Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Aphidoletes aphidimyza
(aphid midge)



Aphidoletes aphidimyza (aphid midge)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Aphidoletes aphidimyza
  • Preferred Common Name
  • aphid midge
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Two A. aphidimyza larvae feeding on Phorodon humuli.
CaptionTwo A. aphidimyza larvae feeding on Phorodon humuli.
CopyrightKeith M. Harris
Two A. aphidimyza larvae feeding on Phorodon humuli.
LarvaTwo A. aphidimyza larvae feeding on Phorodon humuli.Keith M. Harris


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani, 1847)

Preferred Common Name

  • aphid midge

Other Scientific Names

  • Aphidoletes aphidisuga
  • Aphidoletes aphidivora
  • Aphidoletes cardui
  • Aphidoletes carnifex
  • Aphidoletes cucullata
  • Aphidoletes cucumeris
  • Aphidoletes fulva
  • Aphidoletes helichrysis
  • Aphidoletes kiefferi
  • Aphidoletes kiefferiana
  • Aphidoletes macrosiphoniellae
  • Aphidoletes macrosiphonis
  • Aphidoletes meridionalis
  • Aphidoletes ornata
  • Aphidoletes phorodontis
  • Cecidomyia aphidimyza
  • Guerciobremia cucullata
  • Isobremia kiefferi
  • Phaenobremia aphidimyza (Rondani)
  • Phaenobremia aphidisuga (Rübsaamen)
  • Phaenobremia aphidivora (Rübsaamen)
  • Phaenobremia cardui
  • Phaenobremia carnifex
  • Phaenobremia fulva
  • Phaenobremia helichrysis Barnes
  • Phaenobremia kiefferiana
  • Phaenobremia meridionalis (Felt)
  • Rondaniella cucullata
  • Rondaniella macrosiphoniellae
  • Rondaniella macrosiphonis
  • Rondaniella ornata
  • Rondaniella phorodontis

Local Common Names

  • Canada: predatory gall midge

EPPO code

  • APHLAP (Aphidoletes aphidimyza)
  • PHABAM (Phaenobremia aphidimyza)
  • PHABAV (Phaenobremia aphidivora)
  • PHABCD (Phaenobremia cardui)
  • PHABCN (Phaenobremia carnifex)
  • PHABFU (Phaenobremia fulva)
  • PHABHE (Phaenobremia helichrysis)
  • PHABME (Phaenobremia meridionalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Cecidomyiidae
  •                             Genus: Aphidoletes
  •                                 Species: Aphidoletes aphidimyza

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


-HeilongjiangPresentCheng et al., 1992
IndiaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-Jammu and KashmirPresentGrover et al., 1988
IsraelPresentSkuhravá, 1986
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HokkaidoPresentYukawa et al., 1998
-HonshuPresentYukawa et al., 1998
-KyushuPresentYukawa et al., 1998
-ShikokuPresentYukawa et al., 1998
KazakhstanPresentChekmenev and Zhikhareva, 1978
LebanonPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
Middle EastPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
SyriaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
TurkeyPresentSkuhravá, 1986


EgyptPresentSkuhravá, 1986
SudanPresentHarris, 1973
TunisiaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992

North America

CanadaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-British ColumbiaPresentUSNM
-Nova ScotiaPresentGagné, 1971
-QuebecPresentStewart and Walde, 1997
USAPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-CaliforniaPresentGagné, 1971
-New HampshirePresentUSNM
-New JerseyPresentUSNM
-New YorkPresentUSNM
-VirginiaPresentGagné, 1971
-WashingtonPresentGagné, 1971
-West VirginiaPresentUSNM

South America

ChilePresentGagné, 1971


AustriaPresentSkuhravá, 1986
BulgariaPresentNatskova, 1984
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentSkuhravá, 1986
DenmarkPresentHansen, 1983
FinlandPresentSkuhravá, 1986
Former USSRPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
FrancePresentSkuhravá, 1986
GermanyPresentSkuhravá, 1986
IrelandPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
ItalyPresentSkuhravá, 1986
LithuaniaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
NetherlandsPresentSkuhravá, 1986
PolandPresentSkuhravá, 1986
RomaniaPresentPerju, 1984
Russian FederationPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992
-Central RussiaPresentSkuhravá, 1986
-Russian Far EastPresentSkuhravá, 1986
-Southern RussiaPresentSkuhravá, 1986
SwedenPresentSkuhravá, 1986
SwitzerlandPresentWyss et al., 1999
UKPresentSkuhravá, 1986
Yugoslavia (former)PresentSkuhravá, 1986
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992


