Invasive Species Compendium

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tetanus

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Datasheet

tetanus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • tetanus
  • Overview
  • Most domestic species are susceptible to tetanus, and as in human beings, the limiting factor on incidence is probably vaccination. Some species, such as horses, are particularly prone to develop tetanus, and special ca...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • tetanus

International Common Names

  • English: tetanus in large animals

Overview

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Most domestic species are susceptible to tetanus, and as in human beings, the limiting factor on incidence is probably vaccination. Some species, such as horses, are particularly prone to develop tetanus, and special care must be taken in any medically related procedure to avoid it. The disease has been extensively reviewed in the context of clinical disease and pathogenesis, and case reports are commonly found in the literature (Ratcliffe, 1989; Gardner, 1990; Hatheway, 1990; Bizzini, 1993; Green, 1993; Merrett, 1993; Songer, 1997, 1998; Pages, 1999; Bagley, 2000; Greene, 2000).

Hosts/Species Affected

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Disease occurs frequently in horses (Edwards et al., 1989; Cygan, 1996; Sedrish et al., 1996; Ramachandran and Harbola, 1997a,b; Sakdinun et al., 1997), less often in other herbivores, and occasionally in pigs and carnivores. In the dog, tetanus often follows operative or other injuries (Wurst, 1988; Toolan, 1989; Benzerrak, 1990; Dieringer and Wolf, 1991; Bagley et al., 1994; Engels et al., 1995; Utpal and Gupta, 1997; Kjellerstedt, 1997). In cats (Bieringer, 1994), the disease is often localized rather than generalized (Malik, 1989; Takano et al., 1989; Touffut et al., 1992; Seyrek-Intas, 1995; Habibah et al., 1998).

Cattle may develop tetanus as a result of growth of C. tetani in the rumen (Wallis, 1963; Herd and Riches, 1964; Whitehead and Ellicott, 1996; Preece and Bostelmann, 1996; Spiece, 1997; Finni et al., 1998). Tetanus also occurs in cattle under other circumstances (Beattie, 1988; Ellison, 1992; Bhikane and Kulkarni, 1998), including following elastic castration (O’Connor et al., 1993). Sheep are also commonly affected (Buxton, 1991; Coda et al., 1996; Lewis, 1998), including one outbreak in which 3% of a group of 600 lambs developed tetanus following ear tagging (Aslani et al., 1998).

Other hosts have also been reported, including camelids (Lopez and Snyder, 1995), a buzzard (Kummerfeld et al., 1996), a domestic monkey (Sharma et al., 1990) and a falcon (Oaks, 1989).

Distribution

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Large blocks of territory are not represented by readily accessible reports in the published literature. However, given the wide geographical distribution of published reports, it is probably reasonable to assume that tetanus occurs in most areas where hosts are available.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Pathology

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Gross and microscopic pathology in cases of tetanus is negligible to non-existent.

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis of tetanus is often based upon clinical signs (Crossman, 1989; Gray et al., 1991), and clinical presentation is certainly a good basis for initiation of treatment. Confirmation of a diagnosis is on the basis of toxin detection, by way of mouse inoculation. An enzyme immunoassay has been developed for diagnosis, particularly in waterfowl. The definition of the enzyme activity of tetanus toxin may provide the basis for a specific assay for toxin detection.

