Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide





Aphelinus (aphelinid)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphelinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • aphelinid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Aphelinus asychis stinging D. noxia.|Aphelinus asychis stinging Diuraphis noxia.
TitleAphelinus asychis|Attacked by A. asychis|Attacking D. noxia.
CaptionAphelinus asychis stinging D. noxia.|Aphelinus asychis stinging Diuraphis noxia.
CopyrightAngela M.I. de Farias
Aphelinus asychis stinging D. noxia.|Aphelinus asychis stinging Diuraphis noxia.
Aphelinus asychis|Attacked by A. asychis|Attacking D. noxia.Aphelinus asychis stinging D. noxia.|Aphelinus asychis stinging Diuraphis noxia.Angela M.I. de Farias


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphelinus (Dalman 1820)

Preferred Common Name

  • aphelinid

Other Scientific Names

  • Agonioneurus Westwood 1833
  • Anozus Foerster 1856
  • Eriophilus Haldeman 1851
  • Meroligon Rondani 1877
  • Mesidia Foerster 1856
  • Mesidiopsis Nowicki 1930
  • Myina Neess 1834

International Common Names

  • Chinese: ya xiao fen

EPPO code

  • APHESP (Aphelinus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hymenoptera
  •                         Family: Aphelinidae
  •                             Genus: Aphelinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


IndiaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
IraqPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
JapanPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
YemenPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992

North America

MexicoPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992


Yugoslavia (former)PresentGreathead pers. comm
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992


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Asante SK; Danthanarayana W, 1992. Development of Aphelinus mali an endoparasitoid of woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum at different temperatures. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 65(1):31-37

Bai B, 1991. Conspecific superparasitism in two parasitoid wasps, Aphidius ervi Haliday and Aphelinus asychis Walker: reproductive strategies influence host discrimination. Canadian Entomologist, 123(6):1229-1237

Bai B; Mackauer M, 1990. Host discrimination by the aphid parasitoid Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): when superparastism is not adaptive. Canadian Entomologist, 122(3-4):363-372

Bai B; Mackauer M, 1990. Oviposition and host-feeding patterns in Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) at different aphid densities. Ecological Entomology, 15(1):9-16; 38 ref.

Bai B; Mackauer M, 1991. Recognition of heterospecific parasitism: competition between aphidiid (Aphidius ervi) and aphelinid (Aphelinus asychis) parasitoids of aphids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae; Aphelinidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 4(3):333-345

Boucek Z; Graham MWR de V, 1978. British check-list of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): taxonomic notes and additions. Entomologist's Gazette, 29(4):225-235

Boyle H; Barrows EM, 1978. Oviposition and host feeding behavior of Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Aphelinidae) on Schizaphis graminum (Homoptera: Aphididae) and some reactions of aphids to this parasite. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 80(3):441-455

Bueno R Jr; Stone JD, 1987. Reproductive response of Aphelinus perpallidus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to age of its parent and density of its host, Monellia caryella (Homoptera: Aphidae). Environmental Entomology, 16(4):877-880

Carver M, 1978. The black citrus aphids, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy) and T. aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 17(3):263-270

Carver M, 1989. Biological control of aphids. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids: their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Vol. C. New York, USA: Elsevier, 141-165.

Cate RH; Archer TL; Eikenbary RD; Starks KJ; Morrison RD, 1973. Parasitization of the greenbug by Aphelinus asychis and effect of feeding by the parasitoid on aphid mortality. Environ. Entomol., 2:549-553.

Cate RH; Eikenbary RD; Morrison RD, 1977. Preference for and effect of greenbug parasitism and feeding by Aphelinus asychis. Environmental Entomology, 6(4):547-550

Cate RH; Sauer JR; Eikenbary RD, 1974. Demonstration of host feeding by the parasitoid Aphelinus asychus (Hymenoptera:Eulophidae). Entomophaga, 19(4):479-482

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Collins MD; Ward SA; Dixon AFG, 1981. Handling time and the functional response of Aphelinus thomsoni, a predator and parasite of the aphid Drepanosiphum platanoidis. Journal of Animal Ecology, 50(2):479-487

Dalman JW, 1820. Forsok till Uppstallning af Insekt-famisljen Pteropmalini, I synnerhet med afseende pa de I Sverige funne arter. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps. Handl., 41:123-128.

