Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Taura syndrome

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Datasheet

Taura syndrome

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Taura syndrome
  • Overview
  • Taura syndrome (TS) is a disease of penaeid shrimp caused by infection with Taura syndrome virus (TSV). It is a major disease of the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Taura syndrome

International Common Names

  • English: taura syndrome virus infection of penaeid shrimp

English acronym

  • TS

Overview

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Taura syndrome (TS) is a disease of penaeid shrimp caused by infection with Taura syndrome virus (TSV). It is a major disease of the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Brock, 1997). TSV has caused severe losses in shrimp-farming regions of the Americas and Southeast Asia (Neilsen et al., 2005; Tang and Lightner, 2005; Lightner, 2011). Impacts are declining due to the introduction of tolerant stocks and to the implementation of good biosecurity practices (Flegel, 2012; Lightner et al., 2012; Moss et al., 2012).

Taura syndrome is on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). For further information on this disease from OIE, see the website: www.oie.int

 

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Farfantepenaeus aztecus (northern brown shrimp)Experimental settingsAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Other enclosed systems; Enclosed systems/Ponds
Farfantepenaeus duorarum (northern pink shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Fry; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds
Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Chinese fleshy prawn)Experimental settings
Litopenaeus schmitti (southern white shrimp)Domesticated host; Wild host
Litopenaeus setiferus (northern white shrimp)Aquatic|Adult; Aquatic|LarvalEnclosed systems/Ponds
Litopenaeus stylirostris (western blue shrimp)
Litopenaeus vannamei (whiteleg shrimp)Domesticated hostAquatic|Adult; Aquatic|Broodstock; Aquatic|FryEnclosed systems/Ponds; Enclosed systems/Raceways / running water ponds
Penaeus monodon (giant tiger prawn)

Hosts/Species Affected

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Taura syndrome virus causes disease in a wide range of penaeids, but the most susceptible species are the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the western blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Lightner, 1996; Bonami et al., 1997; Overstreet et al., 1997; Erickson et al., 2003).

Distribution

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The first known instance of a TSV outbreak was in 1992 when the virus impacted the shrimp population near the Taura River in Ecuador (Lightner et al., 1995). The disease quickly spread to other countries in the Americas. By 1999, TSV was introduced into Southeast Asia through infected stocks of L. vannamei intended for aquaculture and subsequently spread throughout much of the region (Tu et al. 1999; Nielsen et al. 2005; Lightner et al. 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Jan 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BotswanaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)
Cabo VerdeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Central African RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, No presence record(s)
EgyptAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GhanaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Guinea-BissauAbsentJan-Jun-2018
KenyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
LesothoAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
LibyaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MadagascarAbsentJul-Dec-2020
MauritiusAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MayotteAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MoroccoAbsentJan-Jun-2020
MozambiqueAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NigeriaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
RéunionAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Saint HelenaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SeychellesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
SomaliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
South AfricaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SudanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
TunisiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019

Asia

AfghanistanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ArmeniaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
AzerbaijanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)
BangladeshAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BruneiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
ChinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GeorgiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
Hong KongAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
IndiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
IndonesiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
IranAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
IraqAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IsraelAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JapanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
JordanAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
KuwaitAbsentJan-Jun-2019
KyrgyzstanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MaldivesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MongoliaAbsentJul-Dec-2018
MyanmarAbsentJul-Dec-2019
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Saudi ArabiaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
South KoreaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TaiwanAbsentJul-Dec-2019
TajikistanAbsentJan-Jun-2019
ThailandPresent, LocalizedJan-Jun-2019
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)
VietnamAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

Europe

AndorraAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelarusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
BelgiumAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CroatiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CyprusAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
DenmarkAbsentJul-Dec-2020
EstoniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
Faroe IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2018
FinlandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
FranceAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GermanyAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreeceAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
HungaryAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
IrelandAbsentJul-Dec-2019
ItalyAbsentJul-Dec-2020
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)
LatviaAbsentJul-Dec-2020
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
LithuaniaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MaltaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
MoldovaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
North MacedoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PolandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PortugalAbsentJul-Dec-2019
SerbiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SlovakiaAbsentJan-Jun-2020
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
SpainAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
SwitzerlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
United KingdomAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019

North America

BahamasAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
BelizeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
CanadaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)
Costa RicaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
CubaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
Dominican RepublicAbsent, No presence record(s)
El SalvadorAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
GreenlandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
GuadeloupeAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuatemalaAbsent, No presence record(s)
HondurasPresent
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)
MartiniqueAbsentJul-Dec-2019
MexicoAbsentJul-Dec-2019
NicaraguaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
PanamaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)
United StatesPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-TexasPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
Cook IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Federated States of MicronesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
FijiAbsentJan-Jun-2019
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
KiribatiAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Marshall IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
New CaledoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
New ZealandAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2019
PalauAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
Papua New GuineaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
SamoaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
TongaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2020
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019