Isolation of C. tetani by bacteriological culture is supportive, but a diagnosis cannot be based upon this finding.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Cardiovascular Signs / Tachycardia, rapid pulse, high heart rate Sign
Digestive Signs / Abdominal distention Sign
Digestive Signs / Bloat in ruminants, tympany Other:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Decreased amount of stools, absent faeces, constipation Sign
Digestive Signs / Difficulty in prehending or chewing food Sign
Digestive Signs / Dysphagia, difficulty swallowing Sign
Digestive Signs / Excessive salivation, frothing at the mouth, ptyalism Sign
Digestive Signs / Grinding teeth, bruxism, odontoprisis Sign
Digestive Signs / Inability to open (trismus) and / or close jaw, mouth Sign
Digestive Signs / Ping left side, auscultable gas filled viscus Sign
Digestive Signs / Rumen hypomotility or atony, decreased rate, motility, strength Other:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Tongue protrusion Other:All Stages Sign
Digestive Signs / Vomiting or regurgitation, emesis Sign
General Signs / Ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling Sign
General Signs / Cyanosis, blue skin or membranes Sign
General Signs / Dehydration Sign
General Signs / Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia Sign
General Signs / Forelimb lameness, stiffness, limping fore leg Sign
General Signs / Generalized lameness or stiffness, limping Sign
General Signs / Hindlimb lameness, stiffness, limping hind leg Sign
General Signs / Inability to stand, downer, prostration Sign
General Signs / Kyphosis, arched back Sign
General Signs / Neck weakness, paresis, paralysis, limp, ventroflexion Other:All Stages Diagnosis
General Signs / Opisthotonus Sign
General Signs / Paraparesis, weakness, paralysis both hind limbs Other:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Stiffness or extended neck Sign
General Signs / Sudden death, found dead Sign
General Signs / Sweating excessively, hyperhidrosis Sign
General Signs / Tenesmus, straining, dyschezia Other:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Tetraparesis, weakness, paralysis all four limbs Other:All Stages Sign
General Signs / Trembling, shivering, fasciculations, chilling Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Back spasms, myoclonus Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Musculoskeletal Signs / Forelimb spasms, myoclonus Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Musculoskeletal Signs / Head, face, neck spasms, myoclonus Sign
Musculoskeletal Signs / Hindlimb spasms, myoclonus Sign
Nervous Signs / Coma, stupor Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Excitement, delirium, mania Sign
Nervous Signs / Hyperesthesia, irritable, hyperactive Sign
Nervous Signs / Hypertonia of muscles, myotonia Sign
Nervous Signs / Seizures or syncope, convulsions, fits, collapse Sign
Nervous Signs / Tetany Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Nervous Signs / Tremor Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Blepharospasm Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Ophthalmology Signs / Mydriasis, dilated pupil Sign
Ophthalmology Signs / Prolapsed third eyelid, protrusion nictitating membrane Other:All Stages Diagnosis
Pain / Discomfort Signs / Colic, abdominal pain Sign
Reproductive Signs / Agalactia, decreased, absent milk production Sign
Respiratory Signs / Decreased respiratory rate Other:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Dyspnea, difficult, open mouth breathing, grunt, gasping Other:All Stages Sign
Respiratory Signs / Increased respiratory rate, polypnea, tachypnea, hyperpnea Sign
Respiratory Signs / Ingesta in nasal passage Sign
Urinary Signs / Dysuria, difficult urination, stranguria Other:All Stages Sign
Urinary Signs / Enlarged, distended, urinary bladder Sign
Urinary Signs / Urinary incontinence, dribbling urine Sign

Disease Course

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Spores of C. tetani are introduced to animal hosts, usually traumatically; infection can also occur via the umbilical stump, contamination of surgical wounds, injection sites, or docking, castration and ear tagging wounds, or following damage to the reproductive tract during labour and delivery (Char et al., 1993). The wound may be so trivial that it goes unnoticed, but at some level, necrosis, with reduced oxygen and lowered redox potential, are required.

Tetanus toxin is produced after germination of spores (Shoesmith and Holland, 1972; Wells and Balish, 1983). The incubation period ranges from 24 h to 2 weeks (Chapleo, 1991), depending on the toxinogenicity of the strain, rate of toxin transfer to target tissues and the relative host sensitivity (Kryzhanovsky, 1981; Wellhöner, 1982). Ascending tetanus results from retrograde intra-axonal transport of toxin, via the peripheral motor nerve endings, to the neurons of the CNS. After passing across the synapse, toxin binds to presynaptic axonal terminals. Hyperactivity of motor neurons causes sustained spasms in the innervated muscles. Travelling within the spinal cord, toxin can affect other muscle groups.