Elliott NC; Burd JD; Armstrong JS; Walker CB; Reed DK; Peairs FB, 1995. Release and recovery of imported parasitoids of the Russian wheat aphid in eastern Colorado. Southwestern Entomologist, 20(2):125-129

Evans GA; Schauff ME; Kok-Yokomi ML; Yokomi RK, 1995. A new species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) that parasitizes the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch (Homoptera: Aphididae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 97(1):17-21

Feng MG; Johnson JB; Halbert SE, 1992. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae and Aphelinidae) and their effect on aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations in irrigated grain in southwestern Idaho. Environmental Entomology, 21(6):1433-1440

Ferriere C, 1965. Hymenoptera Aphelinidae d'Europe et du Bassin Mediterranean. Masson et Cie, Paris.

Flanders SE; Fisher TW, 1959. The economic effect of aphidophagous insects on citrus in South China. J. Econ. Entomol., 52:536-537.

Force DC; Messenger; PS, 1964. Fecundity, reproductive rates and innate capacity for increase of three parasites of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton). Ecology, 45:706-715.

Gerling D; Roitberg BD; Mackauer M, 1990. Instar-specific defense of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum: influence on oviposition success of the parasite Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 3(4):501-514

Graham MVR deV, 1976. The British species of Aphelinus with notes and descriptions on other European Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera). Syst. Entomol., 1:123-146.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Hagen KS; van den Bosch R, 1968. Impact of pathogens, parasites, and predators on aphids. Ann. Rev. Entomol., 13:325-384.

Hamilton PA, 1973. The biology of Aphelinus flavus (Hym. Aphelinidae), a parasite of the sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoides (Hemipt. Aphididae). Entomophaga, 18(4):449-462

Hartley EA, 1922. Some bionomics of Aphelinus semiflavus Howard. Ohio J. Science, 22:209-236.

Hayat M, 1972. The species of Aphelinus Dalman, 1820 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from India. Entomophaga, 17(1):49-58.

Hayat M, 1983. The genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera) of the world. Systematic Entomology, 8(1):63-102

Hayat M, 1990. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). 2. A new subgenus from India, with comments on Mesidia and Mesidiopsis. Oriental Insects, 24:253-257

Hayat M, 1991. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). III. Notes on A. japonicus Ashmead and A. howardii Ashmead. Entomon, 16(3):179-181

Hayat M, 1991. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). IV. A new and three known species from Nepal. Entomon, 16(3):183-186

Hayat M, 1994. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). 7. A new species from Nepal and records of three known species. Entomon, 19(3 & 4):85-89

Hayat M; Fatima K, 1990. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). 1. The Australian species described by A.A. Girault. Oriental Insects, 24:247-252

Hayat M; Fatima K, 1992. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). 5. Description of a new species and further records from A. gossypii with a new synonymy. Entomon, 17(1-2):103-107

Hennessey RD, 1981. Setal patterns of the wings of Aphelinus, Mesidia, and Mesidiopsis (Hym.: Aphelinidae), their value as taxonomic characters. Entomophaga, 26(4):363-374

Holler C; Haardt H, 1993. Low field performance of an aphid parasitoid, Aphelinus abdominalis, efficient in the laboratory (Hym., Aphelinidae). Entomophaga, 38(1):115-124

Hopper KR; Aidara S; Agret S; Cabal J; Coutinot D; Dabire R; Lesieux C; Kirk G; Reichert S; Tronchetti F; Vidal J, 1995. Natural enemy impact on the abundance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat in southern France. Environmental Entomology, 24(2):402-408

Howard LO, 1929. Aphelinus mali and its travels. Ann,. Entomol. Soc. Am., 22:341-368.

