Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Carabidae
(ground beetles)

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Datasheet

Carabidae (ground beetles)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Carabidae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ground beetles
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pterostichus madidus (13-17 mm long). A generalist predator known to feed on aphids, slugs and the larval stages of many pests. Found mainly in Western Europe; in some regions it is predominantly a forest species.
TitlePterostichus madidus
CaptionPterostichus madidus (13-17 mm long). A generalist predator known to feed on aphids, slugs and the larval stages of many pests. Found mainly in Western Europe; in some regions it is predominantly a forest species.
CopyrightD.A. Kendall
Pterostichus madidus (13-17 mm long). A generalist predator known to feed on aphids, slugs and the larval stages of many pests. Found mainly in Western Europe; in some regions it is predominantly a forest species.
Pterostichus madidusPterostichus madidus (13-17 mm long). A generalist predator known to feed on aphids, slugs and the larval stages of many pests. Found mainly in Western Europe; in some regions it is predominantly a forest species.D.A. Kendall
Nebria brevicollis (10-14 mm long). A generalist predator, common in arable farmland throughout Europe and parts of Asia.
TitleNebria brevicollis
CaptionNebria brevicollis (10-14 mm long). A generalist predator, common in arable farmland throughout Europe and parts of Asia.
CopyrightD.A. Kendall
Nebria brevicollis (10-14 mm long). A generalist predator, common in arable farmland throughout Europe and parts of Asia.
Nebria brevicollisNebria brevicollis (10-14 mm long). A generalist predator, common in arable farmland throughout Europe and parts of Asia.D.A. Kendall
Agonum dorsale (6-8 mm long). An important predator of many aphid pests and the eggs of several dipterous (fly) pests. Widespread in Europe and parts of Asia.
TitleAgonum dorsale
CaptionAgonum dorsale (6-8 mm long). An important predator of many aphid pests and the eggs of several dipterous (fly) pests. Widespread in Europe and parts of Asia.
Copyright©D.A. Kendall
Agonum dorsale (6-8 mm long). An important predator of many aphid pests and the eggs of several dipterous (fly) pests. Widespread in Europe and parts of Asia.
Agonum dorsaleAgonum dorsale (6-8 mm long). An important predator of many aphid pests and the eggs of several dipterous (fly) pests. Widespread in Europe and parts of Asia.©D.A. Kendall
Harpalus affinis (9-12 mm long). A common polyphagous predator of aphids and other pests, but also feeds extensively on plant seeds. Widespread throughout the Palaeartic, although doubtful in North America.
TitleHarpalus affinis
CaptionHarpalus affinis (9-12 mm long). A common polyphagous predator of aphids and other pests, but also feeds extensively on plant seeds. Widespread throughout the Palaeartic, although doubtful in North America.
Copyright©D.A. Kendall
Harpalus affinis (9-12 mm long). A common polyphagous predator of aphids and other pests, but also feeds extensively on plant seeds. Widespread throughout the Palaeartic, although doubtful in North America.
Harpalus affinisHarpalus affinis (9-12 mm long). A common polyphagous predator of aphids and other pests, but also feeds extensively on plant seeds. Widespread throughout the Palaeartic, although doubtful in North America.©D.A. Kendall

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Carabidae

Preferred Common Name

  • ground beetles

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Carabidae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ChadPresent, Widespread
South AfricaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent
IndiaPresent
IndonesiaPresent
KazakhstanPresent, Widespread
North KoreaPresent, Widespread
PhilippinesPresent, Widespread
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresent
TurkeyPresent, Widespread
TurkmenistanPresent, Widespread