Descending tetanus follows vascular dissemination of toxin; manifestation of this form of tetanus may begin in sites distant from the nidus of infection.

Early signs are muscular tremor and increased stimulus response, followed by impaired head and neck muscle function, and difficulty in chewing and swallowing due to lockjaw. Affected horses may have flared nostrils and stiffly erect ears, and the third eyelid is retracted (Calil et al., 1989). Tetanic spasms are followed by permanent rigidity of the muscles of the back and tail, with orthotonus. In a few days to 2 weeks, in young animals and adults, respectively, respiration becomes increasingly difficult, with eventual failure resulting in death (Calil et al., 1989; Crossman, 1989; Katitch, 1990). Mortality is at least 50% and is highest in the young. Incubation and disease progression are often longer in carnivores (Timoney et al., 1988).

Epidemiology

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Spores of C. tetani are commonly found in soil, especially soil rich in animal manure (Wilkins et al., 1988). Vegetative cells and spores are often detected in the digestive tract of cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, chickens, rats, guinea pigs and humans (TenBroeck and Bauer, 1922). Studies of the prevalence of C. tetani in the environment have revealed rates of isolation from 25 to 65%. C. tetani can also be recovered frequently from fomites (Mitra and Das, 1993), and more than 25% of nails, tins, broken glass and wooden sticks yielded toxigenic isolates. Higher prevalence rates in the environment do not necessarily correlate with increased incidence of disease (Wilkins et al., 1988). Experimental inoculation of horses does not give rise to a long-term carrier state (Wilkins et al., 1988).

Impact: Economic

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There are apparently no estimates of the economic importance of tetanus in domestic animals.

Zoonoses and Food Safety

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Tetanus is not considered to be a zoonosis, nor are there likely to be significant food safety issues. The organism was found in large numbers on the skin of animals at slaughter (Chandran and Masillamony, 1991) and has been isolated from meat products (Schocken-Iturrino et al., 1988), but given the route of exposure which results in disease, this seems an unlikely source of disease for humans.

Disease Treatment

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The three important facets of therapy are neutralization of preformed toxin, elimination of toxin production and symptomatic treatment of the patient (Lebedev et al., 1991; Pearce, 1994; Kollias Baker, 1999). Tetanus antitoxin provides immediate passive protection, but is much more effective when used prophylactically than therapeutically (Chang and Weinstein, 1957). Attention to the wound, if any is apparent, and administration of large doses of penicillin (Step et al., 1991) can be effective in halting production of toxin. Penicillin therapy on its own is often insufficient and should be accompanied by the use of antitoxin (Svedberg, 1999). Muscle relaxants and sedatives are usually useful, and artificial feeding may be necessary (van Ham and van Bree, 1992).

Prevention and Control

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Innate resistance to tetanus occurs in some species, usually in the absence of specific antitoxic antibodies (Metchnikov, 1898). Acquired resistance requires circulating antitoxin, and widespread vaccination has greatly decreased the impact of tetanus on animal production (Manzat and Herman, 1999; Brunner and Danner, 1999). Passive immunity protects neonates for 2-3 months, after which they can be actively immunized with toxoid. Boosters are recommended at 1-5 year intervals. Recombinant DNA technology promises even more effective means of protection against tetanus (Mesnage et al., 1999).

Vaccines comprise multiple toxoids and bacterin toxoids; domestic animals are immunized against tetanus alone or combined with immunizations for other clostridia or other bacteria. Adverse effects may include infection site reactions.

References

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Agag BI; Shehata EI; Amin DM; Afifi MA; Afifi EA, 1997. Crossbreeding and potential to disease resistance. 1. Breed differences and cellular immune response in sheep. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal, 37(73):234-246; 17 ref.

