Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Aphis pomi
(apple aphid)

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Datasheet

Aphis pomi (apple aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphis pomi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Aphis pomi (apple aphid); infestation on apple bud.
TitleInfestation
CaptionAphis pomi (apple aphid); infestation on apple bud.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Aphis pomi (apple aphid); infestation on apple bud.
InfestationAphis pomi (apple aphid); infestation on apple bud.©AgrEvo
Colony of A. pomi on the under-surface of an apple leaf.
TitleColony
CaptionColony of A. pomi on the under-surface of an apple leaf.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Colony of A. pomi on the under-surface of an apple leaf.
ColonyColony of A. pomi on the under-surface of an apple leaf.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult and nymphs on apple leaf stem.
TitleColony
CaptionAdult and nymphs on apple leaf stem.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Adult and nymphs on apple leaf stem.
ColonyAdult and nymphs on apple leaf stem.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Colony of A. pomi seen through a microscope.
TitleColony
CaptionColony of A. pomi seen through a microscope.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Colony of A. pomi seen through a microscope.
ColonyColony of A. pomi seen through a microscope.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Oviparae and wintering eggs on host plant.
TitleOviparae
CaptionOviparae and wintering eggs on host plant.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Oviparae and wintering eggs on host plant.
OviparaeOviparae and wintering eggs on host plant. Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Slide preparation of adult; aptera, under microscope, with lateral tubercules on segments 2-4 of the abdomen.
TitleAdult
CaptionSlide preparation of adult; aptera, under microscope, with lateral tubercules on segments 2-4 of the abdomen.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Slide preparation of adult; aptera, under microscope, with lateral tubercules on segments 2-4 of the abdomen.
AdultSlide preparation of adult; aptera, under microscope, with lateral tubercules on segments 2-4 of the abdomen.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Slide preparation of adult; cauda, under microscope, with more than 14 hairs.
TitleAdult
CaptionSlide preparation of adult; cauda, under microscope, with more than 14 hairs.
CopyrightRadoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Slide preparation of adult; cauda, under microscope, with more than 14 hairs.
AdultSlide preparation of adult; cauda, under microscope, with more than 14 hairs.Radoslav Andreev/Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphis pomi DeGeer, 1773

Preferred Common Name

  • apple aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Anuraphis pomi (De Geer)
  • Aphis bicolor Haldeman, 1844
  • Aphis crataegi Buckton, 1879 nec. Kaltenbach, 1843
  • Aphis cydoniae Boisduval, 1867
  • Aphis eriobotryae Schouteden, 1905
  • Aphis mali Fabricius, 1775
  • Doralina pomi (De Geer)
  • Doralis pomi (De Geer)
  • Medoralis pomi (De Geer)

International Common Names

  • English: green apple aphid; permanent apple aphid
  • Spanish: afido del manzano; pulgón del manzano; pulgon verde del manzano
  • French: puceron vert du pommier
  • Portuguese: pulgao verde da macieira

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gron æblebladlus
  • Finland: omenakirva
  • Germany: Gruene Apfelblattlaus
  • Iran: schatte sib (sabs rang)
  • Israel: knimat ale hatapuach hayeruka
  • Italy: afide verde del melo
  • Japan: ringo-aburamusi
  • Netherlands: Groene Appelbladluis; Groene Appeltakluis
  • Norway: gronn eplebladlus
  • Sweden: grön äpplebladlus
  • Turkey: elma yaprak biti

EPPO code

  • APHIPO (Aphis pomi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Aphididae
  •                                     Genus: Aphis
  •                                         Species: Aphis pomi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

LibyaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
TunisiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
AzerbaijanPresentZeĭnalov and Kanygina (1988)
ChinaPresentAPPPC (1987)
GeorgiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Himachal PradeshPresentMeena Kumari and Gautam (2007)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentHandoo et al. (2015); Bhagat et al. (1988)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
JapanPresentTakeda and Hukusima (1970)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SyriaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
TaiwanPresentKuo (2002)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Erol and Yașar (1996)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIsufi and Myrta (1996)
AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BelarusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Koltun Filipowicz (1995)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CroatiaPresentCiglar and Barić (2001)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CzechiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Simova Tosic & Vukovic, 1980
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-CorsicaPresentNHM (Undated)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
HungaryPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Olszak (1996)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Chudare Klimpinya (1988)
LithuaniaPresentRakauskas and Rupaıbreve˜s (1983)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MadeiraPresentUK, CAB International (1969); NHM (Undated)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Russian Far EastPresentAksyutova and Gul'dyaeva (1977)
SerbiaPresentMilenković et al. (2005)
SloveniaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Modic and ?kerlavaj (2008)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
UkrainePresentMatvievskii (1976)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1969)

