Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Theileria annulata infections

Toolbox

Datasheet

Theileria annulata infections

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Theileria annulata infections
  • Overview
  • Theileria annulata is a tickborne intracellular protozoan parasite of cattle, which occurs in North Africa, southern Europe, the Near and Middle East, India, China and Central Asia. It causes both mortality and...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
The role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
TitleTwo-host tick life history of Theileria infection
CaptionThe role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
CopyrightModified with permission of Elsevier Science
The role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.
Two-host tick life history of Theileria infectionThe role of Hyalomma ticks in Theleria annulata infection in cattle.Modified with permission of Elsevier Science
High-grade taurine calves in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in Turkey, housed in a cattle shed which also harbours hyalommid ticks.
TitleEpidemiology
CaptionHigh-grade taurine calves in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in Turkey, housed in a cattle shed which also harbours hyalommid ticks.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
High-grade taurine calves in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in Turkey, housed in a cattle shed which also harbours hyalommid ticks.
EpidemiologyHigh-grade taurine calves in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in Turkey, housed in a cattle shed which also harbours hyalommid ticks.The University of Edinburgh
Cattle-shed in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in the Black Sea Coastal area of Turkey.
TitleEpidemiology
CaptionCattle-shed in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in the Black Sea Coastal area of Turkey.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Cattle-shed in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in the Black Sea Coastal area of Turkey.
EpidemiologyCattle-shed in an endemic area of tropical theileriosis in the Black Sea Coastal area of Turkey.The University of Edinburgh
Cytokine production by Theileria annulata schizont-infected cells in lymph node of calf undergoing tropical theileriosis: merozoite-infected cells (red) labelled with  an antibody to TNF-alpha and the avidin-biotin complex/alkaline phosphatase (ABC/AP) system (Original x 1000).
TitleCytokine production by Theileria annulata
CaptionCytokine production by Theileria annulata schizont-infected cells in lymph node of calf undergoing tropical theileriosis: merozoite-infected cells (red) labelled with an antibody to TNF-alpha and the avidin-biotin complex/alkaline phosphatase (ABC/AP) system (Original x 1000).
CopyrightUsed with permision from Academic Press Ltd.
Cytokine production by Theileria annulata schizont-infected cells in lymph node of calf undergoing tropical theileriosis: merozoite-infected cells (red) labelled with  an antibody to TNF-alpha and the avidin-biotin complex/alkaline phosphatase (ABC/AP) system (Original x 1000).
Cytokine production by Theileria annulataCytokine production by Theileria annulata schizont-infected cells in lymph node of calf undergoing tropical theileriosis: merozoite-infected cells (red) labelled with an antibody to TNF-alpha and the avidin-biotin complex/alkaline phosphatase (ABC/AP) system (Original x 1000).Used with permision from Academic Press Ltd.
Eye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
TitleTheileria annulata disease course
CaptionEye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Eye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.
Theileria annulata disease courseEye of cow infected with T. annulata showing anaemic mucous membranes with characteristic haemorrhaging.The University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in the skin around mammary glands of cow infected with T. annulata.
TitleDisease course
CaptionHaemorrhages in the skin around mammary glands of cow infected with T. annulata.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in the skin around mammary glands of cow infected with T. annulata.
Disease courseHaemorrhages in the skin around mammary glands of cow infected with T. annulata.The University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
TitleCarcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionHaemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.
Carcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical TheileriosisHaemorrhages on mesenteric lymph nodes.The University of Edinburgh
Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
TitleCow with Theileriosis (Theileria annulata)
CaptionTaurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.
Cow with Theileriosis (Theileria annulata)Taurine cow infected with T. annulata showing debilitated condition.The University of Edinburgh
Yellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
TitleCarcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionYellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Yellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wall
Carcase showing the advanced stages of Tropical TheileriosisYellow connective tissue and haemorrhages on body wallThe University of Edinburgh
Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
TitleTheileria annulata infections. Advanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis.
CaptionCortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.
Theileria annulata infections. Advanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis.Cortical haemorrhages in the kidney.The University of Edinburgh
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
TitleTheileria annulata infections. Parasitized mononuclear cells in kidney.
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)
Theileria annulata infections. Parasitized mononuclear cells in kidney.In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the glomerulus of the kidney during late stages of the disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with the ABC/HRP system (brownish colour) (Original x 1000)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
Grossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionGrossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Grossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisGrossly enlarged and haemorhagic lymph node draining the site of inoculation of T. annulata sporozoites.The University of Edinburgh
Echymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionEchymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Echymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisEchymotic haemorrhages on mesenteric lymph node.The University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in abomasal wall.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical theileriosis
CaptionHaemorrhages in abomasal wall.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Haemorrhages in abomasal wall.
Advanced stage of Tropical theileriosisHaemorrhages in abomasal wall.The University of Edinburgh
Abomasal ulcers.
TitleAdvanced stage of Tropical Theileriosis
CaptionAbomasal ulcers.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Abomasal ulcers.
Advanced stage of Tropical TheileriosisAbomasal ulcers.The University of Edinburgh
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system  x 1000
TitleParasitized mononuclear cell
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system x 1000
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system  x 1000
Parasitized mononuclear cellIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells (brown) in the paracortex of the prescapular lymph node draining the site of inoculation of a calf undergoing the middle stage of disease. Schizonts labelled with an anti-schizont monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin complex/horse radish peroxidase (ABC/HRP) system x 1000Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)
Parasitized mononuclear cellsIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: small numbers of schizont-infected cells (brown) and many merozoite-infected cells (stained blue with Harris's haematoxylin) in the medullary sinuses of the lymph nodes during the late stages of disease (Original x 1000)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum.   Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
Parasitized mononuclear cellsIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: large numbers in the wall of the abomasum. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease.  Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original  x 100)
TitleParasitized mononuclear cells in the spleen
CaptionIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)
CopyrightUsed with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
In tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease.  Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original  x 100)
Parasitized mononuclear cells in the spleenIn tissues of calves undergoing tropical theileriosis: schizont-infected cells in the white and red pulp of the spleen during late stage of disease. Schizonts (brown) labelled with ABC/HRP system (Original x 100)Used with permission from Academic Press Ltd.
Histiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of  tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin  (Original x 100).
TitleHistopathology
CaptionHistiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (Original x 100).
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Histiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of  tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin  (Original x 100).
HistopathologyHistiocytic response in paracortex of draining lymph node during advanced stage of tropical theileriosis, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (Original x 100).The University of Edinburgh
Smear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionSmear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Smear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.
DiagnosisSmear of biopsy material from lymph node draining the site of inoculation showing T. annulata schizont-infected cells.The University of Edinburgh
Intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionIntra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
CopyrightUsed with permission from CABI Publishing
Intra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.
DiagnosisIntra-erythrocytic piroplasms of Theileria annulata: typical ring forms in a smear made from the blood of a calf undergoing the advanced stages of tropical theileriosis.Used with permission from CABI Publishing
Antibodies to T. annulata  schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
TitleDiagnosis
CaptionAntibodies to T. annulata schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
Antibodies to T. annulata  schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.
DiagnosisAntibodies to T. annulata schizonts detected in an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using T. annulata schizont-infected cells as antigen and a fluorescein labelled conjugate to detect the reaction between the antibodies and the antigen.The University of Edinburgh
T. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture.  After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
TitleVaccines
CaptionT. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture. After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
CopyrightThe University of Edinburgh
T. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture.  After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.
VaccinesT. annulata schizont-infected cells growing in tissue culture. After prolonged culturing, such cultures become attenuated and can be used as vaccines.The University of Edinburgh

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Theileria annulata infections

International Common Names

  • English: Egyptian fever; Mediterranean Coast fever; theileriosis in ruminants - exotic; theileriosis, tropical; tropical theileriosis
  • French: theileriose bovine d'Afrique du Nord
  • Chinese: huan xing tai le chong bing

Local Common Names

  • India: chichri rog
  • Tunisia: boussofie

Overview

Top of page

Theileria annulata is a tickborne intracellular protozoan parasite of cattle, which occurs in North Africa, southern Europe, the Near and Middle East, India, China and Central Asia. It causes both mortality and reduced production, and has significant economic impacts as a result.

Datasheets are also available on bovine theilerioses and theileriosis in general (as well as other specific Theilieria infections).

Host Animals

Top of page
Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos grunniens (yaks)Domesticated host
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Syncerus cafferWild hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages

Systems Affected

Top of page blood and circulatory system diseases of large ruminants
digestive diseases of large ruminants
mammary gland diseases of large ruminants
multisystemic diseases of large ruminants
nervous system diseases of large ruminants
reproductive diseases of large ruminants
respiratory diseases of large ruminants
skin and ocular diseases of large ruminants
urinary tract and renal diseases of large ruminants

Distribution

Top of page

Updated information on the distribution of theileriosis in general (as distinct from Theileria annulata infections in particular) can be found in OIE's WAHID database on disease occurrence: http://www.oie.int/en/links/wahid/.

