Former USSRPresentIntroduced Invasive
FrancePresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001; Ferre, 2008
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Lapchin et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2001
GreecePresentIntroduced Invasive Katsoyannos et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2001
HungaryPresentMezei and Kerekes, 2006; Mezei and Kerekes, 2006
ItalyPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SardiniaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-SicilyPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
LatviaPresentRakauskas et al., 2015
LithuaniaPresentRakauskas et al., 2015
MaltaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
NetherlandsPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Furk, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2001
PolandPresentRakauskas et al., 2015
PortugalPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced Invasive
Russian FederationPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-Russia (Europe)PresentIntroduced Invasive
-Russian Far EastPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
SerbiaPresentPetrovic-Obradovic et al., 2009
SloveniaPresentModic and Urek, 2008
SpainWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Melia, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2001; Marroquin et al., 2004
-Balearic IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001; Höhn et al., 2003
UKAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Invasive Furk, 1979; Martin, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2001
-England and WalesAbsent, formerly presentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Yugoslavia (former)PresentIntroduced Invasive

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1926 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Wong et al., 1997
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1931 Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001
VanuatuPresentIntroduced Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2001

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page A. spiraecola is probably of Far Eastern origin. Accidental spread has resulted in it being introduced into countries worldwide. A. spiraecola has been in North America since at least 1907, and was introduced more recently into the Mediterranean region (about 1939), Africa (1961), Australia (1926), New Zealand (1931) and Israel (1970) (Swirski et al., 1991; Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The movement of fruits and ornamental plants carries the risk of transporting this aphid to new geographic areas, where its highly polyphagous nature favours its establishment. For example, Furk (1979) described A. spiraecola arriving in the UK, on shipments of potted Yuccas from Honduras and The Netherlands. Methyl-bromide fumigation of the plants completely controlled the pest in this case. Rosen (1980) discussed how the increasing prevalence of A. spiraecola on citrus in Israel, together with strict quarantine regulations in market countries, was presenting new challenges for integrated pest management programmes.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page A. spiraecola is a moderately polyphagous species. Primary (winter) hosts are Spiraea spp. and Citrus spp. It has numerous secondary host plants, in well over 20 families, particularly in the Caprifoliaceae, Compositae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae and Rutaceae. The aphid has a preference for woody plants of a shrubby growth habit. Citrus and apple are the most important crop hosts (Blackman and Eastop, 2000), although grapefruit is almost immune to attack (Heinze, 1977).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Abelia grandiflora (Glossy abelia)CaprifoliaceaeOther
AnnonaAnnonaceaeOther
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeOther
Astragalus sinicus (chinese clover)FabaceaeOther
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeOther
Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus deliciosa (mediterranean mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus limon (lemon)RutaceaeMain
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ApiaceaeOther
CotoneasterRosaceaeWild host
Crataegus (hawthorns)RosaceaeWild host
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeOther
Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass)PoaceaeWild host
Cyphomandra betacea (tree tomato)SolanaceaeOther
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeOther
Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeOther
Juglans regia (walnut)JuglandaceaeOther
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeOther
Macadamia ternifolia (Queensland nut)ProteaceaeOther
Malus (ornamental species apple)RosaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
NicotianaSolanaceaeOther
Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeOther
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeOther
Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)PittosporaceaeWild host
Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeOther
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeOther
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeOther
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeOther
SpiraeaRosaceaeWild host
Spiraea thunbergii (Thunberg's spiraea)RosaceaeWild host
Spiraea vanhouttei (Bridal wreath)RosaceaeWild host
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)SterculiaceaeOther
ViburnumCaprifoliaceaeOther
Viburnum odoratissimumCaprifoliaceaeWild host
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeOther
Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeOther

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Leaves rolled tightly, sometimes almost spirally, inwards from the tip, in response to aphid feeding. For example, on citrus, aphid colonies cause curling, crinkling and distortion of young leaves. On apple, aphids cause abnormal growth of terminal shoots, and by reducing photosynthesis, reduce the greenness and quality of young apple leaves (Kaakeh et al., 1993). The earlier the attack on crop hosts, the more shoots are stunted. On distorted tips of shoots, several leaves can be rolled together. Leaves with heavy feeding damage are reduced in size, and can die prematurely. Flowers and fruits are also damaged. Damaged flower buds may not develop into fruit (Heinze, 1977).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / external feeding