Huang Jian, 1994. Systematic studies on Aphelinidae of China (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Chongging, China; Chongqing Publishing House, vi + 348 pp.

Jackson HB; Eikenbary RD, 1971. Bionomics of Aphelinus asychis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an introduced parasite of the sorghum greenbug. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 64:81-85.

Jasnosh VA, 1963. New species of the genus Aphelinus Dalm. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) in the fauna of the USSR. Entomol. Review., 42:98-101.

Kalina V; Stáry P, 1976. A review of aphidophagous Aphelinidae (Hym., Chalcidoidea), their distribution and host range in Europe. Acta Entomol. Forestalia., 2:143-170.

Liao DX; Li XL; Pang XF, 1987. Economic Insect Fauna of China. Fasc. 34: Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Part I. Beijing, China: Science Press.

Liotta G, 1988. Host-feeding of Aphelinus chaonia Walker (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitoid of Toxoptera aurantii (B. d. F. ) (Homoptera: Aphididae). In: Goren R, Mendel K, eds. Proceedings of the 6th International Citrus Congress. D-6992 Weikersheim: Margraf Scientific Books, 1335-1340.

Lo KC; Chiu SC, 1985. The illustrations of citrus insect pests and their natural enemies in Taiwan. Taiwan Agric. Res. Insitit. Special Reparts, No 20:1-74.

Lundie AE, 1924. A biological study of Aphelinus mali Hald., a parasite of the wooly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigera Hausm. Mem. Cornell Univ. Agri. Exp. Stn. No. 79.

Mackauer M, 1972. The aphid-attacking genera of Aphelinidae (Hymenoptera), including the description of a new genus. Canadian Entomologist, 104(11):1771-1779

Mackauer M; Chow FJ, 1986. Parasites and parasite impact. In: McLean GD, Garrett RG, Ruesink WG, eds. Plant Virus Epidemics: Monitoring, Modelling and Predicting Outbreaks. Sydney, Australia: Academic Press, 95-118.

McLeod JH, 1938. Further notes on parasites of aphids. Entomol. Soc. Ontario, 68:44-48.

Michel MF, 1969. Contribution a l'etude des Aphelinidae aphidiphages et leurs hotes en France (Hym. Chalicidoidea). Entomophaga, 14:439-446.

Michel MF, 1973. Importance de la nutrition chez Aphelinus sp. (Hym. Aphelinidae). Entomophaga, 14:439-446.

Michel MF, 1973. The importance of feeding in Aphelinus sp. (Hym. Aphelinidae). Entomophaga, 18(4):349-382

Michels GJ; Whitaker-Deerberg RL, 1993. Recovery of Aphelinus asychis, an imported parasitoid of Russian wheat aphid, in the Texas panhandle. Southwestern Entomologist, 18(1):11-17

Mohammad Hayat, 1994. Taxonomic studies on Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). VI. Records of two known and descriptions of two new species from the Oriental Region. Entomon, 19(1/2):35-39

Nikol'skaja MN; Jasnosh VA, 1966. The Aphelinidae of the European part of the USSR and the Caucasus. Moscow and Leningrad: Nauka Publ. House.

Pan MX, 1992. A new species of Aphelinus Dalman from Zhejiang Province, China. Acta Zool. Sinica, 17:75-76.

Pfeiffer DG; Brown MW; Varn MW, 1989. Incidence of spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in apple orchards in Virginia, West Virginia and Maryland. Journal of Entomological Science, 24(1):145-149

Prinsloo GL; Neser OC, 1994. The southern African species of Aphelinus Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), parasitoids of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididea). J. Afr. Zool., 108:143-162.