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentBulman et al., 1979
ArmeniaPresentMarutyan, 1977; Marutyan, 1978; OIE, 1998
AzerbaijanPresent, 1975; Askarov, 1975; Gumbatov and Bagirov, 1979; Stepanova et al., 1982; Movsum-Zade et al., 1983; OIE, 1998
BahrainPresentFAO, 1997
BangladeshPresentSamad et al., 1983; Welte, 1994
BhutanPresentOIE, 1998
ChinaPresentFAO, 1997
-AnhuiPresentSong ShiRong, 1997
-GansuPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-HainanPresentSong ShiRong, 1997
-HebeiPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-HeilongjiangPresentLuo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-HenanPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-HubeiPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-JilinPresentLuo and Lu, 1997
-LiaoningPresentLuo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-Nei MengguPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-NingxiaPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-ShaanxiPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997
-ShandongPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-ShanxiPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-XinjiangPresentLu and Yin, 1994; Guo et al., 1997; Luo and Lu, 1997; Song ShiRong, 1997
-YunnanPresent, 1997
Georgia (Republic of)PresentMatikashvili et al., 1978
IndiaPresentOIE, 1998
-Andhra PradeshWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Sudhan et al., 1992
-AssamLocalisedSingh, 1991a; Sangwan, 2000
-BiharWidespreadDatta et al., 1988
-ChandigarhWidespreadBeniwal et al., 1997
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliLocalisedSangwan, 2000
-DelhiWidespreadBeniwal et al., 1997; Sangwan, 2000
-GoaLocalisedSingh, 1991a
-GujaratWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Singh, 1991b; Singh, 1990
-HaryanaWidespread, 1980; , 1982; Gautam et al., 1970; Gautam and Dhar, 1983; Yadav et al., 1985; Mallick et al., 1986; Sangwan et al., 1986; Sangwan, 2000
-Himachal PradeshLocalisedSharma et al., 1979; Jithendran, 1997; Sharma et al., 1999
-Indian PunjabPresentHaque et al., 2010
-Jammu and KashmirLocalisedSingh, 1991a; Shaw, 1989
-KarnatakaWidespreadShastri et al., 1981; Shastri et al., 1993; Muraleedharan et al., 1994
-Madhya PradeshWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Sisodia and Mandial, 1986
-MaharashtraWidespread, 1981; Singh, 1991a; Shastri et al., 1993
-OdishaWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Nayak and Dey, 1991; Sahoo and Misra, 1995
-RajasthanWidespread, 1980; Singh, 1991a; Sharma et al., 1979; Tanwar et al., 1984
-Tamil NaduWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Anandan et al., 1983; Anandan and Lalitha, 1984; Venkataraman et al., 1984; Venkataraman and Manickam, 1992; Mukhopadhyay et al., 1997
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Mishra et al., 1989; Das and Sharma, 1991; Das, 1993; Mishra et al., 1994
-West BengalWidespreadSingh, 1991a; Bondopadhyay et al., 1992
IranPresentRafyi and Maghami, 1962; Arshadi, 1976; Hooshmand-Rad, 1977; Hashemi-Fesharki, 1998; OIE, 1998
IraqPresentKhalifa and Kadhim, 1967; FAO, 1993; Arslan and Shukur, 1994
IsraelPresentPipano, 1989a; Pipano, 1989b; Pipano, 1976; OIE, 1998
JordanPresentOIE, 1998
KazakhstanPresentTutushin, 1979; Tutushin, 1981; Stepanova et al., 1982; Tutushin et al., 1982; Zablotsky, 1992; Sabanshiev, 1994
KuwaitPresentAhmed et al., 1987; FAO, 1997
LebanonPresentFAO, 1987
MongoliaPresentFAO, 1993
NepalPresentOIE, 1998
OmanPresentOIE, 1998
PakistanPresentKhan and Huq, 1962; Zaki, 1965; Siddiqui, 1977; OIE, 1998; Muhammad et al., 1999
Saudi ArabiaPresentHussein et al., 1991; Magzoub et al., 1992; Mottelib et al., 1992; El-Metenawy, 2000
Sri LankaPresentFAO, 1997
SyriaPresentLiebisch and Zukari, 1978; OIE, 1998
TajikistanPresent, 1983; Stepanova et al., 1982; Badalov, 1989; Vorob'eva, 1992; Zablotsky, 1992
TurkeyPresentMimioglu, 1977; Sayin, 1991; OIE, 1998
TurkmenistanPresentKhudainazarova, 1976; Zablotsky, 1992
United Arab EmiratesPresentOIE, 1998
UzbekistanPresent, 1983; Stepanova et al., 1982; Stepanova et al., 1986; Zablotsky, 1992; OIE, 1998

Africa

AlgeriaPresentSergent et al., 1945; Jore d'Arces, 1952; Rouina, 1984; Welte, 1994
EgyptPresentZaki, 1965; El-Refaii, 1977; Abd-El-Salam et al., 1994; OIE, 1998
LibyaPresentNorval et al., 1992
MauritaniaPresentJacquiet et al., 1990; Jacquiet et al., 1994; D'Oliveira et al., 1995; D'Oliveira et al., 1997
MoroccoPresentFlach et al., 1995; Kachani et al., 1997; OIE, 1998
SomaliaPresentFAO, 1993
SudanPresentMekki Osman, 1976; Shommein, 1977; Um El Hassan et al., 1983; Walker et al., 1983; OIE, 1998
TunisiaPresentEl and Sornicle, 1962; Dargouth et al., 1993; Ben Miled, 1994; Bahri et al., 1995; Darghouth et al., 1999

Europe

BulgariaPresentPavlov, 1949; Pavlov, 1957
GreecePresentCardassis, 1964; Cardassis and Margaritis, 1964; Papadopoulos et al., 1996; Papadopoulos, 1999
ItalyPresent, 1999; Maxia et al., 1999
MacedoniaPresentPavlov, 1949; Mikacic, 1952; Pavlov, 1957; FAO, 1997; OIE, 1998
MaltaPresentFAO, 1997; OIE, 1998
MoldovaPresentFAO, 1997; OIE, 1998
PortugalPresentLeitao, 1943; OIE, 1998; Caeiro, 1999
RomaniaPresentFAO, 1997; OIE, 1998
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentOIE, 1998
SpainPresent, 1999; Viseras et al., 1997; OIE, 1998; Viseras and Garcia-Fernandez, 1999
-Balearic IslandsPresent
Yugoslavia (former)PresentAngelovski and Iliev, 1977; FAO, 1995

Pathology

Top of page

The chief pathological features of acute lethal tropical theileriosis are associated with dysfunction of the lymphoid and reticulo-endothelial system, and haematological changes (Dschunkowsky and Luhs, 1904; Neitz, 1957; Pipano, 1974, 1994; Levine, 1985). The general post-mortem findings (Figures 35-41) are as follows:
Carcasses: emaciated; anaemic; icteric; yellowish and gelatinous connective tissues.
Blood: appears watery.
Subcutaneous tissues: numerous petechial or larger haemorrhages.
Mucous membranes (pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi): pale; numerous petechial or haemorrhages.
Serous membranes: pale with numerous petechial or larger haemorrhages.
Lymph nodes: are markedly enlarged, oedematous, have varying degrees of haemorrhage, are frequently hyperplastic and hyperaemic.
Thymus: mildly congested.
Heart: myocardial muscular degeneration, petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages of the epi- and endocardium.
Lungs: frequently oedematous and congested.
Spleen: splenomegaly due to lymphoid hyperplasia, spleen is soft and may have prominent malpighian corpuscles.
Liver: hepatomegaly; pale brown or yellow, friable, with evident parenchymatous degeneration.
Gall bladder:
often markedly distended, produces dark-green viscid bile.
Kidneys: pale and congested, pseudoinfarcts of lymphoproliferative foci.
Adrenal glands: cortical haemorrhages, severely infiltrated.
Abomasum, small and large intestines: characteristic ulcers surrounded by a haemorrhagic zone.
Nervous system: occasionally cerebral haemorrhages (Sharma and Gautam, 1973).
Bladder: dark-brown urine due to bile pigments.
Skin: exceptionally non-pigmented papules or pustules, necrotic, ulcerative (Manickam et al., 1984).
Eye: exopthalmos observed in cattle in Iran (Baharsefat et al., 1977), exophthalmos and ulceration of the conjunctiva observed in Iraq (Khalifa and Kadhim, 1967), ocular lesions in India (Mallick et al., 1986; Aher et al., 1990).

Specific post-mortem findings have been reported for cases in Bulgaria (Pavlov, 1957; Vulhovski and Pavlov, 1970), Trans-Caucasia (Dschunkowsky and Luhs, 1904), Central Asia (Oboldoueff and Galuzo, 1928), Algeria (Sergent et al., 1945), India (Sen and Srinivasan, 1936; Prasad, 1946; Gautam et al., 1970; Sharma and Gautam, 1971; Gill et al., 1977; Srivastava and Sharma, 1981); Iran (Rafyi and Maghami, 1962; Baharsefat et al., 1977), Iraq (MacHattie, 1935; Khalifa and Kadhim, 1967).