Europe

BelgiumPresent
DenmarkPresent, Widespread
EstoniaPresent, Widespread
FinlandPresent, Widespread
FrancePresent, Widespread
GermanyPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LatviaPresent, Widespread
LithuaniaPresent, Widespread
MoldovaPresent, Widespread
NetherlandsPresent, Widespread
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent, Widespread
RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Central RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Eastern SiberiaPresent, Widespread
-Northern RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Southern RussiaPresent, Widespread
-Western SiberiaPresent, Widespread
SlovakiaPresent, Widespread
SpainPresent, Widespread
SwedenPresent, Widespread
UkrainePresent, Widespread
United KingdomPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent, Widespread
Dominican RepublicPresent, Widespread
El SalvadorPresent, Widespread
GuatemalaPresent, Widespread
HaitiPresent, Widespread
HondurasPresent, Widespread
JamaicaPresent, Widespread
MexicoPresent, Widespread
NicaraguaPresent, Widespread
PanamaPresent, Widespread
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Widespread
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlaskaPresent, Widespread
-ConnecticutPresent, Widespread
-FloridaPresent, Widespread
-TexasPresent, Widespread

Oceania

New ZealandPresent

South America

EcuadorPresent, Widespread

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Acyrthosiphon pisumNymphs
AgriotesLarvae
Agriotes obscurusLarvae
Agriotes sputatorLarvae
Agrotis ipsilonLarvae
Agrotis segetumLarvae
AnastrephaLarvae
Anisoplia segetumAdults
Anomala antiquaLarvae
Antheraea pernyiLarvae
Antheraea yamamaiLarvae
Anticarsia gemmatalisPupae
Aphis craccivoraNymphs
Aphis fabaeNymphs
Aphis pomiNymphs
Aproaerema modicellaLarvae
Archips argyrospilusLarvae/Pupae
Atteva fabriciellaLarvae
Brevicoryne brassicaeNymphs
Chaetosiphon fragaefoliiNymphs
Chrysolina hypericiLarvae
Chrysolina quadrigeminaLarvae
Chrysomela populiLarvae/Pupae
Chrysomela tremulaLarvae/Pupae
Cnaphalocrocis medinalisEggs
Cochylis hospesLarvae/Pupae
Colias eurythemeLarvae
Contarinia triticiLarvae
Cornu aspersum
Cydia leucostomaLarvae
Cydia pomonellaEggs/Larvae/Pupae
Delia antiquaEggs/Larvae
Delia coarctataEggs/Larvae/Pupae
Delia floralisEggs/Larvae
Delia radicumEggs/Larvae/Pupae
Diabrotica barberiLarvae
Diabrotica virgifera virgiferaLarvae
Euxoa ochrogasterEggs/Larvae/Pupae
Helicoverpa armigeraPupae
Heteropsylla cubanaNymphs
Hypera posticaAdults/Larvae
Hypsipyla robustaLarvae
Lemyra imparilisLarvae
Leptinotarsa decemlineataAdults/Eggs/Larvae/Pupae
Limax maximus
Limonius californicusAdults/Eggs/Larvae
Listronotus oregonensisEggs/Larvae/Pupae
Lymantria disparLarvae/Pupae
Macrosiphum euphorbiaeNymphs
Melanoplus bivittatusEggs
Melolontha melolonthaLarvae
Metopolophium dirhodumNymphs
Mythimna separataLarvae
Myzus persicaeNymphs
Nilaparvata lugensNymphs
Opisina arenosellaLarvae
Orseolia oryzaeLarvae
Oscinella fritEggs/Larvae
Pemphigus bursariusNymphs
Philaenus spumariusNymphs
PhyllophagaEggs/Larvae
Pieris brassicaeLarvae
Pieris rapaeEggs/Larvae
Popillia japonicaEggs/Larvae
Psila rosaeEggs
Pyrrhalta luteolaLarvae
Rhagoletis pomonellaLarvae/Pupae
Rhopalosiphum padiAdults/Nymphs
Sarasinula plebeia
Scapteriscus vicinusNymphs
Sitodiplosis mosellanaLarvae
Sitona lineatusAdults/Larvae
Sogatella furciferaEggs/Nymphs
Spodoptera exiguaLarvae
Spodoptera frugiperdaLarvae/Pupae
Spodoptera praeficaLarvae
Staphylinus olensAdults

References

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Abdelgader H; Heimbach U, 1992. The effect of some insect growth regulators (IGRs) on first instar larvae of the carabid beetle Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using different application methods. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 31:171-177

Abu Yaman IK, 1960. Natural control on cabbage root fly populations and influence of chemicals. Mededelingen van de Landbouwhoogeschool te Wageningen, 60: 1-57.