Ale-Agha S; Mahinpour M; Hamedi M, 1988. Evolution in the production and control of equine tetanus antitoxin during the last 3 decades in Iran. Archives de l'Institut Razi, No. 38/39:27-34; 14 ref.

Aslani MR; Bazargani TT; Ashkar AA; Movasaghi AR; Raoofi A; Atiabi N, 1998. Outbreak of tetanus in lambs. Veterinary Record, 142(19):518-519; 9 ref.

Bagley RS, 2000. Multifocal neurologic disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: Diseases of the dog and cat, Vol. 1 and 2, ed 5. Philadelphia, USA: WB Saunders, 603-608.

Bagley RS; Dougherty SA; Randolph JF, 1994. Tetanus subsequent to ovariohysterectomy in a dog. Progress in Veterinary Neurology, 5(2):63-65; 12 ref.

Beattie SL, 1988. Tetanus in a crossbred steer. Bovine Practitioner, No.23:179-180; 4 ref.

Benzerrak S, 1990. A case of tetanus in a dog. Action Vétérinaire, No. 1132:19-22.

Bhikane AU; Kulkarni DD, 1998. Tetanus in a crossbred calf and its clinical management. Indian Veterinary Journal, 75(3):243-244; 3 ref.

Bieringer L, 1994. Tetanus in two cats. Monatshefte für Veterinärmedizin, 49(1):9-11; 3 ref.

Bizzini B, 1993. Clostridium tetani. Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals., Ed. 2:97-105; 22 ref.

Brunner R; Danner K, 1999. Vaccination of horses against tetanus, rabies and viral arteritis. Tierärztliche Umschau, 54(9):491-497.

Buxton D, 1991. Tetanus. Diseases of sheep., 186-188; 5 ref.

Calil EMB; Kammer AJ; Pacheco JLL; Macruz R; Moulin AAP; Cunha RM, 1989. Occurrence of tetanus in a Thoroughbred horse. Arquivos Instituto Biologico Sao Paulo, 56(Suppl):72.

Chandran M; Masillamony PR, 1991. Identification of clostridial organisms by immunofluorescence technique on meat from slaughter house. Indian Veterinary Journal, 68(2):104-107; 6 ref.

Chang TW; Weinstein L, 1957. Effect of cortisone on treatment of tetanus with antitoxin. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 94:431-433.

Chapleo DE, 1991. Outbreak of 'tetanus'. Veterinary Record, 129(2):40.

Char NL; Rajeswari KR; Reddy BVR, 1993. An outbreak of tetanus in sheep. Indian Veterinary Journal, 70(4):297-300; 4 ref.

Coda S; Petruzzi V; Fadda M; Ximenes LA; Muzzeddu M, 1996. Case of tetanus in a mouflon (Ovis ammon musimon). Atti del Convegno Nazionale: Ecopatologia della Fauna Selvatica, Bologna, Italy, 15-17 dicembre 1994, 24:91-95; [Supplemento alle Richerche di Biologia della Selvaggina.]; 5 ref.

Coleman ES, 1998. Clostridial neurotoxins: tetanus and botulism. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian, 20(10):1089.1097; 32 ref.

Crossman PJ, 1989. An outbreak of a tetanus-like condition in heifers. Veterinary Record, 124(8):196-197; 7 ref.

Cygan Z, 1996. Tetanus in horses. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 52(2):78-80; 20 ref.

Dieringer TM; Wolf AM, 1991. Esophageal hiatal hernia and megaesophagus complicating tetanus in two dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 199(1):87-89; 11 ref.

Dunkley PR; Presek PP; Dreyer F; Jarvie PE, 1992. Tetanus toxin. Its effect on synaptosomal protein phosphorylation. Toxins and targets: effects of natural and synthetic poisons on living cells and fragile ecosystems., 103-108; 14 ref.

Edwards GT; Evans PM; Evans WT, 1989. Tetanus in the dog. Veterinary Record, 125(5):117.