Diagnosis

Top of page

For information on diagnosis, see the 'bovine theilerioses' datasheet. The  indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) is a prescribed test for international trade, and is described in OIE's Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (OIE, 2013; http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.04.16_THEILIERIOSIS.pdf).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Jugular pulse Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, not nursing, off feed Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloody stools, faeces, haematochezia Sign
Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Diarrhoea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Hepatosplenomegaly, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
Digestive Signs / Mucous, mucoid stools, faeces Sign
Digestive Signs / Pica, depraved appetite Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Abnormal proprioceptive positioning, knuckling Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Dysmetria, hypermetria, hypometria Sign
General Signs / Exercise intolerance, tires easily Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Generalized weakness, paresis, paralysis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Head, face, ears, jaw, nose, nasal, swelling, mass Sign
General Signs / Hypothermia, low temperature Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Icterus, jaundice Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Intraocular mass, swelling interior of eye Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Lack of growth or weight gain, retarded, stunted growth Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Lymphadenopathy, swelling, mass or enlarged lymph nodes Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Neck swelling, mass cervical region Sign
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Orbital, periorbital, periocular, conjunctival swelling, eyeball mass Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Pale mucous membranes or skin, anemia Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Petechiae or ecchymoses, bruises, ecchymosis Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Reluctant to move, refusal to move Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Underweight, poor condition, thin, emaciated, unthriftiness, ill thrift Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Weight loss Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Abnormal behavior, aggression, changing habits Sign
Nervous Signs / Circling Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Dullness, depression, lethargy, depressed, lethargic, listless Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Nervous Signs / Head pressing Sign
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Nervous Signs / Tremor Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blindness Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Corneal edema, opacity Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Entropion, inverted eyelid Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Lacrimation, tearing, serous ocular discharge, watery eyes Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Nystagmus Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Photophobia Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abnormal length estrus cycle, long, short, irregular interestrus period Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Abortion or weak newborns, stillbirth Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Diagnosis
Reproductive Signs / Anestrus, absence of reproductive cycle, no visible estrus Cattle & Buffaloes:Heifer,Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Edema of mammary gland, udder Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Reproductive Signs / Warm mammary gland, hot, heat, udder Cattle & Buffaloes:Cow Sign
Respiratory Signs / Abnormal lung or pleural sounds, rales, crackles, wheezes, friction rubs Sign
Respiratory Signs / Coughing, coughs Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Sign
Respiratory Signs / Epistaxis, nosebleed, nasal haemorrhage, bleeding Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Diagnosis
Respiratory Signs / Mucoid nasal discharge, serous, watery Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Pruritus, itching skin Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin edema Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin papules Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin plaque Cattle & Buffaloes:All Stages Sign
Skin / Integumentary Signs / Skin wheal, welt Sign
Urinary Signs / Haemoglobinuria or myoglobinuria Sign
Urinary Signs / Red or brown urine, pink Sign

Disease Course

Top of page

Tropical theileriosis or Mediterranean Coast fever is a non-contagious disease of cattle characterized by fever, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, emaciation, progressive anaemia and jaundice (Brown, 1990a).T. annulata causes similar disease symptoms across most of its range, as reported in Central Asia (Oboldoueff and Galouzo, 1928; Markov, 1962), in North Africa (Sergent et al., 1945), in the Middle East (Pipano, 1974; El-Metenawy, 2000), in China (Luo and Lu, 1997), in Iran (Rafyi and Maghami, 1962) and in India (Sen and Srinivasa, 1936; Gautam et al., 1970; Sharma and Gautam, 1971; Prasad, 1946). These similarities exist in spite of T. annulata exhibiting extensive strain variation in terms of virulence (Sergent et al., 1945; Pipano, 1974) and molecular diversity (Ben Miled et al., 1994; Katzer et al., 1998; Gubbels et al., 2000). Animals may survive disease but recovery and convalescence can be prolonged and incomplete, leading to permanent debilitation, loss of productivity and a prolonged carrier state (Uilenberg, 1981). Milk production is depressed and may not re-establish itself entirely, even after the following calving (Markov, 1962). In the Asian buffalo, which is probably its original host, T. annulata causes only subclinical or very mild infections (Hadier, 1992; Uilenberg, 1995).

T. annulata causes an acute, mild, sub-acute, per-acute or chronic disease, according to strain virulence and host susceptibility (Sergent et al., 1945; Neitz, 1957; Pipano, 1994; Luo and Lu, 1994). In the acute lethal disease, cattle exhibit increasingly pronounced symptoms from five to seven days after infection, when schizonts become detectable in the lymph node draining the site of infection (Preston et al., 1992).

The early clinical signs include pyrexia coinciding with the appearance of schizonts in the lymph node draining the site of inoculation, and also leucopenia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, inappetance, drooling, serous nasal discharge, swelling of the eyelids, drooping ears, lowered head, sluggish gait, lacrimation, accelerated pulse, general weakness, decreased milk production and sometimes nervous symptoms. As the disease progresses, the following signs occur: cachexia followed by wasting, marked anaemia with bilirubinaemia and bilirubinurea, superficial lymph nodes become greatly enlarged, thrombocytopenia, conjunctiva icteric with petechial haemorrhages and diarrhoea. During the later stages, the faeces are often mixed with blood and mucus, the skin may bear petechiae and, more rarely, raised nodules containing schizont-infected cells. There may be marked emaciation and recumbency. If erythrocytes do not regenerate, anaemia becomes so severe, and dyspnoea so pronounced, that death ensues 8-15 days after the onset of the disease.

Death may occur within two to three weeks following the proliferation of schizont-infected cells or the haemolytic anaemia resulting from intra-erythrocytic piroplasms. Parasitaemias may reach 60% during the terminal stages of the disease and more rarely, following acute disease, up to 90%. Very rarely, acute infections are accompanied by cerebral symptoms (Sharma and Gautam, 1973; Srivastava and Sharma, 1976). Per-acute disease is fairly common and onset is sudden. Animals with per-acute disease exhibit the symptoms of acute disease, but death preceded by hypothermia occurs within a few days. A panleucopaenia and thrombocytopaenia are common features of acute and per-acute disease syndromes (Prasad, 1946; Laiblin, 1978; Brown, 1990a; Preston et al., 1992). Mild strains may cause subclinical infections, with mild symptoms lasting a few days or sub-acute disease with an irregularly intermittent fever lasting for two to four weeks and less marked symptoms than in acute infections. Animals usually recover but pregnant animals may abort. Chronic disease may persist for a month or more with animals taking more than two months to recover. Sub-acute, acute or chronic forms of the disease sometimes lead to acute episodes and death. Animals dying after a prolonged course show evidence of having suffered a severe aplastic anaemia (Laiblin, 1978; Pipano, 1994). There is evidence for neonatal infections with T.annulata (Mishra et al., 1994).

Anaemia in T. annulata infections has been linked to parasitaemia (Preston et al., 1992) exacerbated by the proliferation of intra-erythrocytic stages (Conrad et al., 1985), autoimmune mechanisms (Hooshmand-Rad, 1976) and erythro-phagocytosis by macrophages (Forsyth et al., 1999). Extensive removal of erythrocytes causes bilirubinaemia and biliruburea in T. annulata infections (Barnett, 1977).

Protective immunity to T. annulata infections

The different parasite stages of T. annulata appear susceptible to attack by a variety of innate and adaptive immune responses (Preston et al., 1999). Parasitized macrophages may be lyzed by CD8+ T-cells and Natural Killer (NK) cells. Macrophage-derived nitric oxide may eliminate sporozoites, trophozoites and schizont-infected cells. Parasite-inhibitory cytokines (e.g. IFN-g ) may kill sporozoites and prevent establishment of trophozoite-infected cells.

The immunobiology of T. annulata and T. parva is reviewed by Morrison (2009), and immune responses to T. annulata by Ahmed et al. (2008).

Epidemiology

Top of page

The hyalommid vectors of T. annulata occur in sub-humid and semi-arid environments, semi-desert and desert habitats, steppes and dry-grass lands (Galouzo et al., 1958). The most important vectors are Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, a three-host tick, and Hyalomma detritum, a two-host tick (Barnett, 1968, 1977; Uilenberg, 1981). These species can act as vectors because all stages have adapted to cattle (Jongejan and Uilenberg, 1994). H. scupense may serve as a field vector (Stepanova, 1976; Markov, 1958; Galouzo et al., 1958), when animals live in close contact (Markov, 1962). Few of the two-host ticks that transmit T. annulata experimentally are likely to be field vectors, because only the adults feed on cattle (Hadani et al., 1963; Jongejan et al., 1983; Um El Hassan et al., 1983). Reports of hereditary transmission(Markov, 1962; Ray, 1950) remain unsubstantiated.

Impact: Economic

Top of page

A global figure for the economic impact and importance of T. annulata is not available, but this parasite is accepted to affect the productivity of perhaps 250 million cattle, causing morbidity in indigenous cattle and mortality of between 40-60% 'improved' cross-bred or exotic animals (Brown, 1990b). It is probably the most important of all tick-borne diseases of domestic stock (Purnell, 1978). The economic impact of T. annulata in India was estimated to be US$ 800m, based on direct losses due to mortality and production losses (milk yield, growth rate, meat, infertility, abortion, calving interval and hides) and the indirect costs of control measures (dipping, vaccination, chemotherapy, veterinary legislation and monitoring) (Brown, 1997). Estimates for Gujarat put the cost of infections at US$ 1.27million for 40,000 cows, with a projected total loss of US$ 210 million per annum for 6.6 million adult cross-bred cows in India (Singh, 1991b). Losses attributable to T. annulata in Tunis were estimated to be approximately US$ 24 per dairy cow, taking into account mortality, treatment costs, milk yield and abortion, and including the effects of subclinical infection as well as overt disease (Darghouth, 1999).

Disease Treatment

Top of page

The napthoquinones parvaquone (Hawa et al., 1988; Gill et al., 1981; McHardy et al., 1983) and buparvaquone (McHardy et al., 1985; McHardy, 1989; McHardy, 1991), and the febrifuginone halofuginone lactate (Schein and Voigt, 1979, 1981), will cure clinical disease resulting from infection with T. annulata or T. parva. However, the therapeutic dose of halofuginone (1.2 mg/kg) often produces side effects (Schein and Voigt, 1979). Parvaquone does not effect a parasitological cure and recovered animals may take several months to return to a normal level of productivity (Dolan, 1986).

Buparvaquone is a safe and effective drug, which can be used both prophylactically (during the prepatent/incubation period) and therapeutically (during patent disease) against T. annulata (McHardy et al., 1985; Dhar et al., 1987, 1988, 1990; McHardy, 1991; Sharma and Mishra, 1990; Singh et al., 1993) (as well as T. parva: McHardy et al., 1985; McHardy, 1991; Dolan et al., 1992). However, in young calves, haematopoiesis-stimulating drugs must be applied together with buparvaquone to avoid the deleterious effects of severe anaemia (Dhar et al., 1988).

