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theileriosis

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Datasheet

theileriosis

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • theileriosis
  • Overview
  • More detailed information on theileriosis can be found in the datasheets on Theileria annulata infections, Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infections, Theileria parva infections and bovine theilerioses,...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
TitleCow with Theileriosis (Theileria annulata)
CaptionTaurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
Cow with Theileriosis (Theileria annulata)Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.The University of Edinburgh
Swollen lymph node draining site of inoculation of sporozoites of T. parva.
TitleDisease course
CaptionSwollen lymph node draining site of inoculation of sporozoites of T. parva.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Swollen lymph node draining site of inoculation of sporozoites of T. parva.
Disease courseSwollen lymph node draining site of inoculation of sporozoites of T. parva.The University of Edinburgh
Eye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
TitleTheileria annulata disease course
CaptionEye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Eye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
Theileria annulata disease courseEye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.The University of Edinburgh
Interior of cattle-shed on Tunisian small holder farm: cattle, such as this high grade Holstein-Friesian bull and Hyalomma detritum, the tick vector of T. annulata, live together in such buildings; the ticks hiding in cracks and crevices in the walls.
TitleHost and vector habitat
CaptionInterior of cattle-shed on Tunisian small holder farm: cattle, such as this high grade Holstein-Friesian bull and Hyalomma detritum, the tick vector of T. annulata, live together in such buildings; the ticks hiding in cracks and crevices in the walls.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Interior of cattle-shed on Tunisian small holder farm: cattle, such as this high grade Holstein-Friesian bull and Hyalomma detritum, the tick vector of T. annulata, live together in such buildings; the ticks hiding in cracks and crevices in the walls.
Host and vector habitatInterior of cattle-shed on Tunisian small holder farm: cattle, such as this high grade Holstein-Friesian bull and Hyalomma detritum, the tick vector of T. annulata, live together in such buildings; the ticks hiding in cracks and crevices in the walls.The University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
TitleCarcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionHaemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
Carcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical TheileriosisHaemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.The University of Edinburgh
Yellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
TitleCarcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionYellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Yellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
Carcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical TheileriosisYellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wallThe University of Edinburgh
Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
TitleTheileria annulata infections. Advanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis.
CaptionCortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
Theileria annulata infections. Advanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis.Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.The University of Edinburgh
Grossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionGrossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Grossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisGrossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.The University of Edinburgh
Echymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionEchymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Echymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisEchymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.The University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in abomasal wall.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical theileriosis
CaptionHaemorrhages in abomasal wall.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in abomasal wall.
Advanced stage of Tropical theileriosisHaemorrhages in abomasal wall.The University of Edinburgh
Abomasal ulcers.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionAbomasal ulcers.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Abomasal ulcers.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisAbomasal ulcers.The University of Edinburgh
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
TitleTheileria annulata infections. Parasitized mononuclear cells in kidney.
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
Theileria annulata infections. Parasitized mononuclear cells in kidney.In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
Parasitized mononuclear cellsIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease.  Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original  x 100)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells in the spleen
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease.  Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original  x 100)
Parasitized mononuclear cells in the spleenIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system  x 1000
TitleParasitized mononuclear cell
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system x 1000
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system  x 1000
Parasitized mononuclear cellIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system x 1000Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
Parasitized mononuclear cellsIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
Histiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of  tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin  (Original x 100).
TitleHistopathology
CaptionHistiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (Original x 100).
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Histiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of  tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin  (Original x 100).
HistopathologyHistiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (Original x 100).The University of Edinburgh
Intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionIntra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
CopyrightUsed with permission from CABI Publishing
Intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
DiagnosisIntra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.Used with permission from CABI Publishing
Smear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionSmear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Smear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
DiagnosisSmear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.The University of Edinburgh
T. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture.  After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
TitleVaccines
CaptionT. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture. After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
T. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture.  After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
VaccinesT. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture. After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.The University of Edinburgh
Diagrammatic representation of the intra-erythrocytic stages of T. annulata, T. parva and members of the T. orientalis/T. buffeli group. Some forms of piroplasms dominate in certain species: round and oval forms in T annulata; rods in T. parva; rods and elongate forms in T. orientalis/T. buffeli. Veils consist of a haemoglobin derived substance; bars are connected with the parasite and the outside of the cell. Both structures are thought to be of parasite origin. T. parva only produces a veil in Syncerus cafffer. Bars occur in all strains of T. orientalis/T. buffeli; veils are absent in N. American strains and not yet recorded for Chinese or African strains.
TitleDiagram
CaptionDiagrammatic representation of the intra-erythrocytic stages of T. annulata, T. parva and members of the T. orientalis/T. buffeli group. Some forms of piroplasms dominate in certain species: round and oval forms in T annulata; rods in T. parva; rods and elongate forms in T. orientalis/T. buffeli. Veils consist of a haemoglobin derived substance; bars are connected with the parasite and the outside of the cell. Both structures are thought to be of parasite origin. T. parva only produces a veil in Syncerus cafffer. Bars occur in all strains of T. orientalis/T. buffeli; veils are absent in N. American strains and not yet recorded for Chinese or African strains.
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
Diagrammatic representation of the intra-erythrocytic stages of T. annulata, T. parva and members of the T. orientalis/T. buffeli group. Some forms of piroplasms dominate in certain species: round and oval forms in T annulata; rods in T. parva; rods and elongate forms in T. orientalis/T. buffeli. Veils consist of a haemoglobin derived substance; bars are connected with the parasite and the outside of the cell. Both structures are thought to be of parasite origin. T. parva only produces a veil in Syncerus cafffer. Bars occur in all strains of T. orientalis/T. buffeli; veils are absent in N. American strains and not yet recorded for Chinese or African strains.
Diagram Diagrammatic representation of the intra-erythrocytic stages of T. annulata, T. parva and members of the T. orientalis/T. buffeli group. Some forms of piroplasms dominate in certain species: round and oval forms in T annulata; rods in T. parva; rods and elongate forms in T. orientalis/T. buffeli. Veils consist of a haemoglobin derived substance; bars are connected with the parasite and the outside of the cell. Both structures are thought to be of parasite origin. T. parva only produces a veil in Syncerus cafffer. Bars occur in all strains of T. orientalis/T. buffeli; veils are absent in N. American strains and not yet recorded for Chinese or African strains.Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
Antibodies to T. annulata  schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionAntibodies to T. annulata schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Antibodies to T. annulata  schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
DiagnosisAntibodies to T. annulata schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.The University of Edinburgh
The role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
TitleTwo-host tick life history of Theileria infection
CaptionThe role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
CopyrightModified with permission of Elsevier Science
The role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
Two-host tick life history of Theileria infectionThe role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.Modified with permission of Elsevier Science
The role of three-host ticks in the transmission of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp.
TitleThree-host tick life history
CaptionThe role of three-host ticks in the transmission of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp.
CopyrightModified with permission of Elsevier Science
The role of three-host ticks in the transmission of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp.
Three-host tick life historyThe role of three-host ticks in the transmission of Theileria spp. and Babesia spp.Modified with permission of Elsevier Science