Ellison RS, 1992. Tetanus epidemic in a mob of dairy heifers. Surveillance (Wellington), 19(2):14; 2 ref.

Engels J; Albrecht N; Hagenbeck D; Struckmann B, 1995. Tetanus in a dog. Kleintierpraxis, 40(9):707-708, 713-715; 23 ref.

Ergotic N; Busch K; Cajavec S; Hajsig D, 1996. Analysis of Clostridium tetani toxins by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Proceedings of the First Croatian Veterinary Congress, Cavtat, Croatia, 2-5 October, 1996., 401-405; 5 ref.

Finni M; Pyörälä E; Pyörälä S, 1998. Tetanus probably caused by Clostridium tetani in cattle-two case reports. Suomen Eläinlääkärilehti, 104(4):195-197; 3 ref.

Gardner DE, 1990. Clostridial diseases of animals in New Zealand. Surveillance (Wellington), 17(4):19-21; 12 ref.

Gray D; Allen MJ; Matthews GG, 1991. Outbreak of tetanus. Veterinary Record, 129(4):79; 2 ref.

Green SL, 1993. Equine tetanus: a review of the clinical features and current perspectives on treatment and prophylaxis. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, 38:299-306; 37 ref.

Greene CE, 2000. Bacterial diseases. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine: Diseases of the dog and cat, Vol. 1 and 2, edition 5. Philadelphia, USA:WB Saunders, 390.

Habermann E, 1989. Structure and function of tetanus toxin. Approaches by DNA and protein chemistry. Natural toxins. Proceedings 9th World Congress on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins, Stillwater, Oklahama, August 1988., 102-109; 11 ref.

Habibah A; Irwin PJ; Cheng NABY; Joseph PG, 1998. Localised tetanus in a cat. Jurnal Veterinar Malaysia, 10(2):63-66; 6 ref.

Hamers C; Aboulhouda YI; Abdillah Y; Faharoudine A, 1993. Note on livestock diseases in Grande Comore (Islamic Federal Republic of Comoros). Tropicultura, 11(2):67-69.

Hatheway CL, 1990. Toxigenic clostridia. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 3(1):66-98; 355 ref.

Herd RP; Riches WR, 1964. An outbreak of tetanus in cattle. Aust. Vet. J., 40:356-357.

Katitch RV, 1990. Causes of death in tetanus. Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France, 63(2):259-263; 2 ref.

Kjellerstedt C, 1997. Tetanus in dogs. Svensk Veterinärtidning, 49(7):321-326; 15 ref.

Kollias-Baker C, 1999. Therapeutics of musculoskeletal disease in the horse. Veterinary Clinics of North America, Equine Practice, 15(3):589-602; 82 ref.

Kryzhanovsky GN, 1981. Pathophysiology. In: Tetanus - Important New Concepts, Vol. 1. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Excerpta Medica, 109-182.

Kummerfeld N; Amtsberg G; Rohde J; Petersen A, 1996. Tetanus in a common buzzard (Buteo buteo). Kleintierpraxis, 41(10):763-764; 11 ref.

Lebedev AV; Rodionov NN; Cheredeev OG, 1991. Treatment of tetanus in horses. Veterinariya (Moskva), No.4:36-38; 10 ref.

Lewis C, 1998. Aspects of clostridial disease in sheep. In Practice, 20(9):494.500; 4 ref.

Lopez MJ; Snyder JR, 1995. Tetanus in a llama. Equine Practice, 17(4):26-28,30-31; 16 ref.

Malik R, 1989. What is your diagnosis?. Australian Veterinary Practitioner, 19(2):115, 118; 3 ref.

Mânzat RM; Herman V, 1999. Immunoprophylaxis considerations on tetanus in horses. Revista Româna de Medicina Veterinara, 9(4):329-336; 22 ref.