Tetracyclines are effective against the schizonts of T. annulata (Gill et al., 1978; Jagdish et al., 1979; Pipano et al., 1981; Mallick et al., 1987) and of T. parva (Dolan, 1981), but only when used in large doses during the prepatent/incubation period of infection (Hashemi-Fershaki and Shad-Del, 1974).

The 8-aminoquinolones - pamaquin and primaquine - are active against the piroplasms of T. annulata (Zhang, 1987, 1997; Luo and Lu, 1997). Extracts of the plant Perganum harmala have a marked suppressive effect on natural infections of T. annulata (Hu et al., 1997).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Immunization is the chief weapon in the control of tropical theileriosis in highly susceptible dairy breeds of cattle. Attenuated schizont-infected cell culture vaccines remain the main type of vaccine in use (OIE, 2013), notwithstanding progress towards the development of subunit vaccines (Morrison and McKeever, 2006).

The development and application of the attenuated vaccines has been comprehensively described (Pipano, 1989a, b, 1995; Stepanova and Zablostskii, 1989). Immunization may confer protection for periods from a year (Hashemi-Fesharki, 1998) to more than three years (Zablotsky, 1991). The duration of protection in the field depends upon the existence of and level of natural tick-derived sporozoite challenge (Beniwal et al., 2000). Detailed methods for culturing Theileria schizont-infected cells and producing vaccine cell lines have been described by Brown (1983, 1987). The use of vaccination against tick-borne diseases in the development of control strategies in relation to the three main husbandry systems, cattle at pasture, cattle in barns or cattle at zero-grazing, was described by Pipano and Grewal (1990).

Countries where vaccines modelled on the Israeli cell culture vaccine have been developed and used in the field include: Iran (Hashemi-Fesharki and Shad-del, 1973; Hashemi-Fesharki, 1988, 1991, 1998), the former USSR (Stepanova et al., 1976, 1982; Stepanova, 1983; Stepanova et al., 1986; Stepanova and Zablotsky, 1989), India (Singh, 1991a, 1990; Singh et al., 1993a), China (Gansu Provincial Institute of Veterinary Medicine, 1975; Zhang, 1991; Lu and Yin, 1994; Lu and Luo, 1997; Guo et al., 1997; Song, 1997), Turkey (Ozkoc and Pipano, 1981; Ozkoc et al., 1989) and Morocco (Ouhelli et al., 1980). The efficacy of such vaccines in protecting enormous numbers of cattle over very large areas has been demonstrated by the very successful vaccination campaigns in China (Lu and Yin, 1994; Lu and Luo, 1997; Guo et al., 1997; Song, 1997).

In spite of the cross-immunity which exists between stocks of T. annulata throughout its range (Rafyi et al., 1965; Preston and Brown, 1988), the potential for transferring other pathogens has prevented the global use of one vaccine line. Therefore, countries requiring vaccines, for example Tunisia (Darghouth et al., 1996c) or Spain (Viseras et al., 1997; Viseras and Garcia Fernandez, 1999), or in some cases regions within larger countries such as China (Guo et al., 1997; Song, 1997), have had to develop their own individual attenuated vaccines. Aspects that have been studied as part of this include:

  •  Identification of target populations (Darghouth et al., 1997)
     
  • The desirability, or otherwise, of the carrier status
     
  • The duration of immunity needed
     
  • The length of time between boosters (Darghouth, 1999)
     
  • The problems of suitability of vaccines for immunizing very young calves and pregnant cattle
     
  • The problem of rejection when the same cell line is used to boost as well as immunize (Beniwal et al., 1997; Grewal et al., 1997; Nichani et al., 1997).

Mechanisms underlying attenuation have been studied with the aim of finding ways of improving/accelerating the attenuation process (Tait and Hall, 1990; Sutherland et al., 1996; Hall et al., 1999; Adamson et al., 2000; Boulter and Hall, 2000).

The infection and treatment method has been investigated with reference to overcoming the problem of vaccinating young calves with a cell-line vaccine (Gill et al., 1976). The drug of choice for this may be buparvaquone (Dhar et al., 1990; McHardy, 1991).

Darghouth (2008) reviews experience with live attenuated vaccines against T. annulata in Tunisia.

Practical problems associated with preparation, storage, transport, administration, possibility of transferring other pathogens and reverting to virulence, are driving work on developing sub-unit vaccines against T. annulata (Tait and Hall, 1990; Preston et al., 1999; Boulter and Hall, 2000; Hall et al., 2000). These include investigations on genetic diversity (Katzer et al., 1998; Gubbels et al., 2000; Morrison and McKeever, 2006).

Some further information on prevention and control, including vector control, breeding of resistant cattle and combinations of different control methods, is provided in the 'bovine theilerioses' datasheet.

References

Top of page

Abd-El-Salam MN; Ali HS; Sadiek AH; Zaitoun AM; Sayed AS; Abu-El-Eneen GS; Abd-El-Salam FA, 1994. Haematological picture and serum protein analysis in fattening buffalo calves naturally infested with Theileria annulata. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 30(60):186-193; 19 ref.

Adamson RE et al., 2000. Theileria annulata: reduced host MMP activity profile of long-term culture is transmitted as a parasite-encoded trait. Experimental Parasitology, 94:45-47.

Aher VD; Bhikane AU; Gaikwad BB; Singh B, 1990. A note on ocular lesions associated with tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata) infection in calves. Journal of Bombay Veterinary College, 2(2):123-124; 4 ref.

Ahmed BA; Al Hoty KF; Saddik MM, 1987. Theileria annulata infection in Friesian cattle imported to Kuwait from W. Germany. Veterinary Medical Journal, Giza, Egypt, 35(1):139-146; 16 ref.

Ahmed JS; Glass EJ; Salih DA; Seitzer U, 2008. Innate immunity to tropical theileriosis. Innate Immunity, 14(1):5-12. http://ini.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/14/1/5

Anandan R; Ganesamoorthy M; John L; Kandavel E; Lalitha CM, 1983. An account of theileriosis among calves. Cheiron, 12(6):327-328; 9 ref.

Anandan R; Lalitha CM, 1984. Bovine tropical theileriosis in Tamil Nadu. Cheiron, 13(1):34-39; 18 ref.

Angelovski T; Iliev A, 1977. Piroplasmosis and their vectors in cattle, sheep and horses of Serbian Macedonia. The First Mediterranean Conference on Parasitology, 5-11th 0ctober 1977, Izmir, Turkey. 22.

Arshadi M, 1976. Control of tick-borne diseases in Iran (Anaplasmosis, piroplasmosis and theileriosis). Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 86:45-53.

Arslan SH; Shukur AA, 1994. Clinical and haematological studies on theileriosis and anaplasmosis in local breed cattle in Mosul region. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 7(2):93-100; 23 ref.

Askarov EM, 1975. Virulence and immunogenicity of Theileria annulata. Veterinariya-Moscow, 5:76-78.

Badalov ET, 1989. Preventing piroplasmosis in cattle [in Tadzhikistan]. Veterinariya (Moskva), No. 6:37-40.

Baharsefat M et al., 1977. Unusual cases of Theileria annulata infection in calves. Archives de l'Insitute Razi, 29:47-58.

Bahri S; Kallel A; Gouia A, 1995. La theileriose bovine en Tunisie, etude retrospective sur 5 ans. Bulletin Epidemiologique et d'Information Veterinaire, Institut de la Recherche Veterinaire de Tunis, 5:1-3.

Barnett S, 1960. Connective tissue reactions in acute fatal East Coast fever (Theileria parva) of cattle. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 107:253-282.

Barnett SF, 1977. Theileria. In: Kreier JP, ed. Parasitic Protozoa, Vol VI. New York, USA: Academic Press, 77-113.

Ben Miled L, 1994. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of isolates of Theileria annulata. Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 71(3-4):463-464.

Beniwal RK; Nichani AK; Sharma RD; Rakha NK; Suri D; Sarup S, 1997. Responses in animals vaccinated with the Theileria annulata (Hisar) cell culture vaccine. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):109S-113S; 7 ref.

Beniwal RK; Sharma RD; Nichani AK, 2000. Determination of duration of immunity of calves vaccinated with the Theileria annulata schizont cell culture vaccine. Veterinary Parasitology, 90(1/2):25-35; 24 ref.

Bondopadhyay LN; Maity B; Bhandari SK; Gupta R, 1992. Prevalence of bovine theileriasis in and around Bethuadahari district - Nadia, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 31(1):79-80; 3 ref.

Boulter N; Hall R, 1999. Immunity and vaccine development in the bovine theilerioses. Advances in Parasitology, 44:41-97; 14 pp. of ref.

Brown CGD, 1983. Theileria.. In vitro cultivation of protozoan parasites., 243-284; 164 ref.

Brown CGD, 1987. Theileridae. In: Taylor AER, Baker JR. eds. In vitro methods for parasite cultivation. London, UK: Academic Press, 230-253.

Brown CGD, 1990. Control of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) of cattle. Parassitologia (Roma), 32(1):23-31; [Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on revision of strategies for the control of ticks and tick- borne diseases (Rome, 25-29 September 1989)]; 33 ref.

Brown CGD, 1990. Theileriosis. In: Sewell MHH, Brocklesby DW, eds. Handbook on Animal Diseases in the Tropics. London, UK: Balliere Tindall, 183-199.

Brown CGD, 1997. Dynamics and impact of tick-borne diseases of cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):1S-3S; 10 ref.

Bulman GM; Arzo GM; Nassimi MN, 1979. An outbreak of tropical theileriosis in cattle in Afghanistan. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 11(1):17-20.