North America

BermudaPresentStoetzel and Hilburn (1990)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Madsen and Carty (1977)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New BrunswickPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Stewart and Walde (1997)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-QuebecPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ArkansasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-ColoradoPresent, WidespreadPalmer (1952); UK, CAB International (1969)
-ConnecticutPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-DelawarePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IdahoPresentPalmer (1952); UK, CAB International (1969)
-IllinoisPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IndianaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-IowaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-KansasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-KentuckyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MainePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MarylandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MassachusettsPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MichiganPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MinnesotaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MissouriPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-MontanaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-NebraskaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New HampshirePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New JerseyPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-New MexicoPresentPalmer (1952); UK, CAB International (1969)
-New YorkPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-North CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-North DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OhioPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-OregonPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-South CarolinaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-South DakotaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-TennesseePresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-UtahPresentPalmer (1952); UK, CAB International (1969)
-VermontPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1969); Mayer and Lunden (1996)
-West VirginiaPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WisconsinPresentUK, CAB International (1969)
-WyomingPresentPalmer (1952); UK, CAB International (1969)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acholla multispinosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Adalia bipunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Anthocoris nemoralis Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey apples
Aphelinus gossypii Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aphelinus paramali Parasite Darsouei et al., 2011
Aphidencyrtus aphidivorus Parasite
Aphidius rosae Parasite Nymphs
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predator Adults/Nymphs
Aphithrombium mali Parasite
Araneus cucurbitinus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Atractotomus mali Predator Adults/Nymphs Norway apples
Balaustium putmani Predator Adults/Nymphs
Barberiella formicoides Predator Adults/Nymphs
Campylomma verbasci Predator Adults/Nymphs
Carabidae Predator Nymphs
Chrysopa abbreviata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa nigricornis Predator
Chrysopa orestes Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chrysopa pallens Predator Adults/Nymphs Turkey
Chrysoperla carnea Predator Adults/Nymphs Ontario; Turkey apples
Coccinella septempunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella transversoguttata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator Adults/Nymphs India; Jammu and Kashmir apples
Coelophora saucia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Conidiobolus obscurus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Deraeocoris fasciolus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Diaeretiella rapae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus persicae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Ephedrus plagiator Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Epistrophe eligans Predator
Episyrphus balteatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Eupeodes corollae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Exochomus quadripustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Forficula auricularia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Harmonia axyridis Predator Adults/Nymphs Kazakhstan
Hippodamia convergens Predator
Hyaliodes vitripennis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Leucopis glyphinivora Predator
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA; Washington apples
Medetera alpina Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera petulca Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera utahensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Medetera xerophila Predator Adults/Nymphs
Melangyna triangulifera Predator Adults/Nymphs
Meliscaeva auricollis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Orius minutus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Phoenicocoris minusculus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Praon occidentale Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Praon unicum Parasite Adults/Nymphs USA; Washington apples; peaches
Praon volucre Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Scaeva pyrastri Predator Adults/Nymphs
Sphaerophoria scripta Predator Adults/Nymphs
Trioxys angelicae Parasite Nymphs
Trioxys indicus Parasite Nymphs India; Jammu and Kashmir apples

References

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Aksyutova LN; Gul'dypva TI, 1977. Insect enemies of orchard pests in the Amur region. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:26

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bhagat KC; Masoodi MA; Koul VK, 1988. Some observations on the incidence of arthropod natural enemies of Aphis pomi DeGeer (Homoptera: Aphididae) occurring in apple orchard ecosystem. Journal of Aphidology, 2(1-2):80-89

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1984. Aphids on the World's Crops. An Identification and Information Guide. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Bouchard D; Tourneur JC; Paradis RO, 1982. The entomophagous complex limiting the populations of Aphis pomi de Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae) in south-western Quebec. Preliminary results. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 27(2):80-93

Bouchard D; Tourneur JC; Paradis RO, 1982. The parasitoids of the green apple aphid Aphis pomi DeGeer, in south-western Quebec. Annals of the Entomological Society of Quebec, 27(3):184-190

Carroll DP; Hoyt SC, 1984. Natural enemies and their effects on apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeGeer (Homoptera: Aphididae), colonies on young apple trees in central Washington. Environmental Entomology, 13(2):469-481

Carroll DP; Hoyt SC, 1986. Hosts and habitats of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) implicated in biological control of apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 15(6):1171-1178

Chudare ZP, 1988. Infection of aphids by different species of entomophthorous fungi. Biologicheskaya regulyatsiya chislennosti vrednykh chlenistonogikh [edited by Klimpinya, A. E.] Riga, USSR; Zinatne, 38-46

CIE, 1969. Distribution Maps of Pests, No. 87. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ciglar I; Baric B, 2001. Aphid control in apple orchards. (Suzbijanje lisnih u?i u vocnjacima jabuke.) Agronomski Glasnik, 63(4/5):189-195.