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

A. spiraecola has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=8 (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

Reproductive biology

Where it is holocyclic and produces sexual morphs, the primary hosts are Spiraea or Citrus. In North America and Brazil, Spiraea is the primary host (de Menezes, 1970). In Japan, both Spiraea and Citrus are recorded primary hosts (Komazaki et al., 1979). Hodjat and Eastop (1983) also recorded sexual forms on apple in Iran. However, it is anholocyclic and reproduces entirely parthenogenetically over most of its geographical range. A. spiraecola has four larval instars. Aphids feed on young buds, shoots and leaves of host plants (Blackman and Eastop, 2000).

In Japan, aphids overwintering on citrus and Spiraea represent two distinct biotypes of A. spiraecola (Komazaki, 1998). Timing of the overwintered egg hatch differed between populations on citrus and Spiraea; a difference which was apparently genetically determined. Spring migrants of the citrus biotype increased rapidly on citrus and pear but only slowly on apple and Spiraea, while the Spiraea biotype increased rapidly on Spiraea and pear but slowly on apple and not at all on citrus (Komazaki, 1991). The alate migrants from citrus play a major part in the spring infestation of citrus groves in Japan and other citrus growing regions.

In Henan Province, China, holocyclic populations occur on apple, with overwintering as eggs in bud axils. Around 15-18 generations a year occur, with two population peaks during the year. The first population peak in the spring can result in severe damage to apple trees; while the second in autumn can affect the formation of buds and flowers, although overall damage to crop yields is less severe (Zhang et al., 1997).

In the Mediterranean region, the first small colonies on new citrus growth occur by early February. In hot weather, nymphs can grow into adults within 5-6 days, leading to rapid population growth. On average, one aphid deposits 30 nymphs. Up to 14 generations may be produced in one year. An increased proportion of winged forms are produced in response to both over-crowding and a deteriorating food supply. The aphid cannot feed on citrus leaves that become hardened after the first growth 'flush'. When the production of young leaves stops, alates began to form nearly all of the adult population. These alates migrate in search of fresh young hosts. In the autumn, fruit formation enriches the sap in favour of the aphid and populations start to build up again. In winter, in temperate areas, few adults survive. However, in the tropics, where new shoot production is year-round, population levels can remain relatively high (Heinze, 1977).

Chemical ecology

Sexual females (oviparae) in holocyclic populations of A. spiraecola release a sex pheromone and display typical leg-waving behaviour during its release. In laboratory-reared aphids, the pheromone composition was (+)-(4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone and (-)-(1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol in the ratio of 6:1 to 8:1. For wild oviparae, collected from an apple orchard and a Spiraea arboretum in Korea, the ratio between the two components was around 2:1. Oviparae showed a circadian rhythm in release of sex pheromone (Hong et al., 2003; Boo and Park, 2005). Lacewing predators may be attracted to the aphid sex pheromone (Boo and Park, 2005).

Environmental requirements

In laboratory experiments, with A. spiraecola reared at different temperatures, none survived at 35°C, while between 10-32°C developmental periods for immature stages varied from 23.0 to 7.3 days. The average progeny per female ranged from 44 at 20°C to 5 at 32°C, while mean generation time ranged from 35.1 days at 10°C to 10.7 days at 32°C. It was concluded that the optimal range of temperature for A. spiraecola population growth was 20-30°C (Wang and Tsai, 2000). Komazaki (1998) studied the relationship between temperature and incubation period on diapause in the eggs of two races of A. spiraecola.