New ZealandPresentNHM; USNM

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Acyrthosiphon pisumAdults/Nymphs
Aphis craccivoraAdults/Nymphs
Aphis fabaeAdults/Nymphs
Aphis gossypiiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis pomiAdults/Nymphs
Aphis spiraecolaAdults/Nymphs
Aulacorthum circumflexumAdults/Nymphs
Brachycaudus carduiAdults/Nymphs
Brachycaudus helichrysiAdults/Nymphs
Brevicoryne brassicaeAdults/Nymphs
Chaetosiphon fragaefoliiAdults/Nymphs
Cryptomyzus ribisAdults/Nymphs
Diuraphis noxiaAdults/Nymphs
Dysaphis plantagineaAdults/Adults/Nymphs/Nymphs
Hyalopterus pruniAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphoniella sanborniAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphum euphorbiaeAdults/Nymphs
Macrosiphum rosaeAdults/Nymphs
Metopolophium dirhodumAdults/Nymphs
Myzus cerasiAdults/Nymphs
Myzus persicaeAdults/Nymphs
Phorodon humuliAdults/Nymphs
Rhopalosiphum padiAdults/Nymphs
Schizaphis graminumAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Nymphs/Pupae
Sitobion avenaeAdults/Nymphs
Sonchus asperOther/All Stages
Uroleucon sonchiAdults/Nymphs


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Abdel-Gawaad AA; El-Sayed AM; Shalaby FF; Abo-El-Ghar MR, 1990. Natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci Genn. and their role in suppressing the population density of the pest. Agricultural Research Review, 68(1):185-195

Barnes HF, 1929. Gall midges (Dipt., Cecidomyiidae) as enemies of aphids. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 20:433-442.

Belousov YuV, 1992. Breeding and application of aphidimyza. 2. Features of the rearing of cereal aphids. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 11:53-55

Bennison JA, 1992. Biological control of aphids on cucumbers use of open rearing systems or 'banker plants' to aid establishment of Aphidius matricariae and Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(2b):457-466

BroOdsgaard HF; Enkegaard A, 1995. Interactions among polyphagous anthocorid bugs used for thrips control and other beneficials in multi-species biological pest management systems. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 60(3a):893-900; 10 ref.

Chekmenev SYu; Zhikhareva ZL, 1978. Biological protection of vegetable crops. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 4:58-59

Cheng HK; Zhao JH; Xie M; Wei SX; Song XP; Wang JZ, 1992. Tests on the effect of releasing Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Dip.: Cecidomyiidae) to control the aphid, Myzus persicae, in greenhouses and plastic tunnels. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 8(3):97-100

El Titi A, 1974. The release of oviposition in the aphidophagous gall-midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera:Cecidomyiidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 17(1):9-21

Gagné RJ, 1971. The genus Aphidoletes Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in North America. Ent. News, 82:177-181.

Gilkeson LA, 1990. Cold storage of the predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(3):965-970

Gilkeson LA; McLean JP; Dessart P, 1993. Aphanogmus fulmeki Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Ceraphronidae), a parasitoid of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Canadian Entomologist, 125(1):161-162

Grasswitz TR; Burts EC, 1995. Effect of native natural enemies and augmentative releases of Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister and Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) on the population dynamics of the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer. International Journal of Pest Management, 41(3):176-183

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Grover P; Ved M; Kashyap V, 1988. Biology of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani. Cecidologia Internationale, 9(2):65-82.

Hansen LS, 1983. Introduction of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rond.) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from an open rearing unit for the control of aphids in glasshouses. Bulletin SROP, 6(3):146-150

Harris KM, 1966. Gall midge genera of economic importance (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Part 1: Introduction and subfamily Cecidomyiinae; supertribe Cecidomyiidi. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 118:313-358.