Darsouei R; Karimi J; Avval MM, 2011. A comparison of DNA barcoding with classic method in diagnosis five of aphid species on pome fruit trees in Mashhad. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science, 42(2):217-226. http://journals.ut.ac.ir/page/article-frame.html?articleId=772626

Darsouei R; Karimi J; Awal MM, 2011. First record of Aphelinus paramali Zehavi and Rosen 1989 (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae), parasitoid of Aphis pomi de Geer (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Iran, and its phylogenetic position based on sequence data of ITS2 and COI genes. Entomological Research, 41(5):194-200. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1748-5967

Eastop VF; Hille Ris Lambers D, 1976. Survey of the World's Aphids. The Hague, Netherlands: DR. W. Junk bv Publishers.

Erol T; Yasar B, 1996. Studies on determination of harmful and beneficial fauna in the apple orchards in Van province. Tu^umlaut~rkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 20(4):281-293; 20 ref.

Evenhuis HH, 1963. De Groene appeltakluis, Aphis pomi Geer, en haar parasietencomplex. Mededlingen Landbouwhogeschool Gent, 28:784-791.

Evenhuis HH, 1968. The natural control of the apple-grass aphid, Rhopalosiphum insertum, with remarks on the control of apple aphids in The Netherlands in general. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 74:106-117.

Grasswitz TR; Burts EC, 1995. Effect of native natural enemies and augmentative releases of Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister and Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) on the population dynamics of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer. International Journal of Pest Management, 41(3):176-183

Hagley EAC, 1989. Release of Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) for control of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi Degeer (Homoptera: Aphididae). Canadian Entomologist, 121(4-5):309-314

Halbert SE; Voegtlin DJ, 1992. Morphological differentiation between Aphis spiraecola and Aphis pomi (Homoptera: Aphididae). Great Lakes Entomologist, 25(1):1-8

Handoo ZA; Ibrahim IKA; Chitwood DJ; Mokbel AA, 2015. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 33(2):161-165.

Hogmire HW; Diener RG; Crim VL, 1991. Comparison of boom and airblast sprayers on T-trellis apples. Journal of Agricultural Science, 116(2):253-257

Hull LA; Starner VR, 1983. Impact of four synthetic pyrethroids on major natural enemies and pests of apple in Pennsylvania. Journal of Economic Entomology, 76(1):122-130

Isufi E; Myrta A, 1996. The defence of fruit trees in Albania: problems and prospects. Informatore Fitopatologico, 46(1):33-36; 5 ref.

Kaakeh W; Pfeiffer DG; Marini RP, 1993. Effect of Aphis spiraecola and A. pomi (Homoptera: Aphididae) on the growth of young apple trees. Crop Protection, 12(2):141-147

Koltun N, 1995. Integrated protection of apple nurseries against the green apple aphid (Aphis pomi De Geer) in Belarus. Materialy ogolnopolskiej konferencji naukowej Nauka Praktyce Ogrodniczej z okazji XXV-lecia Wydzialu Ogrodniczego Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie., 463-466; 3 ref.

Kuo MH, 2002. Spatial distribution and field population fluctuations of Aphis pomi on pear. Plant Protection Bulletin (Taipei), 44(4):329-340.

Lyon JP; Tiefenau PGde, 1974. The predacious syrphids of aphids. Brochure, Section Regionale Ouest Palearctique, Organisation Internationale de Lutte Biologique contre les Animaux et les Plantes Nuisibles, No.3:163-170

Madsen HF; Carty BE, 1977. Pest management: four years experience in a commercial apple orchard. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 74:3-6

Matvievskii AS, 1976. Aphids - pests of fruit trees. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 3:57-59

Mayer DF; Lunden JD, 1996. Apple and spirea aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on apples in south central Washington. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 93:35-37; 8 ref.

Meena Kumari; Gautam DC, 2007. Studies on the morphs, life history and behaviour of green apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer on apple host in India. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 76(2):119-141.

Meena Kumari; Gautam DC, 2009. New records of ant species associated with Aphis pomi De Geer from Himachal Pradesh, India. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 17(2):215-219.

Milenkovic S; Tanaskovic S; Lazic T, 2005. Azadirachtin - possibilities of use in plant protection. (Azadirahtin - mogucnost primene u za?titi bilja.) Vocarstvo, 39(1):61-69.

Modic ?; ?kerlavaj V, 2008. The most important pests of apple and pear trees. (Pomembnej?i ?kodljivci jablan in hru?k.) SAD, Revija za Sadjarstvo, Vinogradni?tvo in Vinarstvo, 19(10):3-6. http://www.sad.si

Olszak RW, 1996. Eight years' experiences of IPM in Hungarian apple orchards. In: Balazs K, Jenser G, Bujaki G, Polesny F, eds. International Conference on Integrated Fruit Production, at Cedzyna, Poland, 28 August-2 September 1995. Bulletin OILB SROP 1996, 19(4):95-101.