South America

ArgentinaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
BoliviaAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
BrazilAbsent, No presence record(s)
ChileAbsent, No presence record(s)Jan-Jun-2019
ColombiaAbsentJan-Jun-2019
EcuadorAbsentJan-Jun-2019
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2018
French GuianaAbsentJul-Dec-2019
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)
ParaguayAbsent, No presence record(s)Jul-Dec-2020
PeruAbsentJul-Dec-2019
UruguayAbsentJul-Dec-2020
VenezuelaAbsentJan-Jun-2019

References

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Aranguren LF; Salazar M; Tang K; Caraballo X; Lightner D, 2013. Characterization of a new strain of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from Colombian shrimp farms and the implication in the selection of TSV resistant lines. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 112(1):68-73. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112002212

Bonami JR; Hasson KW; Mari J; Poulos BT; Lightner DV, 1997. Taura syndrome of marine penaeid shrimp: characterization of the viral agent. Journal of General Virology, 78(2):313-319.

Brock JA, 1997. Special topic review: Taura syndrome, a disease important to shrimp farms in the Americas. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(4):415-418.

Côté I; Navarro S; Tang KFJ; Noble B; Lightner DV, 2008. Taura syndrome virus from Venezuela is a new genetic variant. Aquaculture, 284(1/4):62-67. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-4T6CTHY-2&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F01%2F2008&_rdoc=11&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234972%232008%23997159998%23700653%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4972&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=44&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a3981d348a00f177026ad3509092a4d4

Dhar AK; Lakshman DK; Amundsen K; Robles-Sikisaka R; Kaizer KN; Roy S; Hasson KW; Allnutt FCT, 2010. Characterization of a Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas epizootic in cultured shrimp. Archives of Virology, 155(3):315-327. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/g7t7l3647l406728/?p=f256f064ed0541f1a8869c7ad6b6dfa7&pi=2

Do JeongWan; Cha SeungJu; Lee NamSil; Kim YiCheong; Kim JinWoo; Kim JaeDong; Park JeongWoo, 2006. Taura syndrome virus from Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 70(1/2):171-174.

Erickson HS; Poulos BT; Tang KFJ; Bradley-Dunlop D; Lightner DV, 2005. Taura syndrome virus from Belize represents a unique variant. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 64(2):91-98.

Erickson HS; Zarain-Herzberg M; Lightner DV, 2003. Detection of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) strain differences using selected diagnostic methods: diagnostic implications in penaeid shrimp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 52(1):1-10.

Flegel TW, 2012. Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in Asia. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2):166-173. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000602

Lightner DV, 1996. Epizootiology, distribution and the impact on international trade of two penaeid shrimp viruses in the Americas. Revue Scientifique et Technique - Office International des Épizooties, 15(2):579-601.

Lightner DV, 2011. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 106(1):110-130. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJV-51W6NYJ-C&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F2011&_rdoc=12&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%236888%232011%23998939998%232846757%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=6888&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f2aa7e0630b64e23a3130a3be65a3bf8&searchtype=a

Lightner DV; Redman RM; Hasson KW; Pantoja CR, 1995. Taura syndrome in Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda): gross signs, histopathology and ultrastructure. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 21(1):53-59.

Lightner DV; Redman RM; Pantoja CR; Tang KFJ; Noble BL; Schofield P; Mohney LL; Nunan LM; Navarro SA, 2012. Historic emergence, impact and current status of shrimp pathogens in the Americas. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2):174-183. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000638

Moss SM; Moss DR; Arce SM; Lightner DV; Lotz JM, 2012. The role of selective breeding and biosecurity in the prevention of disease in penaeid shrimp aquaculture. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 110(2):247-250. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112000663

Nielsen L; Sang-oum W; Cheevadhanarak S; Flegel TW, 2005. Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationship to TSV in China and the Americas. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 63(2/3):101-106.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. http://www.oie.int

Overstreet RM; Lightner DV; Hasson KW; McIlwain S; Lotz JM, 1997. Susceptibility to Taura syndrome virus of some penaeid shrimp species native to the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern United States. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 69(2):165-176.

Robles-Sikisaka R; Hasson KW; Garcia DK; Brovont KE; Cleveland KD; Klimpel KR; Dhar AK, 2002. Genetic variation and immunohistochemical differences among geographic isolates of Taura syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp. Journal of General Virology, 83(12):3123-3130.