Harris KM, 1973. Aphidophagous Cecidomyiidae (Diptera): taxonomy, biology and assessments of field populations. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63(2):305-325

Havelka J; Bßrtovß P, 1991. Toxicities of greenhouse pesticides to the 3rd instar larvae of the aphidophagous gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae). Ochrana Rostlin, 27(3/4):293-300; 16 ref.

Helyer N, 1991. Laboratory pesticide screening method for the aphid predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 1(1):53-58; 13 ref.

Helyer N, 1992. Guideline for the laboratory evaluation of pesticides against the aphid predatory midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(3):96-102

Kulp D; Fortmann M; Hommes M; Plate HP, 1989. The predatory gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae): an important predator of aphids; reference work on systematics, distribution, biology, rearing and application. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 250:126 pp.

Lawson DS; Reissig WH; Nyrop JP; Brown SK, 1994. Management of arthropods on columnar apple trees using exclusionary cages. Crop Protection, 13(5):346-356

Markkula M; Tiittanen K, 1985. In: Hussey NW, Scopes N, eds. Biological Pest Control, the Glasshouse Experience. Poole, UK: Blandford Press, 74-81.

Miles JE; Bale JS, 1995. Analysis of chilling injury in the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Cryobiology, 32(5):436-443; 12 ref.

Morse JG; Croft BA, 1987. Biological control of Aphis pomi (Hom.: Aphididae) of Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Dip.: Cecidomyiidae); a predator-prey model. Entomophaga, 32(4):339-356

Natskova V, 1984. Pests of flowers and their control. Rastitelna Zashchita, 32(11):3-6

Nijveldt W, 1988. Cecidomyiidae. In: Minks AK, Harrewijn P, eds. Aphids. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, World Crop Pests 2b:271-277.

Perju T, 1984. Integrated control against the hop aphid (Phorodon humuli Schrnk.) (Aphididae - Homoptera). Bulletin de l'Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, No. 13:117-131

Roberti, 1946. La Phenobremia aphidimyza (Rond.) (Diptera-Cecidomyidae) predatrice di Aphis (Doralis) frangulae Koch. Bollettino dell'Istituta di Entomologia della Università di Bologna, 15:233-256.

Ruzicka Z; Havelka J, 1998. Effects of oviposition-deterring pheromone and allomones on Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). European Journal of Entomology, 95(2):211-216; 14 ref.

Skuhravá M, 1986. Cecidomyiidae. In: Soós A, ed. Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Volume 4 Sciaridae - Anisopodidae. Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó.

Skuhravá M; Skuhravy V, 1997. Gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) of Greece. Entomologica Bari, 31:13-75.

Solinas M, 1968. Morfologia, anatomia e organizzazione funzionale del capo della larva matura di Phaenobremia aphidimyza (Rondani). Entomologica Bari, 4:7-44.

Spollen KM; Isman MB, 1996. Acute and sublethal effects of a neem insecticide on the commercial biological control agents Phytoseiulus persimilis and Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 89(6):1379-1386; 24 ref.

Stewart HC; Walde SJ, 1997. The dynamics of Aphis pomi De Geer (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on apple in Nova Scotia. Canadian Entomologist, 129(4):627-636; 33 ref.

Uygun N, 1971. Der Einfluss der Nahrungsmenge auf Fruchtbarkeit und Lebensauer von Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani 1847) (Diptera: Itonididae). Dissertation. University of Göttingen, Germany.

Warner LA; Croft BA, 1982. Toxicities of azinphosmethyl and selected orchard pesticides to an aphid predator, Aphidoletes aphidimyza. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(3):410-415

Wyss E; Villiger M; Mnller-SchSrer H, 1999. The potential of three native insect predators to control the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea. BioControl, 44(2):171-182; 20 ref.

Yukawa J; Daisuke Y; Kuniyuki M; Osamu S, 1998. Distribution and host range of an aphidophagous species of Cecidomyiidae, Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera), in Japan. Applied Entomological Zoology, 33(1):185-193.

Distribution Maps

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