Caeiro V, 1999. General review of tick species present in Portugal. Parassitologia, 41 (Suppl. 1):11-15.

Cardassis J, 1964. Epi tis Theileria annulata ofilomenis theileriaseos ton vooidon en Helladi. 1. Epizootiologia ke kliniki meleti (in Greek, with French abstract). Eliniki Ktiniatriki, 7:77-90.

Cardassis J; Margaritis J, 1964. Enzootia theileriaseos is aegas ofilomeni is Theileria ovis (in Greek, with French abstract). Deltion Ellinikis Ktiniatrikis Eterias, 15:174-179.

Conrad PA; Kelly BG; Brown CGD, 1985. Intraerythrocytic schizogony of Theileria annulata.. Parasitology, 91(1):67-82; 42 ref.

Cunningham MP, 1977. Immunization of Cattle against Theileria parva. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 66-75.

Darghouth MA, 2008. Review on the experience with live attenuated vaccines against tropical theileriosis in Tunisia: considerations for the present and implications for the future. Vaccine [Selected Papers from the International Conference on Attenuated Vaccines for Animal Diseases, Borstel, Germany, April 2007.], 26(Supplement 6):G4-G10. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X

Darghouth MA; Bouattour A; Kilani M, 1999. Tropical theileriosis in Tunisia: epidemiology and control. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl. 1):33-36.

Dargouth MA; Bouattour A; Ben Miled L; Kilani M, 1997. Epidemiology and economic impact of tropical theileriosis in Tunisia: importance and the definition of a strategy of vaccination. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(Sup. 4):50S.

Dargouth MEA; Bouattour A; Miled LB; Kilani M; Brown CGD, 1993. Epidemiological investigations on tropical theileriosis in Tunisia with relevance to the production of a live attenuated vaccine. Resistance or tolerance of animals to disease and veterinary epidemiology and diagnostic methods., 162; [Abstract].

Das SS, 1993. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan infections in domestic animals in Tripura (India). Journal of Parasitology and Applied Animal Biology, 2(1):53-56; 6 ref.

Das SS, 1994. Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Indian water buffaloes in and around Bareilly, U.P. Indian Veterinary Journal, 71(11):1146-1147; 5 ref.

Das SS; Sharma NN, 1991. Prevalence of Theileria infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in north district of Tripura (India). Journal of Veterinary Parasitology, 5(1):25-27; 10 ref.

Datta CS; Srivastava PS; Sinha SRP, 1988. Prevalence and epidemiology of a virulent strain of Theileria annulata in cattle, in and around Patna (Bihar, India). Indian Journal of Animal Health, 27(2):151-157; 14 ref.

de Kock G, 1957. Studies on the lesions and pathogenesis of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) in cattle, with special reference to the lymphoid tissue. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 48:1-6.

De Martini JC, 1973. Responses of the bovine lymphatic system to infection by Theileria parva: a morphologic study of lymph nodes and central lymph in experimentally infected calves. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33B(No.10):4607.

Dhar S; Malhotra DV; Bhushan C; Gautam OP, 1987. Chemoimmunoprophylaxis with buparvaquone against theileriosis in calves. Veterinary Record, 120(15):375; 1 ref.

Dhar S; Malhotra DV; Bhushan C; Gautam OP, 1988. Treatment of experimentally induced Theileria annulata infection in cross-bred calves with buparvaquone. Veterinary Parasitology, 27(3-4):267-275; 5 ref.

Dhar S; Malhotra DV; Bhushan C; Gautam OP, 1990. Chemoimmunoprophylaxis against bovine tropical theileriosis in young calves: a comparison between buparvaquone and long-acting oxytetracycline. Research in Veterinary Science, 49(1):110-112; 9 ref.

Dolan TT, 1981. Progress in the chemotherapy of theileriosis. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the control of theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 186-208.

Dolan TT, 1986. Chemotherapy of East Coast fever: the long term weight changes, carrier state and disease manifestations of parvaquone treated cattle. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 96(2):137-146; 22 ref.

Dolan TT; Injairu R; Gisemba F; Maina JN; Mbadi G; Mbwiria SK; Mulela GHM; Othieno DAO, 1992. A clinical trial of buparvaquone in the treatment of East Coast fever. Veterinary Record, 130(24):536-538; 11 ref.

D'Oliveira C; Weide M van der; Habela MA; Jacquiet P; Jongejan F, 1995. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 33(10):2665-2669; 25 ref.

D'Oliveira C; Weide M van der; Jacquiet P; Jongejan F, 1997. Detection of Theileria annulata by the PCR in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from cattle in Mauritania. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 21(5):279-291; 6 ref.

Dschunkowsky E; Luhs J, 1904. Die piroplasmosen der Rinder. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheit und Hygiene 35:486-492.

El Fourgi M; Sornicle J, 1962. Epizootologie et prophylaxie de la Theileriose en Tunisie. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 58:151-163.

El-Metenawy TM, 2000. Prevalence of blood parasites among cattle at the central area of Saudi Arabia. Veterinary Parasitology, 87(2/3):231-236; 6 ref.

El-Refaii AH, 1977. Theileriosis in Egypt. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 17-18.

FAO, 1987. Animal Health Yearbook 1986. FAO Animal Production and Health Series No 26.

FAO, 1993. Animal health yearbook. 1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Series, No.32:271 pp.; [Editor: V.R. Welte].

FAO, 1995. Animal Health Yearbook 1994. FAO Animal Production and Health Series No 34.

FAO, 1997. Animal Health Yearbook 1996. FAO Animal Production and Health Series No 36.

Flach EJ; Ouhelli H; Waddington D; Oudich M; Spooner RL, 1995. Factors influencing the transmission and incidence of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection of cattle) in Morocco. Veterinary Parasitology, 59(3/4):177-188; 7 ref.

Forsyth LMG; Jackson LA; Wilkie G; Sanderson A; Brown CGD; Preston PM, 1997. Bovine cells infected in vivo with Theileria annulata express CD11b, the C3bi complement receptor. Veterinary Research Communications, 21(4):249-263; 31 ref.

Forsyth LMG; Minns FC; Kirvar E; Adamson RE; Hall FR; McOrist S; Brown CGD; Preston PM, 1999. Tissue damage in cattle infected with Theileria annulata accompanied by metastasis of cytokine-producing, schizont-infected mononuclear phagocytes. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 120(1):39-57; 42 ref.

Gansu Provincial Institute of Veterinary Medicine, 1975. Studies on the cell culture and the immunogen of schizonts of Theileria annulata. Acta Zool. Sinica, 21:243-256.

Gautam OP; Dhar S, 1983. Bovine tropical theileriosis in India. Haemoprotozoan diseases of domestic animals. (Proc. seminar (CwVA Asian/Australian regions), Haryana Agric. Univ., Hissar, India, 27 Oct. to 1 Nov. 1980.), 11-29; 56 ref.

Gautam OP; Sharma RD; Kalra DS, 1970. Theileriosis in exotic breeds and a Sahiwal calf. Indian Veterinary Journal, 47:78.

Gill BS et al., 1978. Chemoprophylaxis with tetracycline drugs in the immunization of cattle against Theileria annulata infection. International Journal of Parasitology, 8:467-469.

Gill BS et al., 1980. Immunological relationship between strains of Theileria annulata Dschunkowsky and Luhs 1904. Research in Veterinary Science, 29:93-97.

Gill BS et al., 1981. Chemotherapy against Theileria annulata. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 218-222.

Gill BS; Bhattacharyulu Y; Kaur D, 1976. Immunisation against bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection). Research in Veterinary Science, 21:146-149.

Gill BS; Bhattacharyulu Y; Kaur D, 1977. Symptoms and pathology of experimental bovine tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection). Annales de Parasitologie, 52:597-608.

Grewal AS; Atvar Singh; Sanjay Kumar; Kondal JK; Kanwar JR; Kapur J; Sawhney SMS, 1997. Lowered vaccine dose for immunisation of calves against tropical theileriosis using Theileria annulata lymphoblasts. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):104S-108S; 3 ref.

Gubbels M-J et al., 2000. Generation of a mosaic pattern of diversity in the major merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen of Theileria annulata. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 110:23-32.

Gumbatov MG; Bagirov NI, 1979. The elimination of blood parasitic diseases on the farms of Apsheron. Veterinariya, Moscow, USSR, 8:51-52.

Guo Gu; Shang JunKai; Yu MeiYing; Zhao JuKui; Ma ShiJun; Ali N; Tan LiXin; Ma LiYam, 1997. Research on the schizont cell culture vaccine against Theileria annulata infection in Xinjiang, China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):98S-100S; 12 ref.

Habela M et al., 1999. Epidemiology of Mediterranean theileriosis in Extremadura. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl. 1):47-51.

Haider MJ, 1992. Hematological study of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during theileriosis (Theileria annulata). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 653:191-193; 3 ref.

Hall R; Ilhan T; Kirvar E; Wilkie G; Preston PM; Darghouth M; Somerville R; Adamson R, 1999. Mechanism(s) of attenuation of Theileria annulata vaccine cell lines. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 4(9):A78-A84; 23 ref.

Hang ZZ, 1987. Elimination of the gametocytes of Theileria annulata of cattle by primaquin phosphate. Veterinary Parasitology, 23(1/2):11-21; 19 ref.

Haque M; Jyoti; Singh NK; Rath SS, 2010. Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum in Punjab state, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 34(1):48-51. http://www.parasitologyindia.org/journals.htm

Hashemi-Fesharki R, 1988. Control of Theileria annulata in Iran. Parasitology Today, 4(2):36-40; 26 ref.