Tang KFJ; Lightner DV, 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Taura syndrome virus isolates collected between 1993 and 2004 and virulence comparison between two isolates representing different genetic variants. Virus Research, 112(1/2):69-76. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Tang KFJ; Navarro SA; Pantoja CR; Aranguren FL; Lightner DV, 2012. New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 99(3):179-185. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v99/n3/p179-185/

Tu Chien; Huang HsuTien; Chuang ShengHsiung; Hsu JungPing; Kuo ShuTing; Li NanJung; Hsu TienLai; Li MingChang; Lin ShihYuh, 1999. Taura syndrome in pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei cultured in Taiwan. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 38(2):159-161.

Valderrama D; Engle CR, 2004. Farm-level economic effects of viral diseases on Honduran shrimp farms. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 16(1/2):1-26.

Zarain-Herzberg M; Ascencio-Valle F, 2001. Taura syndrome in México: follow-up study in shrimp farms of Sinaloa. Aquaculture, 193(1/2):1-9.

Distribution References

Aranguren L F, Salazar M, Tang K, Caraballo X, Lightner D, 2013. Characterization of a new strain of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from Colombian shrimp farms and the implication in the selection of TSV resistant lines. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 112 (1), 68-73. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022201112002212 DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2012.08.009

Côté I, Navarro S, Tang K F J, Noble B, Lightner D V, 2008. Taura syndrome virus from Venezuela is a new genetic variant. Aquaculture. 284 (1/4), 62-67. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T4D-4T6CTHY-2&_user=10&_coverDate=11%2F01%2F2008&_rdoc=11&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%234972%232008%23997159998%23700653%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=4972&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=44&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a3981d348a00f177026ad3509092a4d4 DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.059

Dhar A K, Lakshman D K, Amundsen K, Robles-Sikisaka R, Kaizer K N, Roy S, Hasson K W, Allnutt F C T, 2010. Characterization of a Taura syndrome virus isolate originating from the 2004 Texas epizootic in cultured shrimp. Archives of Virology. 155 (3), 315-327. DOI:10.1007/s00705-009-0584-5

Do JeongWan, Cha SeungJu, Lee NamSil, Kim YiCheong, Kim JinWoo, Kim JaeDong, Park JeongWoo, 2006. Taura syndrome virus from Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 70 (1/2), 171-174.

Erickson H S, Poulos B T, Tang K F J, Bradley-Dunlop D, Lightner D V, 2005. Taura syndrome virus from Belize represents a unique variant. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 64 (2), 91-98. DOI:10.3354/dao064091

Lighter D V, Redman R M, Hasson K W, Pantoja C R, 1995. Taura syndrome in Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda): gross signs, histopathology and ultrastructure. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 21 (1), 53-59. DOI:10.3354/dao021053

Nielsen L, Sang-oum W, Cheevadhanarak S, Flegel T W, 2005. Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationship to TSV in China and the Americas. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 63 (2/3), 101-106. DOI:10.3354/dao063101

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE, 2009. World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4., Paris, France: World Organisation for Animal Health. https://www.oie.int/

OIE, 2018. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2018a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int

OIE, 2019. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2019a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS): Jul-Dec. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

OIE, 2020a. World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS). Jan-Jun. In: OIE-WAHIS Platform, Paris, France: OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). unpaginated. https://wahis.oie.int/

Robles-Sikisaka R, Hasson K W, Garcia D K, Brovont K E, Cleveland K D, Klimpel K R, Dhar A K, 2002. Genetic variation and immunohistochemical differences among geographic isolates of Taura syndrome virus of penaeid shrimp. Journal of General Virology. 83 (12), 3123-3130.

Tang K F J, Navarro S A, Pantoja C R, Aranguren F L, Lightner D V, 2012. New genotypes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 99 (3), 179-185. http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v99/n3/p179-185/ DOI:10.3354/dao02470

Tu Chien, Huang HsuTien, Chuang ShengHsiung, Hsu JungPing, Kuo ShuTing, Li NanJung, Hsu TienLai, Li MingChang, Lin ShihYuh, 1999. Taura syndrome in pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei cultured in Taiwan. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 38 (2), 159-161.

Valderrama D, Engle C R, 2004. Farm-level economic effects of viral diseases on Honduran shrimp farms. Journal of Applied Aquaculture. 16 (1/2), 1-26. DOI:10.1300/J028v16n01_01

Zarain-Herzberg M, Ascencio-Valle F, 2001. Taura syndrome in México: follow-up study in shrimp farms of Sinaloa. Aquaculture. 193 (1/2), 1-9. DOI:10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00468-3

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