Allen RT, 1979. The occurrence and importance of ground beetles in agricultural and surrounding habitats. In: Erwin T, Ball G, Whitehead D, eds. Carabids: Their Evolution, Natural History and Classification. The Hague, Netherlands: Junk, 485-505.

Allen WR; Hagley EAC, 1989. Epigeal arthropods as predators of mature larvae and pupae of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae). Environmental Entomology, 19(2):309-312.

Altieri MA; Hagen KS; Trujillo J; Caltagirone LE, 1982. Biological control of Limax maximus and Helix aspersa by indigenous predators in a daisy field in central coastal California. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 3(4):387-390; [1 fig.].

Andersen J; Refseth D; Hanssen O; Ottesen P, 1989. Additions and corrections to Lindroth, C.H. 1985-86. The Carabidae (Coleoptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Norvegica, B, 36(2):115-117

Anderson J, 1987. Qualitative changes in the Norwegian carabid beetle fauna during the present century. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 22(1-4):35-44

Anderson JM, 1972. Food and feeding of Notiophilus biguttatus F. (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Revue Ecologie Biologie du Sol, 9: 177-184.

Anderson R; Nash R; O'Connor JP, 1997. Irish Coleoptera. A revised and annotated list. Irish Naturalists' Journal, Entomological Supplement:81 pp.; 14 pp. of ref.

Andrewes HE, 1929. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Carabidae. Volume I. Carabinae. London: Taylor and Francis.

Andrewes HE, 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Coleoptera. Carabidae. Volume II Harpalinae I. London: Taylor and Francis.

Arndt E, 1985. A key to the larvae of the European species of Carabus (Col., Carabidae). Entomologische Nachrichten und Berichte, 29(2):49-62

Arndt E, 1991. Familie Carabidae. In: Klausnitzer B, ed. Die Larven der Kafer Mittleeuropas, Band 1, Adephaga. Krefeld: Goecke & Evers, 45-141.

Ashby JW, 1974. A study of arthropod predation of Pieris rapae L. using serological and exclusion techniques. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11(2):419-425

Attygalle AB; Meinwald J; Liebherr JK; Eisner T, 1991. Sexual dimorphism in the defensive secretion of a carabid beetle. Experientia, 47(3):296-299

Aubrook EW, 1949. Amara familiaris Duft. (Col., Carabidae) feeding in flower heads. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 85: 44.

Aukema B, 1990. Taxonomy, life history and distribution of three closely related species of the genus Calathus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Tijdschift voor Entomologie, 133(2):121-141

Aukema B, 1991. Fecundity in relation to wing-morph of three closely related species of the melanocephalus group of the genus Calathus (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Oecologia, 87(1):118-126

Ayre K; Port GR, 1996. Carabid beetles recorded feeding on slugs in arable fields using ELISA. Slug and snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK: British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, UK.

Baguette M; Hance T, 1997. Carabid beetles and agricultural practices: influence of soil ploughing. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. Entomological Research in Organic Agricuture, 15: 185-190.

Baines D; Stewart R; Boivin G, 1990. Consumption of carrot weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by five species of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundant in carrot fields in southwestern Quebec. Environmental Entomology, 19(4):1146-1149

Ball GE, 1960. Carabidae. In: Arnett R, ed. The beetles of the United States. Washington, D.C.: 55-181.

Barker GM, 1991. Biology of slugs (Agriolimacidae and Arionidae: Mollusca) in New Zealand hill country pastures. Oecologia, 85(4):581-595.

Basedow T, 1973. The influence of predatory arthropods of the soil surface on the abundance of phytophagous insects in agriculture. Pedobiologia, 13:410-422

Basedow T, 1990. The frequency of aphids and their natural enemies in sugarbeet fields in relation to different factors of intensive farming. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Okologie, 19(2):170-176

Basedow T, 1990b. Effects of insecticides on Carabidae and the significance of these for agriculture and species number. In: Stork N, ed. The role of ground beetles in ecological and environmental studies. Andover: Intercept Ltd., 115-125.