Associations

Colonies of A. spiraecola are usually ant-attended. Dartigues (1991) described how the ant species Tapinoma simrothi had a positive influence on the growth and survival of A. spiraecola on citrus in Algeria. Shindo (1972) described five species of ant tending A. spiraecola on citrus in Japan, with Pristomyrmex pungens being the most common species. It was assumed that this ant interfered with the activity of aphid predators. The ant Crematogaster depressa tended the aphid on cocoa in Cameroon (Dejean et al., 1991).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelinus asychis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus gossypii Parasite Adults/Nymphs Israel Citrus
Aphelinus spiraecolae Parasite Nymphs
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Binodoxys communis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Endaphis maculans Predator
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs India Solanum nigrum
Eupeodes confrater Basu and Patro, 2007
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia dimidiata Predator Adults/Nymphs USA Citrus
Hippodamia convergens Predator Adults/Nymphs
Ischiodon scutellaris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Leucopis Basu and Patro, 2007
Lipolexis scutellaris Parasite Nymphs Israel Citrus
Lysiphlebus fabarum Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Lysiphlebus japonica Parasite Adults/Nymphs Israel Citrus
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Nymphs Corsica; Italy
Micraspis discolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Micromus timidus Basu and Patro, 2007
Neda patula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius insidiosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs China apples; Astragalus sinicus
Paragus serratus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pseudaspidimerus trinotatus Basu and Patro, 2007
Scymnus pyrocheilus Basu and Patro, 2007
Toxares deltiger Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys angelicae Parasite Nymphs
Trioxys nepalensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Zoophthora orientalis Pathogen Adults/Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page All nymphal stages and adults are parasitized by the major parasitoids of A. spiraecola. Some preference for younger nymphal stages have been recorded in experiments, for example, Aphelinus spiraecolae preferred to oviposit in the first and second instars (Tang and Yokomi, 1996).

Parasitoids have been recorded in the Old World, where this aphid is thought to originate, but fewer parasitoids associated with A. spiraecola occur in the New World (Cole, 1925). Lysiphlebus testaceipes and Trioxys angelicae [Binodoxys angelicae] are recorded parasitoids of A. spiraecola on citrus. However, Tremblay et al. (1983) reported that the North American species L. testaceipes, imported into Europe for aphid control, has problems developing fully on A. spiraecola due to its relatively large size compared with the aphid, dying in the fourth larval instar before mummification. Therefore, it may not provide the control within integrated pest management programmes that it was first hoped it would.

Aphelinus spiraecolae was first described by Evans et al. (1995) from citrus in China (Guangdong Province). It is very similar to Aphelinus gossypii, and Evans et al. (1995) described characteristics for differentiating it from related species. It has a preference for ovipositing in A. spiraecola and appears to have good potential as a biological control agent in the USA (Yokomi and Tang, 1995; Tang and Yokomi, 1996).

A range of predators have been noted for A. spiraecola, mainly Chrysopidae, Coccinellidae and Syrphidae (Börner and Heinze, 1957; Heinze, 1977); although species of Neuroptera, Chaemyiidae, Anthocoridae and other families may also be important natural enemies. Cole (1925) described two significant predators on Spiraea in Florida, USA, the coccinellid Scymnus cervicalis and the agromyzid Leucopis americana, and a number of predators on citrus, most importantly Olla oculata, Hippodamia covergens and two syrphid species in the genus Baccha. Brown (2004) and Brown and Miller (1998) described predators of A. spiraecola on apple in the states of Washington and West Virginia, USA; the most important predator in both cases was the coccinellid Harmonia axyridis. Trejo Loyo et al. (2004) described predators of A. spiraecola on citrus in Mexico. Agarwala et al. (1983) described a range of syrphid predators attacking aphids, including A. spiraecola, on crop plants in West Bengal and Sikkim, India; while Ghosh (1975) listed numerous parasitoids and predators of A. spiraecola in India. Kokhreidze (1982) described a natural enemy complex on citrus in the Republic of Georgia, where predators made the main contribution to keeping aphid numbers in check.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page A. spiraecola is mainly spread via the flight of winged forms. These can be carried considerable distances in weather systems before colonizing new host plants. Aphids can also be carried on fruits and ornamental plants to new areas, where they may establish on host crops.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

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A. spiraecola is a pest of citrus, apples and ornamentals. On severely affected fruit trees, the entire yield is at risk. Direct feeding is particularly damaging to young trees in spring, when aphids infest the new buds and shoots causing leaf curl and shoot distortion. Sooty moulds, which thrive on aphid honeydew, contribute to the cosmetic damage of fruit, reducing its marketable value. It is of particular economic significance in young citrus orchards and on soft-skinned citrus varieties (Miller, 1929; Barbagallo, 1966).