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • theileriosis

International Common Names

  • English: theileriosis in ruminants - exotic

Overview

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More detailed information on theileriosis can be found in the datasheets on Theileria annulata infections, Theileria orientalis/Theileria buffeli infections, Theileria parva infections and bovine theilerioses, and in those on individual Theileria species.

This disease is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 07 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
AngolaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BeninAbsent, No presence record(s)
BotswanaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
BurundiPresentJul-Dec-2018
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ComorosPresentJan-Jun-2018
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
Congo, Republic of theAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Côte d'IvoirePresent
DjiboutiAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EgyptPresentJul-Dec-2019
EritreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EswatiniAbsentJul-Dec-2019
EthiopiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
GhanaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KenyaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
LiberiaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MalawiAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MauritaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MauritiusAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MozambiquePresentJul-Dec-2019
NamibiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NigerAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RwandaPresentJul-Dec-2018
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
São Tomé and PríncipeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SenegalPresentJul-Dec-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Sierra LeoneAbsentJan-Jun-2018
SomaliaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
South AfricaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
South SudanPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2018
SudanPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TanzaniaPresentJul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UgandaPresentJul-Dec-2019
ZambiaPresentJul-Dec-2018
ZimbabwePresentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanPresentJul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
AzerbaijanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BahrainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
BangladeshAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BhutanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IndiaPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
IndonesiaPresentJul-Dec-2019
IranPresentJan-Jun-2019
IraqPresentJul-Dec-2019
IsraelPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsentJan-Jun-2020
JordanAbsentJul-Dec-2018
KazakhstanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LaosAbsentJan-Jun-2019
LebanonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
MalaysiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NepalPresentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
OmanPresentJul-Dec-2019
PakistanPresentJan-Jun-2020
PalestineAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
QatarPresentJul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Sri LankaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
SyriaPresent, LocalizedJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2020
TurkmenistanPresentJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VietnamAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BulgariaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
FinlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsentJan-Jun-2018
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LuxembourgAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MontenegroAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RomaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)
RussiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
San MarinoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SerbiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)
SlovakiaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SpainAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwitzerlandAbsentJul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
United KingdomAbsentJul-Dec-2019
-Northern IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Costa RicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
El SalvadorAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Saint LuciaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
United StatesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsentJul-Dec-2020
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
EcuadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PeruAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SurinameAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
UruguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
VenezuelaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Sign
General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Sign
General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes Sign
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Sign
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Sign
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Sign
General Signs / Weight loss Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Sign
Nervous Signs / Head pressing Sign
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Entropion, inverted eyelid Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Pruritus, itching skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin plaque Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin wheal, welt Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign

References

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OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Distribution References

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

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