Basedow T; Borg A; De Clercq R; Nijveldt W; Scherney P, 1976. Untersuchungen uber das Vorkommen der Laufkafer (Col. Carabidae) auf Europaischen Getreidefelden. Entomophaga, 21: 59-72.

Basedow T; Rzehak H; Dickler E, 1990. Studies on the flight activity of epigeal predatory arthropods using light- and window-traps. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 7(4-6):386-394

Basilewsky P, 1950. Revision generale des Harpalinae d'Afrique et de Madagascar (Coleoptera Carabidae). Premiere partie. Annales du Musee Royal du Congo Belge, Tervuren, Serie in-8o Sciences Zoologiques, 6: 1-283.

Basilewsky P, 1951. Revision generale des Harpalinae d'Afrique et de Madagascar (Coleoptera Carabidae). Deuxieme Partie. Annales du Musee Royal du Congo Belge, Tervuren, Serie in-8o Sciences Zoologiques, 9: 1-333.

Bassett P, 1978. Damage to winter cereals by Zabrus tenebrioides (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Plant Pathology, 27(1):48

Battoni F; Tombesi M, 1989. Observations on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of some Italian species of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Giornale Italiano di Entomologia, 4(21):183-190

Bauer T, 1974. Ethologische, autokologische und okophysiologische Untersuchungen an Elaphrus cupreus DFT. und Elaphrus riparius L. (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Oecologia (Berlin), 14: 139-196.

Bennett FD; Yaseen M, 1987. Investigations for the possibilities of biological control of slugs in Honduras. Ceiba, 28(2):229-234.

Best RL; Beegle CC, 1977. Food preferences of five species of carabids commonly found in Iowa cornfields. Environmental Entomology, 6(1):9-12

Betz JO, 1992. Studies on winter-active larvae of the ground beetle Carabus problematicus (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Pedobiologia, 36(3):159-167

Beutel RG, 1992. Study on the systematic position of Metriini based on characters of the larval head (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Systematic Entomology, 17(3):207-218

Bhathal JS; Dhaliwal GS, 1990. Feeding efficiency of natural enemies of whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvath). Indian Journal of Entomology, 52(2):223-225

Blackwelder RE, 1982. A Checklist of the Coleopterous Insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and South America. USA: Smithsonian IP.

Booij CJH; Noorlander J; Theunissen J, 1997. Intercropping cabbage with clover: effects on ground beetles. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture. Entomological Research in Organic Agricuture, 15: 261-268.

Bousquet Y, 1988. Dyschirius of America north of Mexico: descriptions of new species with keys to species groups and species (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist, 120(4):361-387

Bousquet Y, 1989. Descriptions of the larvae of Pterostichus ohionis Csiki and P. blanchardi Horn with a key to larvae of eastern North American Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Canadian Entomologist, 121(1):27-42

Bousquet Y; Larochelle A, 1993. Catalogue of the Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, Carabidae including Cicindelini) of America north of Mexico. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, No. 167:397 pp.

Brandmayr P; Ferrero E; Brandmayr TZ, 1980. Larval versus imaginal taxonomy and the systematic status of the ground beetle taxa Harpalus and Ophonus (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini). Entomologia Generalis, 6(2/4):335-353

Breuer M; Devkota B, 1990. Control of Thauemtopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) by extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 110(2):128-135

Bruinink PJ, 1990. Some notes on the diet of the groundbeetle Pterostichus versicolor Sturm (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 60(3-4):153-166

Brust GE, 1991. A method for observing below-ground pest-predator interactions in corn agroecosystems. Journal of Entomological Science, 26(1):1-8

Brust GE; Stinner BR; McCartney DA, 1986. Predator activity and predation in corn agroecosystems. Environmental Entomology, 15(5):1017-1021

BSnninger M, 1937. Monographie der Subtribus Scaritina (Col. Carab.). I. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1937: 81-160.

BSnninger M, 1938. Monographie der Subtribus Scaritina (Col. Carab.). II. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1938: 41-181.