The aphid transmits a range of viruses, including Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), Citrus psorosis virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Papaya ringspot virus, Plum pox virus, Potato virus Y, viburnum strain of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Watermelon mosaic virus and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). Symptoms of citrus tristeza on citrus include leaf cupping, vein-clearing and stem-pitting.

A. spiraecola is an important economic pest in the main citrus-growing areas of the world, including the Far East, South Africa, Florida (USA), Mexico, South America and Spain, in large part due to its ability to spread CTV. For instance, it accounted for 23% of infected aphids, and has contributed to the high prevalence and rapid spread of CTV in sweet orange, clementine and satsuma mandarins in recent years in the Valencia region of Spain (Marroquin et al., 2004). Its role as a major vector of CTV has been described, for example, in Spain (Pena Martinez et al., 2004), Florida (Powell et al., 2005) and India (Naidu, 1980).

A. spiraecola is also an important vector of Plum pox virus in the USA (Gildow et al., 2004) and Spain (Cambra et al., 2004). In addition to being a pest of fruit orchards, A. spiraecola can cause damage to ornamental plants, for example, in the USA and Spain (Raupp et al., 1994; Pons and Lumbierres, 2004).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page For the presence of A. spiraecola look for curling and distortion of leaves near stem apices or flower heads and the presence of ants. In citrus it attacks young leaves and causes crinkling, curling and sometimes premature leaf drop. In apple, the undersides of leaves need to be inspected for the presence of aphids.

In the field, detection of alates in citrus and other crops is by yellow water or sticky traps (Seif, 1987; Quimio and Calilung, 1993; Sanchez et al., 1993; Labonne et al., 1994; Melia, 1995).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page A. spiraecola is extremely easily confused with the green apple aphid Aphis pomi on rosaceous hosts; differences are only visible on slides. Both these species occur on Rosaceae and can be present as pests in the same apple orchards, in all regions where apples are grown commercially. A. spiraecola has a slightly shorter ultimate rostral segment than A. pomi, fewer caudal hairs and no lateral tubercles on abdominal segments 2-4, whereas A. pomi usually has conspicuous tubercles on these segments. A. spiraecola has alate males, while those of A. pomi are apterous (Blackman and Eastop, 2000). Halbert and Voegtlin (1992) provided a key to distinguish the two species. Further complication has arisen in the Far East through A. pomi itself being mistaken for Aphis gossypii. The confusion with A. pomi may have caused A. spiraecola's distribution to be underestimated in the past (CIE, 1969). This confusion does not occur on citrus.

The morphology of A. spiraecola on pear was compared with A. pomi and A. gossypii by Kuo et al. (2001). Foottit et al. (2009) used morphometric techniques to assess the reliability of suggested morphological characters in distinguishing A. pomi from A. spiraecola. The molecular approaches clearly distinguished two groups corresponding to the morphologically defined species. Differences in the length of the distal rostral segment and the number of lateral tubercles were found to be robust indicators of species membership.

Prevention and Control

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Chemical Control

A number of insecticide regimes have been recommended to control A. spiraecola on its most important crop hosts. For example, Cho et al. (1997) tested a range of insecticides in citrus groves; Park et al. (1993) compared treatments in apple orchards; and Segeren (1983) described the efficacy of different insecticide treatments on cucurbits in Suriname. Heinze (1977) listed ethion, parathion-ethyl, dimethoate, fenitrothion and propoxur as suitable insecticides. Pirimicarb has also been recommended, particularly in the context of integrated control. Stem bandages soaked with insecticide have been used in citrus orchards. Drenching of nursery plants with dimefox has also been recommended (Heinze, 1977).