Mânzat RM; Herman V; Ciorba D; Zlibut Z, 1996. Research concerning the antagonistic action between tetanus and botulinum toxins. Revista Româna de Medicina Veterinara, 6(3):263-267; 4 ref.

Markovic M; Radojicic M; Kostovic M, 1997. Bacterial diseases of fish transmissible to humans. Veterinarski Glasnik, 51(3/4):163-168; 7 ref.

Merrett DJ, 1993. Canine tetanus. Veterinary Annual, 33:209-219; 45 ref.

Mesnage S; Weber-Levy M; Haustant M; Mock M; Fouet A, 1999. Cell surface-exposed tetanus toxin fragment C produced by recombinant Bacillus anthracis protects against tetanus toxin. Infection and Immunity, 67(9):4847-4850; 30 ref.

Metchnikov EL, 1898. Recherches sur l'influence de 1'organisme sur les toxines. Ann. Inst. Pasteur (Paris), 12:81-90.

Mitra J; Das R, 1993. Antibiotic sensitivity of some strains of Clostridium tetani isolated from soiled objects. Indian Journal of Animal Health, 32(1):29-32; 6 ref.

Moga-Mânzat R; Herman V; Ciorba D; Brudiu I; Zlibut Z, 1996. Interaction between botulinus and tetanus toxins simultaneously or successively administered to mice. Studies and Researches in Veterinary Medicine, 4:10-12; 4 ref.

Montecucco C, 1995. Clostridial neurotoxins. The molecular pathogenesis of tetanus and botulism. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, No. 195:1-278; [12 contributions]; many ref.

Montecucco C; Schiavo G, 1995. Structure and function of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins. Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics, 28(4):423-472; 332 ref.

Oaks JLJr, 1989. Treatment of a falcon for localized tetanus secondary to bumblefoot. Journal of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, 3(3):140-141; 2 ref.

O'Connor B; Leavitt S; Parker K, 1993. Tetanus in feeder calves associated with elastic castration. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 34(5):311-312; 1 ref.

Pagès JP, 1999. Tetanus. Pratique Médicale & Chirurgicale de l'Animal de Compagnie, No. Suppl./2:24-27; 4 ref.

Parton RG; Davison MD; Critchley DR, 1989. Comparison of the binding characteristics of two different preparations of tetanus toxin to rat brain membranes. Toxicon, 27(1):127-135; 19 ref.

Pearce O, 1994. Treatment of equine tetanus. In Practice, 16(6):322-325; 1 ref.

Popoff MR, 1992. Bacterial toxins. Uses in disease prevention and therapeutics. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Vétérinaire Pratique de France, 76(6-7):323-336; 8 ref.

Popoff MR, 1994. Structure, genetics and uses of botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin. Bulletin Mensuel de la Société Vétérinaire Pratique de France, 78(5):253-270; 26 ref.

Preece DL; Bostelmann RW, 1996. Idiopathic tetanus. Veterinary Record, 139(2):48.

Ramachandran S; Harbola PC, 1997. Equine clostridioses: 2. Neurotoxiosis. Centaur (Mylapore), 13(4):60-68; 44 ref.

Ramachandran S; Harbola PC, 1997. Equine clostridiosis: 1. myonecrosis haemoglobinuria and enterotoxaemia. Centaur (Mylapore), 13(3):30-38; 46 ref.

Ratcliffe J, 1989. Tetanus in a dog. Veterinary Record, 124(24):666; 1 ref.

Réthy LA; Réthy L, 1998. Amendment of the tetanus toxin sensitivity hierarchy based on the lethal dose for man. Magyar állatorvosok Lapja, 120(3):169-172; 14 ref.

Sakdinun P; Pholpark S, 1997. Preliminary report of bacterial infections in suckling foals in northeast Thailand. Journal of the Thai Veterinary Medical Association, 48(1):37-46; 23 ref.