Hashemi-Fesharki R, 1991. Prophylactic effect of schizont tissue culture vaccine against Theileria annulata in Iran. In: Singh DK, Varshney BC, eds. Orientation and Coordination of Research on Tropical Theileriosis. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop sponsored by the European Communities Science and Technology for Development Programme. Animal Disease Research Laboratory, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India. March 18th-22nd, 1991, 15-16.

Hashemi-Fesharki R, 1998. Recent development in control of Theileria annulata in Iran. Parasite, 5(2):193-196; 30 ref.

Hashemi-Fesharki R; Shad-Del F, 1973. Vaccination of calves and milking cows with different strains of Theileria annulata. American Journal of Veterinary Research 34, 1465-1467.

Hashemi-Fesharki R; Shad-Del FG, 1974. The therapeutic value of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (terramycin) in cattle infected experimentally with Theileria annulata. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 6:119-121.

Hawa H et al., 1988. Efficacy of buparvaquone in the treatment of naturally occurring theileriosis in Iraq. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 20:130-136.

Hooshmand-Rad P, 1976. The pathogenesis of anaemia in Theileria annulata infection. Research in Veterinary Science, 20:324-329.

Hooshmand-Rad P, 1977. Theileriosis in Ruminants in Iran. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December, 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 12-14.

Hu TingJun; Fan BingTang; Liang JiLan; Zhao SiXi; Dang Ping; Gao Fang; Dong MingXian, 1997. Observations on the treatment of natural haemosporidian infections by total alkaloid of Peganum harmala L. in cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):72S-76S; 3 ref.

Huang DeScheng, 1997. An investigation into the piroplasms of domestic animals in Yunnan Province, China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):27S-29S.

Hussein HS; Al-Asgah NA; Al-Khalifa MS; Diab FM, 1991. The blood parasites of indigenous livestock in Saudi Arabia. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research, 9(3):143-160; 54 ref.

Irvin AD; Morzaria SP; Munatswa FC; Norval RAI, 1989. Immunization of cattle with a Theileria parva bovis stock from Zimbabwe protects against challenge with virulent T. p. parva and T. p. lawrencei stocks from Kenya. Veterinary Parasitology, 32(4):271-278; 21 ref.

Jacquiet P; Colas F; Cheikh D; Thiam E; Ly BA, 1994. Epidemiology of bovine theileriosis due to Theileria annulata in Mauritania, sub-saharan West-Africa. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 47(2):147-155; 22 ref.

Jacquiet P; Dia ML; Perié NM; Jongejan F; Uilenberg G; Morel PC, 1990. The presence of Theileria annulata in Mauritania. Revue d'élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, 43(4):489-490; 9 ref.

Jagdish S et al., 1979. Chemoprophylactic immunisation against bovine tropical theileriosis. Veterinary Record, 104:140-142.

Jithendran KP, 1997. Blood protista of cattle and buffaloes in Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 67(3):207-208; 3 ref.

Jore d'Arces P, 1952. Les piroplasmoses bovines en Algerie. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 38:558-569.

Kachani M; Ouhelli H; Bouslikhane M; El-Hasnaoui M; El-Guennouni R; Spooner R, 1997. Sero-epidemiological survey of tropical theileriosis in Morocco. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(Sup. 4):54S-55S.

Katzer F; McKellar S; Kirvar E; Shiels B, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of Theileria and Babesia equi in relation to the establishment of parasite populations within novel host species and the development of diagnostic tests. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 95(1):33-44; 40 ref.

Khalifa K; Kadhim JK, 1967. Unusual lesions in Theileria annulata infection in a calf. Veterinary Record, 81:71-78.

Khan M; Huq MM, 1962. Theileriasis in Pakistan. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 58:147-149.

Khan MH, 1997. Factors affecting transmission of Theileria annulata by hyalommid ticks. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 36(2):105-109; 14 ref.

Khanna BM et al., 1982. Histopathological studies in cerebral theileriosis of calves experimentally infected with Theileria annulata. Indian Journal of Parasitology, 6:91-94.

Khudainazarova SN, 1976. Bovine theileriasis in Turkmenia and its control. Materialy-II-Vsesoyuznogo-S"ezda-Protozoologov. Chast'-3.-Veterinarnaya-protozoologiya. Kiev; USSR: "Naukova Dumka", 120-121.

Laiblin C, 1978. Klinische untersuchungen zur Theileria annulata-infektion des rindes. Berliner und Munchener Tierartzliche Wochenschrift, 91:48-50.

Lawrence JA; de Vos AJ; Irvin AD, 1994. East Coast fever. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, Kriek NPJ, eds. Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to South Africa. Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 309-325.

Leitao JLS, 1943. Contribuicao para o estudo dos ixodideos portugueses. Tese de Doutoramento. Esc. Sup. Med Vet Lisboa.

Levine ND, 1985. Genus Theileria. Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and man. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: Burgess Publishing Company, 336-346.

Li PN; Kan PT; Rusulov IKh; Ivanshin YuD; Kashezhev ZZ; Alekseev AP, 1983. Prophylaxis of bovine piroplasmosis on large units [tick control in Uzbekistan, Tadzhikstan and the Kabardino-Balkar ASSR]. Veterinarnaya entomologiya i akarologiya, 292-296; [Russian summary p. 350; Series: Nauchnye Trudy VASKhNIL].

Liebisch A; Zukari M, 1978. Biological and ecological studies on ticks of the genera Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma in Syria. In: Wilde JKH, ed. Tick-borne diseases and their vectors. Proceedings of an International Conference, 27th September-1st October, 1976, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK, 151-161.

Loria GR et al., 1999. Clinical and laboratory studies in theileriosis outbreaks in Sicily, Italy. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl 1):63-67.

Lu W; Yin H, 1994. Bovine and ovine theileriosis in China and its immune prophylaxis. In: Spooner R, Campbell J, eds. Proceedings of the European Third Coordination Meeting on Tropical Theileriosis, 1994, Antalya, Turkey. The Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Scotland, UK, 13-17.

Luo J; Lu W, 1997. Cattle theileriosis in China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29:4S-7S.

MacHattie C, 1935. Theileriasis of young calves in Baghdad dairies. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 28:649-654.

Magzoub M; Omer OH; Haroun EM; Mottelib AA, 1992. An outbreak of Theileria annulata infection among Friesian cattle at Al-Gassim area of Saudi Arabia. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 28(55):206-214; 13 ref.

Mallick KP et al., 1986. Unusual ocular lesions in Theileria annulata infection in bovine calves. Indian Journal of Veterinary Pathology, 10:21-26.

Mallick KP; Dhar S; Malhotra DV; Bhushan C; Gautam OP, 1987. Immunization of neonatal bovines against Theileria annulata by an infection and treatment method. Veterinary Parasitology, 24(3-4):169-173; 15 ref.

Manickam R; Dhar S; Singh RP; Kharole MU, 1984. Histopathology of cutaneous lesions in Theileria annulata infection of calves. Indian Veterinary Journal, 61(1):13-15; [1 pl. (facing p.13)]; 8 ref.

Markov AA, 1962. Les Theilerioses (Gonderioses). Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 58:165-193.

Marutyan EM, 1977. Experiences in the eradication of piroplasmid infections from latent epizootic foci in Armenia. USSR, Azerbaidzhanskii Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Informatsii i Techniko-Ekonomicheskikh Issledovanii Gosplana Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR. Abstracts of papers of the Scientific Conference dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the foundation of the Azebaidzhani Veterinary Research Institute. [Tezisy dokladov nauchnoi konferentsii, posvyashchennoi 75-letiyu so dnya osnovaniya Azerbaidzhanskogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Veterinarnogo Instituta.] AzNIINTI, Baku, USSR, 97-98.

Marutyan EM, 1978. On the possibility of eradicating piroplasmid infections in Armenia. Materialy-pervoi-I-Zakavkazkoi-Konferentsii-po-obshchei-parazitologii-4-6-Maya-1977-Tbilisi. "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, USSR, 257-263.

Matikashvili NV; Tsomaya IV; Kerdzaya FE, 1978. Further observations on the epidemiology of bovine theileriosis in two districts of Georgian SSR. Nauchnye-Trudy, Gruzinskii-Zootekhnichesko-Veterinarnyi-Institut, 41:121-126.

Maxia L et al., 1999. Characterization of Theileria species by PCR using specific target sequences. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl 1):69-72.

McHardy N, 1989. Multinational research on the use of buparvaquone (Butalex) for the control of theileriosis. International Symposium on Mycoplasmosis and Theileriosis, 11-13 October, 1989, Pendik, Turkey, 114-126; [Pendik Animal Diseases Central Research Institute Publication No. 10].

McHardy N, 1990. Butalex (buparvaquone) - a new therapeutic for theileriosis. First Asian Congress of Veterinary Parasitology, Patna, Bihar, India, 26-28 November 1990 (lead papers and abstracts), 31-38; 9 ref.

McHardy N; Hudson AT; Morgan DWT; Rae MDG; Dolan TT, 1983. Activity of 10 naphthoquinones, including parvaquone (993C) and menoctone, in cattle artificially infected with Theileria parva. Research in Veterinary Science, 35(3):347-353; 16 ref.

McHardy N; Wekesa LS; Hudson AT; Randall AW, 1985. Antitheilerial activity of BW720C (buparvaquone): a comparison with parvaquone. Research in Veterinary Science, 39(1):29-33; 7 ref.

Mekki Osman A, 1976. A review on tick-borne diseases in the Sudan and their control. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 86:81-87.

Mikacic D, 1952. Les piroplasmoses en Yougoslavie. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 38:570-592.

Mimioglu MM, 1977. Theileriosis in Turkey. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 15-16.