Imidocloprid is a favoured insecticide for A. spiraecola control in orchards, for example, in Florida, USA (Powell et al., 2005). Lowery et al. (2005) compared the susceptibility of Aphis pomi and A. spiraecola to imidacloprid in apple orchards; while Paulson et al. (2005) showed that the effects of imidacloprid were synergized by prohexadione-calcium, a plant growth regulator used on apple and pear trees. In a six-year study of brown citrus and spirea aphid populations in a citrus grove in Florida, imidacloprid treatments controlled the aphids, although at least two annual treatments per year were required to control A. spiraecola during some years (Powell et al., 2006).

A. spiraecola has become resistant to a number of insecticides, including pirimicarb (Benfatto et al., 1970; Hohn et al., 2003). Song et al. (1995) investigated the mechanism of tolerance to organophosphorus insecticides, after resistance to this group of insecticides was found in Korea.

Biological Control

Lysiphlebus testaceipes was imported from Cuba to mediterranean France for the biological control of A. spiraecola and other citrus aphids in 1973-74, and has since spontaneously spread to mainland Italy, Sicily and other areas (Stáry et al., 1988). Biological control of A. spiraecola by L. testaceipes on citrus in Italy is described by Viggiani (1990). However, this braconid parasite cannot complete its development in A. spiraecola. Parasitized aphids die or stop producing offspring, but no further parasites are produced from mummies. This may be true for a number of generalist parasites observed ovipositing in this aphid, because of its relatively small size. Trioxys angelicae can complete its development in A. spiraecola, however, an important factor in biological control programmes.

The parasitoid Aphelinus spiraecolae, which has a preference for A. spiraecola in its native China, was introduced from China into the USA and has potential as a biological control agent in Citrus in Florida, USA (Tang and Yokomi, 1996). Stáry and Zeleny (1983) suggested that Lipolexis scutellaris would be a good export from Vietnam for control of A. spiraecola in other citrus growing regions of the world.

Raupp et al. (1994) described releases of the convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens) and seven spotted lady beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) against pests of ornamental landscape plants; the predators reduced populations of A. spiraecola on firethorn (Pyracantha lalandei). Katsoyannos et al. (1997) described how the coccinellid Harmonia axyridis was imported to Greece from France for aphid control in citrus. Kuznetsov (1988) reported that coccinellids (Harmonia spp.) from the far East of the former USSR were released in citrus orchards in the Transcaucasus, where they overwintered successfully and controlled large populations of A. spiraecola the following year. Qin (1985) described the mass rearing of insects, including the anthocorid Orius minutus, for release against A. spiraecola and other pests in apple orchards in China.

In a study of integrated biological control of pests on Viburnum tinus plants in open tunnels in France, A. spiraecola was recorded as the major pest and was controlled by the release of Aphidius spp. and Aphidoletes aphidimyza, augmented by the native auxiliary fauna, notably syrphids (Ferre, 2008). 

IPM Programmes

Harmonia axyridis is the major natural enemy controlling aphid numbers in integrated pest management programmes in citrus in the Korean Republic, and Cho et al. (1997) took toxicity of insecticides to this coccinellid into account when recommending which insecticides to use against A. spiraecola. Lee et al. (1994) likewise recommended insecticides for use against the aphid, in apple orchards in the Korean Republic, which preserved the main natural enemies. Uygun et al. (1987) described integrated control in citrus in Turkey, where A. spiraecola is kept at low levels by predatory Coleoptera and Neuroptera.

 

References

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Agarwala BK; Raychaudhuri DN, 1981. Note on some aphids affecting economically important plants in Sikkim. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(9):690-692

Andreev R; Rasheva D; Kutinkova H, 2007. Aphids in apple orchards in Central-South Bulgaria. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 47(1):87-90. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/Journal/

Attia AA; El-Kady EA, 1986. The seasonal abundance of Aphis citricola V.D. Goot on certain fruit trees. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 66:279-283

Barbagallo S, 1966. Contributo alla conoscenza degli afidi degli agrumi. 1. Aphis spiraecola Patch. Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr. Filippo Silvestri, 24:49-83.