Raney HG; Bridgwater F; Eikenbary RD; Morrison RD, 1973. Predicting parasitism by Aphelinus asychis. Environmental Entomology, 2(5):859-861

Raney HG; Coles LW; Eikenbary RD; Morrison RD; Starks KS, 1971. Host preference, longevity, developmental period, and sex ratio of Aphelinus asychi with three sorghum-fed species of aphids held at controlled temperatures. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 64:169-176.

Richardson HP; Westdal PH, 1965. Use of Aphelinus semiflavus Howard for control of aphids in a greenhouse. Can. Entomol., 97:110-111.

Rogers CE; Jackson HB; Eikenbary RD; Starks KJ, 1972. Host-parasitoid interaction of Aphis helianthi on sunflowers with introduced Aphelinus asychi, Ephedrus plagiator and Praon gallicum, and native Aphelinus nigritus and Lysiphlebus testaceipes. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am., 65:38-41.

Schlinger EI; Hall JC, 1959. A synopsis of the biologies of three imported parasites of the spotted alfalfa aphid. J. Econ. Entomol., 52:154-157.

Simpson RG; Burkhardt CC; Maxwell FG; Ortman EEA, 1959. A chalcid parasitizing spotted alfalfa aphid and greenbug in Kansas. J. Econ. Entomol., 52:537-538.

Soldan T; Stáry P, 1981. Parasitogenic effects of Aphidius smithi (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) on the reproductive organs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Homoptera: Aphididae). Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov., 78:243-254.

Stáry P, 1988. Aphelinidae. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids: their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. B. New York, USA: Elsevier, 185-188.

Sullivan DSJ, 1988. Hyperparasites. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids: their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol. B. New York, USA: Elsevier, 189-203..

Tang YQ; Yokomi RK, 1995. Temperature-dependent development of three hymenopterous parasitoids of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) attacking citrus. Environmental Entomology, 24(6):1736-1740; 19 ref.

Tang YQ; Yokomi RK, 1996. Biology of Aphelinus spiraecolae (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of the spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 25(2):519-523; 33 ref.

Tang YQ; Yokomi RK, 1996. Effect of parasitism by Aphelinus spiraecolae (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on development and reproduction of spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology, 25(3):703-707; 18 ref.

Tanigoshi LK; Pike KS; Miller RH; Miller TD; Allison D, 1995. Search for, and release of, parasitoids for the biological control of Russian wheat aphid in Washington State (USA). Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 52(1):25-30

Timberlake PH, 1924. Description of new chalcid-flies from Hawaii and Mexico (Hymenoptera). Proc. Haw. Entomol. Soc., 3:395-417.

van den Bosch R; Schlinger EI; Dietrick ES; Hall JC; Puttler B, 1964. Studies on succession, distribution and phenology of imported parasites of Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) in Southern California. Ecology, 45:601-621.

Viggiani G, 1984. Bionomics of the Aphelinidae. Annual Review of Entomology, 29:257-276

Viggiani G, 1988. A new species of Aphelinus (Mesidiopsis) Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Angola. Boll. Lab. Ent. Agr. Fiippo Silvestri, Portici, 44:3-6.

Wahab WA, 1985. Observations on the biology and behaviour of Aphelinus abdominalis Dalm. (Hym., Aphelinidae), a parasite of aphids. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 100(3):290-296

Watterston GP; Stone JD, 1982. Parasites of blackmargined aphid and their effect on aphid populations in Far-West Texas. Environ. Entomol., 11:667-669.

Wilbert H, 1964. Das ausleseverhalten von Aphelinus semiflavus Howard und die abwehrreaktionen seiner wirte (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Beitr. Entomol., 14:159-219.

Yokomi RK; Tang YQ, 1995. Host preference and suitability of two aphelinid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on citrus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 88(4):840-845

Yokomi RK; Tang YQ; Nong L; Kok-Yokomi ML, 1994. Potential mitigation of the threat of the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), by integrated pest management. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 106:81-85

Zehavi A; Rosen D, 1988. A new species of Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) from Israel, with notes on the mali group. Israel J. Entomol., 22:101-108.

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