Mishra AK; Sharma NN; Rao JR, 1989. Incidence of theilerial infection in livestock in India. Indian Journal of Parasitology, 13:311-312.

Mishra AK; Sharma NN; Srivastava SC, 1994. Theileria annulata infection in neonatal bovine calves. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 42(1):99-102; 10 ref.

Morrison WI, 2009. Progress towards understanding the immunobiology of Theileria parasites. Parasitology, 136(12):1415-1426. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=par

Mottelib AA; Haroun EM; Abdel-Hamid YM; Mahmoud OM, 1992. Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies on piroplasmosis in calves at Al-Gassim. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 28(55):224-232; 19 ref.

Movsum-Zade AK; Agaev AA; Gumbatov MG; Godzhaev AN, 1983. Control of Theileria infections of cattle in Azerbaijan SSR (USSR). Protozoologicheskie issledovaniya v Azerbaidzhane., 57-61; 9 ref.

Muhammad G; Saqib M; Athar M; Khan MZ; Asi MN, 1999. Clinico-epidemiological and therapeutic aspects of bovine theileriosis. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 19(2):64-71; 38 ref.

Mukhopadhyay HK; Sundar N; Subramaniam M; Rajaswaminathan T; Dorairajan N, 1997. Incidence of concurrent theileriosis and haemorrhagic septicaemia in cross-bred heifers. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 18(2):201-202; 6 ref.

Muraleedharan K; Ziauddin KS; Hussain PM; Seshadri SJ; Mallikarjun GB; Puttabyatappa B, 1994. Observations on theilerial infection of cattle in project area of Mysore cooperative milk producers union, Karnataka State. Cheiron, 23(3):130-139; 19 ref.

Nayak DC; Dey PC, 1991. Acute clinical theileriasis in a purebred Jersey cow and its successful treatment. Orissa Veterinary Journal, 16(1-2):45-48; 4 ref.

Neitz WO, 1957. Theileriosis, gonderiosis and cytauxzoonosis. A review. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 27:275-318.

Nichani AK; Brown CGD; Spooner RL, 1997. Revaccination with the same Theileria annulata infected cell line may not be feasible for boosting immunity against tropical theileriosis. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):114S-118S; 6 ref.

Norval RAI; Perry BD; Young AS, 1992. The epidemiology of theileriosis in Africa. London, UK: Academic Press Limited, xiii + 481 pp.; 61 pp. of ref.

Oboldoueff G; Galouzo J, 1928. La Theileriose des bovides en Asie Centrale. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, 42:1470-1479.

OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2013. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int/en/international-standard-setting/terrestrial-manual/access-online/

OIE, 1998. World Animal Health in 1997. Office International des Epizooties, Paris, France, Vol. 1-2.

Ouhelli H; Innes EA; Brown CGD; Walker AR; Simpson SP; Spooner RL, 1989. The effect of dose and line on immunisation of cattle with lymphoblastoid cells infected with Theileria annulata.. Veterinary Parasitology, 31(3-4):217-228; 22 ref.

Ozkoc U; Pipano E, 1981. Trials with cell culture vaccine against theileriosis in Turkey. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinius Nijhoff Publishers, 256-258.

Papadopoulos B, 1999. Cattle and small ruminant piroplasmosis in Macedonia, Greece. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl 1):81-84.

Papadopoulos B; Brossard M; Perié NM, 1996. Piroplasms of domestic animals in the Macedonia region of Greece; 2. Piroplasms of cattle. Veterinary Parasitology, 63(1/2):57-66; 48 ref.

Pavlov P, 1949. Recherches sur les piroplasmidea Wenyon 1926 et les maladies qu'ils provoquent en Bulgarie. Annuaire de l'Academie Rurale 'Gueorgui Dimitrov' Sofia. Faculte de Zootechnie, Tome 1, 1948/1949, 38-?.

Pavlov P, 1957. La lutte contre les piroplasmoses dans les conditions actuelles et les resultats obtenus lors des recherches faites en Bulgaria. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 47:66-73.

Pipano E, 1974. Immunological aspects of Theileria annulata infection. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 81:139-149.

Pipano E, 1976. Control of bovine theileriosis and anaplasmosis in Israel. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 86:55-59.

Pipano E, 1989. Bovine theileriosis. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des épizooties, 8(1):79-87; 56 ref.

Pipano E, 1989. Vaccination against Theileria annulata theileriosis. Veterinary protozoan and hemoparasite vaccines., 203-234; 188 ref.

Pipano E, 1994. Theileria annulata theileriosis. In: Coetzer JAW, Thomson GR, Tustin RC, Kriek NPJ, eds. Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to South Africa. Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 341-348.

Pipano E, 1995. Live vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in livestock. Veterinary Parasitology, 57(1/3):213-231; 6 pp. of ref.

Pipano E; Grewal AS, 1990. Summing-up of strategies for tick-borne disease control in regions of the world other than Africa. Parassitologia (Roma), 32(1):117-125; [Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on revision of strategies for the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases (Rome, 25-29 September 1989)]; 48 ref.

Pipano E; Samish M; Krigel Y; Yeruham L, 1981. Immunization of Friesian cattle against Theileria annulata by the infection-treatment method. British Veterinary Journal, 137:416-420.

Prasad BM, 1946. Morphological studies of the blood of hill bulls in health and during acute theileriosis. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 16, 54-56.

Preston PM; Brown CGD, 1988. Macrophage-mediated cytostasis and lymphocyte cytotoxicity in cattle immunized with Theileria annulata sporozoites or macroschizont-infected cell lines. Parasite Immunology, 10(6):631-647; 24 ref.

Preston PM; Brown CGD; Bell-Sakyi L; Richardson W; Sanderson A, 1992. Tropical theileriosis in Bos taurus and Bos taurus cross Bos indicus calves: response to infection with graded doses of sporozoites of Theileria annulata.. Research in Veterinary Science, 53(2):230-243; 38 ref.

Preston PM; Hall FR; Glass EJ; Campbell JDM; Darghouth MA; Ahmed JS; Shiels BR; Spooner RL; Jongejan F; Brown CGD, 1999. Innate and adaptive immune responses co-operate to protect cattle against Theileria annulata. Parasitology Today, 15(7):268-274; 53 ref.

Purnell RE, 1978. Theileria annulata as a hazard to cattle on the Northern Mediterrnean littoral. Veterinary Science Communications, 2:3-10.

Radley DE et al., 1975. East Coast fever 1. Chemoprophylactic immunization of cattle against Theileria parva (Muguga) and five theilerial strains. Veterinary Parasitology, 1:35-41.

Rafyi A; Maghami G, 1962. Etat actuel de nos connaissances sur les theilerioses (gonderioses) et l'aspect de ces maladies en Iran. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 58:119-146.

Rafyi A; Maghami G; Houshmand P, 1965. Sur la virulence de Theileria annulata (Dschunkowsky et luhs 1904) et la premunition contre la theileriose bovine en Iran. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 64:431-466.

Rouina AD, 1984. Clinical study of bovine theileriosis based on 327 cases in Algeria (north-west region, Mascara). Maghreb Vétérinaire, 1(3):23-27; 33 ref.

Sabanshiev M, 1994. Theileriosis of cattle in Kazakstan. In: Spooner R, Campbell J, eds. Proceedings of the European Third Coordination Meeting on Tropical Theileriosis, 1994, Antalya, Turkey. The Roslin Institute (Edinburgh), Scotland, UK, 10-12.

Sahoo PK; Misra SC, 1995. Natural infection rate of Theileria annulata in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum at Bhubaneswar. Indian Veterinary Journal, 72(7):687-689; 6 ref.

Samad A; Dhar S; Gautam OP, 1983. Prevalence of Theileria annulata infection among cattle of Bangladesh. Indian Journal of Parasitology, 7(1):61-63; 10 ref.

Sangwan AK, 2000. Geographical distribution of bovine tropical theileriosis and its regional control options in India. Proc. XI National Congress of Veterinary Parasitology, Bhubaneswar (Orissa), 4-6 February, 2000, 27-33.

Sangwan AK; Chaudhri SS; Sangwan N; Gupta RP, 1994. Seasonal distribution of Theileria in Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks of an endemic area of Haryana, India. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 26(4):241-246; 11 ref.

Sangwan AK; Chhabra MB; Samantaray S, 1986. Theileria infectivity of Hyalomma ticks in Haryana, India. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 18(3):149-154; 12 ref.

Sayin F, 1991. Status of tropical theileriosis in Turkey. In: Singh DK, Varshney BC, eds. Orientation and Coordination of Research on Tropical Theileriosis. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop sponsored by the European Communities Science and Technology for Development Programme, Animal Disease Research Laboratory, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India, March 18th-22nd, 1991, 20-22.

Schein E; Voigt WP, 1979. Chemotherapy of bovine theileriosis with halofuginone. Acta Tropica, 36:391-394.

Schein E; Voigt WP, 1981. Chemotherapy of theileriosis with halofuginone. In: Irvin AD, Cunningham MP, Young AS, eds. Advances in the Control of Theileriosis. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 218-222.

Sen SK; Srinivasan MK, 1937. Theileriasis of cattle in India. Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, 7:15-37.

Sergent E; Donatien A; Parrot L; Lestoquard F, 1945. Etudes sur les piroplasmoses bovines. Institut Pasteur d'Alger.

Sharma AK; Mandial RK; Gupta VK; Varshney AC, 1999. Prevalence of bovine theileriosis in Palam valley of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Veterinary Journal, 76(3):267-268; 4 ref.

Sharma MM; Raisinghani PM; Kaushik KC; Yadav SS, 1979. Studies on incidence and control of theileriasis in Jersey cattle. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal, 3:187-191.