Schocken-Iturrino RP; ávila FA; Berchielli SCP; Rossi Junior OD; Nader Filho A; Yokoya F, 1988. Isolation and characterization of pathogenic Clostridium in commercialized meat products. Ars Veterinaria, 4(1):91-98; 28 ref.

Sedrish SA; Seahorn TL; Martin G, 1996. What is your neurologic diagnosis? [Tetanus in a horse]. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 209(1):57-58.

Seyrek-Intas D, 1995. Local tetanus in cats (a report of two cases). Veteriner Cerrahi Dergisi, 1(2):48-52; 22 ref.

Sharma DR; Kwatra MS; Dhillon SS; Dua K, 1990. Tetanus in a domestic monkey. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 27(4):661-662; 4 ref.

Shoesmith JG; Holland KT, 1972. The germination of spores of Clostridium tetani. J. Gen. Microbiol., 70:253-261.

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Songer JG, 1997. Clostridial diseases of animals. The Clostridia: molecular biology and pathogenesis., 153-182; 288 ref.

Songer JG, 1998. Clostridial diseases of small ruminants. Veterinary Research, 29(3/4):219-232; many ref.

Spiece K, 1997. Tetanus in feeder calves. Bovine Practitioner, No. 31.1:106-108; 5 ref.

Step DL; Blue JT; Dill SG, 1991. Penicillin-induced hemolytic anemia and acute hepatic failure following treatment of tetanus in a horse. Cornell Veterinarian, 81(1):13-18; 12 ref.

Svedberg M, 1999. Penicillin is insufficient for treating unvaccinated horses for tetanus. Svensk Veterinärtidning, 51(2):61-64; 10 ref.

Takano K; Kirchner F; Tiebert B; Terhaar P, 1989. Presynaptic inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex during local tetanus in the cat. Toxicon, 27(4):431-438; 19 ref.

TenBroeck C; Bauer JH, 1922. The tetanus bacillus as an intestinal saprophyte in man. J. Exp. Med., 36:261-266.

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Toolan DP, 1989. A case of tetanus in the dog. Irish Veterinary Journal, 42(6-7):83; 1 ref.

Touffut G; Defrasne N; Meyrial J; Plieger C, 1992. What is your diagnosis? [Localised tetanus in a cat.]. Summa, 9(9):49-51; [Translated from Point Vétérinaire (1992) Volume 24, No. 145, pp 289-291.]; 9 ref.

Utpal Das; Gupta RN; Das AK; Das BB, 1997. Incidence of postoperative tetanus in canines. Indian Journal of Veterinary Surgery, 18(2):101; 2 ref.

van den Broeck L; van den Broeck L, 1997. Tetanus vaccination of horses prevents much misery. Veehouder en Dierenarts, 11(3):22-23.

van Ham L; van Bree H, 1992. Conservative treatments of tetanus associated with hiatus hernia and gastro-oesophageal reflux. J. Small Animal Prac., 33(6):289-294.

Voros K; Abonyi T; Bakos Z; Toth J, 1997. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of tetanus in horses. Tierarztliche Umschau, 52(5):278-281.

Wallis AS, 1963. Some observations on the epidemiology of tetanus in cattle. Vet. Rec., 75:188 191.

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Wells CL; Balish B, 1983. Clostridium tetani growth and toxin production in the intestines of germfree rats. Infect. Immun., 41:826-828.

Whitehead JGM; Ellicott DH, 1996. Idiopathic tetanus [in cattle]. Veterinary Record, 138(26):651; 2 ref.

Wilkins CA; Richter MB; Hobbs WB; Whitcomb M; Bergh N; Carstens J, 1988. Occurrence of Clostridium tetani in soil and horses. South African Medical Journal, 73(12):718-720; 17 ref.

Wurst Z(et al), 1988. Tetanus in dogs: occurrence and the results of therapy in the period 1966-1985. Sborník Vedeckych Prací ústredního Státního Veterinárního ústavu v Praze, No.18:26-30.

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