Bastos JAM, 1978. Contribution to knowledge of the aphids (Aphididae) of the State of Ceara, Brazil. Fitossanidade, 2(3):89-90

Basu M; Patro B, 2007. New records of host plants and natural enemies of Aphis citricola van der Goot (Aphididae: Homoptera) from Orissa, India. Journal of Entomological Research, 31(2):165-168.

Benfatto D; Gafa M; Giudice V lo, 1970. Efficacia di alcuni insetticidi contro gli afidi degli agrumi. I. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Agrumicoltura, 1970-1971, 3-4:155-174.

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Brown MW, 2004. Role of aphid predator guild in controlling spirea aphid populations on apple in West Virginia, USA. Biological-Control, 29(2):189-198.

Brown MW; Mathews CR, 2008. Conservation biological control of spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on apple by providing natural alternative food resources. European Journal of Entomology [Proceedings of the International Symposium "Ecology of Aphidophaga 10", held in September 2007 in Athens, Greece.], 105(3):537-540. http://www.eje.cz/scripts/content.php

Brown MW; Miller SS, 1998. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in apple orchards of eastern West Virginia and the impact of invasion by Harmonia axyridis. Entomological News, 109(2):143-151.

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Castro BA, 1995. La presencia de afidos en las plantaciones citricolas de Honduras. CEIBA, 36(2):263-270.

Chen DM; Chen WM; Chen JS, 1993. The succession of the predominant citrus aphids and the control of pesticides. Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis, 5(1):42-45; 9 ref.

Cho JR; Hong KJ; Yoo JK; Bang JR; Lee JO, 1997. Comparative toxicity of selected insecticides to Aphis citricola, Myzus malisuctus (Homoptera: Aphididae), and the predator Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(1):11-14.

CIE, 1969. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural), Map No. 256. June 1969. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cole FR, 1925. The natural enemies of the citrus aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch). J. Econ. Entomol., 18:219-223.

Cruz de Boelpaepe MO; Ferreira MO, 1998. Survey of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida, and other aphid vectors of citrus tristeza virus in continental Portugal. Aphids in natural and managed ecosystems. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Aphids, Leon, Spain, 15-19 September, 1997., 525-534; 8 ref.

Dartigues D, 1991. Repartition spatio-temporelle des aphides et influence des fourmis, sur orangers en Kabylie. Fruits, Paris, 46(4):461-469.

de Menezes M, 1970. Reproducao sexuada de Aphis spiraecola Patch no estado de Sao Paulo. Biológico, 36:53-57.

Dejean A; Nkongmeneck B; Corbara B; Djieto-Lordon C, 1991. Impact des fourmis arboricoles sur une pullulation d'Achaea catocaloides (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) dans des plantations de cacaoyers du Cameroun, et etude de leurs homopteres associes. Acta Oecologica, 12(4):471-488.

Eastop VF; Blackman RL, 1988. The identity of Aphis citricola van der Goot. Systematic Entomology, 13(2):157-160

Eastop VF; Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

Evans GA; Schauff ME; Kok-Yokomi ML; Yokomi RK, 1995. A new species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) that parasitizes the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 97(1):17-21

Ferre A, 2008. IBC in outdoor or protected open cultivation. (La P.B.I. en culture extérieure ou sous abri ouvert.) PHM Revue Horticole, No.506:26-32.

Foottit RG; Lowery DT; Maw HEL; Smirle MJ; Lushai G, 2009. Identification, distribution, and molecular characterization of the apple aphids Aphis pomi and Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae). Canadian Entomologist, 141(5):478-495. http://pubservices.nrc-cnrc.ca/rp-ps/absres.jsp?jcode=ent&ftl=n09-037&lang=eng

Furk C, 1979. A British record of Aphis citricola van der Goot. Plant Pathology, 28(3):157

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