Sharma NN; Mishra AK, 1990. Treatment of bovine tropical theileriosis with buparvaquone. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 22(1):63-65; 5 ref.

Sharma RD; Gautam OP, 1971. Theileriosis II. Clinical cases in indigenous calves. Indian Veterinary Journal, 48:83-91.

Sharma RD; Gautam OP, 1973. Cerebral theileriosis in a Hariana calf. Indian Veterinary Journal, 50:823-828.

Shastri KNV; Dhar S; Singh RP, 1981. Sero-prevalence of Theileria annulata infection in dairy farms of Karnataka State. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 1:66-69.

Shastri UV; Deshmukh VV; Rautmare SS; Deshpande PD, 1993. Mixed infection of theileriosis and rinderpest in Deoni calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 63(12):1261; 1 ref.

Shaw AA, 1989. Investigation on some infections in the exotic, pure and cross bred cattle of Kashmir valley. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 10(1):33-38; 17 ref.

Shirinov NM et al., 1975. Control of Theileria annulata infection of cattle in Azerbaijan. Veterinariya-Moscow, 3:62-63.

Shommein AM, 1977. Theileriosis in the Sudan. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 46-48.

Siddiqui EH, 1977. Theileriosis in Pakistan. In: Henson JB, Campbell M, eds. Theileriosis. Report of a workshop held in Nairobi, Kenya, 7-9 December 1976. Ottawa, Canada: IDRC, 19-20.

Singh DK, 1990. Methods currently used for the control of Theileria annulata: their validity and proposals for future control strategies. Parassitologia (Roma), 32(1):33-40; [Proceedings of the FAO expert consultation on revision of strategies for the control of ticks and tick- borne diseases (Rome, 25-29 September 1989)]; 15 ref.

Singh DK, 1991. Development and testing of in vitro derived vaccines against bovine theileriosis in India. In: Hunter AG, ed. Biotechnology in livestock in developing countries. Roslin, UJ: Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, 361-374; 13 ref.

Singh DK, 1991. Theileriosis in India. In: Singh DK, Varshney BC, eds. Orientation and Coordination of Research on Tropical Theileriosis. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop sponsored by the European Communities Science and Technology for Development Programme, Animal Disease Research Laboratory, National Dairy Development Board, Anand, India. March 18th-22nd 1991, 23-28.

Singh DK; Varshney BC; Raghav PRS; Thakur M, 1993. Response of crossbred calves to immunization with Theileria annulata schizont infected lymphoid cell cultures. Indian Veterinary Journal, 70(7):605-608; 3 ref.

Singh J; Gill JS; Kwatra MS; Sharma KK, 1993. Treatment of theileriosis in crossbred cattle in the Punjab. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 25(2):75-78; 14 ref.

Sisodia RS; Mandial RK, 1986. Prevalence of haemo-protozoan diseases in cattle at Mhow, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 56(8):864-866; 6 ref.

Song ShiRong, 1997. Application and effect of the schizont vaccine against Theileria annulata in China. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 29(4 (supplement)):101S-103S.

Srivastava AK; Sharma DN, 1981. Studies on the occurence, clinical features and pathomorphological apsects of ascariasis in buffalo calves. Veterinary Research Journal, 4(2):160-162; [2 pl. (unpaged)]; 11 ref.

Srivastava PS; Sharma NN, 1976. Note on bovine cerebral theileriosis in crossbred calves. Pantnagar Journal of Research, 1:147-150.

Stepanova NI et al., 1976. Field testing of the protective properties of Theileria annulata maintained on cell culture. Materialy-II-Vsesoyuznogo-S"ezda-Protozoologov. Chast'-3.-Veterinarnaya-protozoologiya. "Naukova Dumka", Kiev, USSR, 104-105.

Stepanova NI, 1983. The eradication of piroplasmid infections - a real problem. Veterinariya-Moscow, 3:9-11.

Stepanova NI; Zablotskii VT, 1989. Bovine theileriosis in the USSR. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des épizooties, 8(1):89-92.

Stepanova NI; Zablotskii VT; Mutuzkina ZP, 1986. Trends in the development of specific measures for preventing diseases of cattle caused by blood parasites, particularly Theileria annulata. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No.6:74-77; 5 ref.

Stepanova NI; Zablotskii VT; Rasulov I Kh, 1982. Vaccine prophylaxis of bovine theileriasis. Trudy-Vsesoyunogo-Instituta-Eksperimental'noi-Veterinarii, 56:10-18.

Sudhan NA; Prasad KD; Sinha AK; Azmi S; Sinha KP, 1992. A case of cutaneous theileriosis in an indigenous cow. Indian Veterinary Journal, 69(1):59-60; 5 ref.

Sutherland IA; Shiels BR; Jackson L; Brown DJ; Brown CGD; Preston PM, 1996. Theileria annulata: altered gene expression and clonal selection during continuous in vitro culture. Experimental Parasitology, 83(1):125-133; 18 ref.

Tait A; Hall FR, 1990. Theileria annulata: control measures, diagnosis and the potential use of subunit vaccines. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Epizooties, 9(2):387-403; 56 ref.

Tanwar RK; Kumar A; Yadav JS; Sharma SN; Lodha KR, 1984. Theileriasis (Theileria annulata) in indigenous Rathi calves. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 54(1):118-120; 4 ref.

Theiler A, 1904. East Coast fever. Transvaal Agricultural Journal, 2:421-438.

Tutushin MI, 1979. Mountain grazing, a method for the prophylaxis of bovine theileriosis. Materialy respublikanskogo seminara po bor'be s parazitarnymi boleznyami sel'skokhozyvaistvennykh zhivotnykh, posvyashchennogo 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya Akademika KI. Skryabina. Alma Ata, USSR: Kazakhskii Nauchno-Issledovatelskii Veterinarnyi Institut, 181-185.

Tutushin MI, 1981. Distribution and seasonal and age variation of bovine theileriasis in the south of Kazakhstan. Khimioprofilaktika, patogenez i epizootiologiya paraszitozov sel'skokhozyaistvennykh zhivotnykh., 130-134.

Tutushin MI; Lakhno TE; Baiburiev MB; Utkel'baev TU, 1982. Control of bovine theileriasis in the Bugunsk district of the Chimkent region. Voprosy veterinarnoi parazitologii v Kazakhstane. (Sbornik Nauchnykh Trudov)., 124-129.

Uilenberg G, 1981. Theileria infections other than East Coast fever. In: Ristic M, McIntyre I, eds. Diseases of cattle in the tropics. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 411-427.

Uilenberg G, 1995. International collaborative research: significance of tick-borne hemoparasitic diseases to world animal health. Veterinary Parasitology, 57(1/3):19-41; 4 pp. of ref.

Um El Hassan M; Jongejan F; Morzaria S, 1983. Note on the transmission of Theileria annulata in the Sudan. Veterinary Quarterly, 5:112-113.

Venkataraman KS; Manickam R, 1992. Theileriosis in crossbred calves. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 12(1):14; 2 ref.

Venkataraman KS; Manickam R; Khavi MA, 1984. Incidence of Theileria annulata infection in Madras city. Indian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4(1):23-24; 10 ref.

Viseras J; Garcia-Fernandez P, 1999. Studies on theileriosis in Southern Spain. Parassitologia, 41(Suppl. 1):111-115.

Viseras J; García-Fernández P; Adroher FJ, 1997. Field trial of immunization with an experimental vaccine against Mediterranean theileriosis in Spain. Veterinary Research, 28(4):397-403; 25 ref.

Vorob'eva EV, 1992. Features of the development of Theileria in the salivary glands of ticks from the genus Hyalomma. Parazitologicheskii Sbornik (Leningrad), 37:161-172; [2 plates (unpaged).]; 28 ref.

Vulchovski Y; Pavlov N, 1970. Contribution to the pathomorphology of bovine theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. Veterinary Science (Sofia), 7:55-60 (abstract in English).

Walker AR; Latif AA; Morzaria SP; Jongejan F, 1983. Natural infection rates of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum with theileria in Sudan. Research in Veterinary Science, 35(1):87-90; 8 ref.

Welte VR, 1994. Animal health yearbook 1993. Animal Health Yearbook, No. 1993:228 pp.; [FAO Animal Production and Health Series, No. 33].

Yadav CL; Gupta RP; Ruprah NS, 1985. The prevalence of haemoprotozoan infections in cattle and buffaloes. Indian Veterinary Medical Journal, 9(4):205-209; 18 ref.

Zablotsky VT, 1992. Specific prevention of bovine theileriosis in the USSR. Recent developments in the research and control of Theileria annulata: proceedings of a workshop held at ILRAD, Nairobi, Kenya 17-19 September 1990., 29-31.

Zaki AH, 1965. Piroplasmosis in Egyptian animals. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties, 38:461-463.

Zhang ZH, 1992. Theileria annulata and its control in China. Recent developments in the research and control of Theileria Annulata: proceedings of a workshop held at Ilrad Nairobi, Kenya 17-19 September 1990., 3-9; 2 ref.

Zhang ZH, 1997. A general review on the prevention and treatment of Theileria annulata in China. Veterinary Parasitology, 70(1/3):77-81.

Özkoc Ü; Onar E; Günay M, 1989. Cross-immunity trials carried out between the local Theileria annulata strains isolated from different regions. In: International Symposium on Mycoplasmosis and Theileriosis, 11-13 October, 1989, Pendik, Turkey. Istanbul, Turkey: Pendik Hayvan Hastaliklari Merkez Arastirma Enstitusu, 76-106. [Pendik Animal Diseases Central Research Institute Publication No. 10]; 14 ref.

Links to Websites

Top of page

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map