Palmer MA, 1952. Aphids of the Rocky Mountain Region. Colorado, USA: The Thomas Say Foundation.

Pasqualini E; Briolini G; Memmi M; Monari S, 1982. Guided control tests against apple aphids. Bollettino dell'Istituto di Entomologia della Universita degli Studi di Bologna, 36:159-171

Pérez Hidalgo N; Umaran Â; Mier Durante MP, 2011. First record of the adventive oriental aphid Schizaphis piricola (Matsumura, 1917) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Europe. Zookeys, No.89:41-48. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/903/first-record-of-the-adventive-oriental-aphid-schizaphis-piricola-matsumura-1917-hemiptera-aphididae-in-europe

Rafal'skii VK; Kazanok GT, 1972. Aphids- pests of apple-trees in southern Ukraine. Zashchita Rastenii, 17(4):43-44

Rakauskas R; Basilova J; Bernotiene R, 2015. Aphis pomi and Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) in Europe - new information on their distribution, molecular and morphological peculiarities. European Journal of Entomology, 112(2):270-280. http://www.eje.cz/artkey/eje-201502-0008_Aphis_pomi_and_Aphis_spiraecola_Hemiptera_Sternorrhyncha_Aphididae_in_Europe_-_new_information_on_their_dis.php#.VT73cdKqqko

Rakauskas RP; Rupas AA, 1983. Biology of the green apple aphid in Lithuania. Acta Entomologica Lituanica, 6:20-30

Reede RHde, 1982. Supervised and integrated pest control in the Netherlands. In: Graffin P, ed. Integrated crop protection. Proceedings of a symposium held at Valence, France, 18-19 June 1980 A.A. Balkema Rotterdam Netherlands, 141-161

Simova-Tosic D; Vukovic M, 1980. Studies on the genus Aphidoletes Kieffer (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Acta Entomologica Jugoslavica, 16(1/2):63-67

Stary P, 1975. Parasites (Hymenoptera, Aphidiidae) of leaf-curling apple aphids in Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 72(2):99-114

Stewart HC; Walde SJ, 1997. The dynamics of Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on apple in Nova Scotia. Canadian Entomologist, 129(4):627-636; 33 ref.

Stoetzel MB; Hilburn DJ, 1990. The aphids and phylloxera of Bermuda (Homoptera: Aphididae and Phylloxeridae). Florida Entomologist, 73(4):627-643

Takeda S; Hukusima S, 1970. On the seasonal prevalence of Myzus malisuctus and Aphis pomi (Homoptera : Aphididae), in relation to the change of free amino acids and carbohydrates in apple leaves [in Japan]. Kontyu, 38(4):331-342

Zeinalov YuM; Kanygina NE, 1988. Pests and diseases of middle east species of hawthorn in conditions of Apsheron. Byulleten' Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada, No. 149:71-75.

Zhuravleva AS, 1990. Resistance of apple varieties and hybrids to some pests. Dostizheniya nauki - v praktiku: Kratkie tezisy dokladov k predstoyashchei nauchnoi konferentsii: Puti uskoreniya selektsionnogo protsessa rastenii Moscow, USSR, 92-94

Distribution References

Aksyutova L N, Gul'dyaeva T I, 1977. Insect enemies of orchard pests in the Amur region. Zashchita Rastenii. 26.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bhagat K C, Masoodi M A, Koul V K, 1988. Some observations on the incidence of arthropod natural enemies of Aphis pomi DeGeer (Homoptera: Aphididae) occurring in apple orchard ecosystem. Journal of Aphidology. 2 (1-2), 80-89.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Ciglar I, Barić B, 2001. Aphid control in apple orchards. (Suzbijanje lisnih uši u voćnjacima jabuke.). Agronomski Glasnik. 63 (4/5), 189-195.

Erol T, Yașar B, 1996. Studies on determination of harmful and beneficial fauna in the apple orchards in Van province. (Van ili elma bahcelerinde bulanan zararı türler ile doğal düscedilla˜manları.). Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 20 (4), 281-293.

Handoo Z A, Ibrahim I K A, Chitwood D J, Mokbel A A, 2015. First report of Xiphinema rivesi Dalmasso, 1969 on citrus in northern Egypt. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 33 (2), 161-165.

Isufi E, Myrta A, 1996. The defence of fruit trees in Albania: problems and prospects. (La difesa dei fruttiferi in Albania: problemi e prospettive.). Informatore Fitopatologico. 46 (1), 33-36.

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