BSnninger M, 1939. Monographie der Subtribus Scaritina (Col. Carab.). III. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 1939: 126-161.

Buchs W; Heimbach U; Czarnecki E, 1991. Effects of different rape seed dressings on carabid beetles: laboratory and semifield tests. Gesunde Pflanzen, 43(9):299-306

Burgess AF, 1911. Calosoma sycophanta: its life history, behaviour and successful colonisation in New England. U.S. Department of Agriculture Bur. Ent. Bull., 101: 94 pp.

Burn AJ, 1982. The role of predator searching efficiency in carrot fly egg loss. Annals of Applied Biology, 101(1):154-159

Cammprts R; Cammprts MC; Detrain C, 1988. Response of the myrmecophilous beetles Edaphopaussus favieri (Carabidae: Paussinp) and Dichillus minutus (Tenebrionidae) to the trail of their host, Pheidole pallidula. Actes des Colloques Insectes Sociaux, No. 5:199-206

Casale A; Giachino PM; Pantaleoni R, 1996. Life history and pre-imaginal stages of Dromius meridionalis (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Dromiini) in Sardinia. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 60(4):363-371; 25 ref.

Cavazzuti P, 1989. Monograph of the genus Procerus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini). Monografia del genere Procerus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)., xii + 200 pp.

Chapman PA, 1994. Control of leatherjackets by natural enemies: the potential role of the ground beetle Pterostichus melanarius. Proceedings - Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, Brighton, UK, 21-24 November, 1994, vol. 2. Bracknell, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 933-934

Charrier S; Petit S; Burel F, 1997. Movements of Abax parallelepipedus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in woody habitats of a hedgerow network landscape: a radio-tracing study. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 61(2/3):133-144; 51 ref.

Chen DeNiu; Zhang GuoQing; Xu WenXian; Liu YanHong; Cheng XingMin; Wu JiQing, 1996. A study of complementary techniques for snail control. Slug & snail pests in agriculture. Proceedings of a Symposium, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK, 24-26 September 1996., 425-432; 5 ref.

Chen LF; Liu SZ, 1992. Studies on the biological and ecological characteristics of Calathus (Dolichus) halensis Schll (Col.: Carabidae). Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 8(4):186-187

Chiverton PA, 1987. Predation of Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) by polyphagous predatory arthropods during the aphids' pre-peak period in spring barley. Annals of Applied Biology, 111(2):257-269

Choate PM, 1990. Checklist of the ground beetles of Florida (Coleoptera: Carabidae) literature records. Florida Entomologist, 73(3):476-491

Cilgi T; Holland JM; Turner DE; Frampton GK; Wratten SD; Jepson PC, 1994. Pesticide drift and the potential toxicity to beneficial carabids. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 17(4):220-236

Clark MS; Gage SH; Spence JR, 1997. Habitats and management associated with common ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Michigan agricultural landscape. Environmental Entomology, 26(3):519-527; 50 ref.

Coaker TH; Williams DA, 1963. The importance of some Carabidae and Staphylinidae as predators of the cabbage root fly Erioischia brassicae (Bouche). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 6: 156-164.

Cole JFH; Pilling ED; Boykin R; Ruberson JR, 1997. Effects of Karate)> insecticide on beneficial arthropods in Bollgard)> cotton. 1997 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, USA, January 6-10, 1997: Volume 2., 1118-1120.

Coombes DS; Sotherton NW, 1986. The dispersal and distribution of polyphagous predatory Coleoptera in cereals. Annals of Applied Biology, 108(3):461-474

Cortez M-H; Trujillo A-J, 1994. Incidencia del gusano cogollero y sus enemigos naturales en tres agrosistemas de maiz. (Incidence of the fall armyworm and its natural enemies in three maize agrosystems). Turrialba, 44: 1-9.

Darlington PJ Jr, 1968. The carabid beetles of New Guinea. Part III. Harpalinae (continued): Perigonini to Pseudomorphini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 137: 1-253.

Darlington PJ Jr, 1971. The carabid beetles of New Guinea. Part IV. General considerations; analysis and history of fauna; taxonomic supplement. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 142: 129-337.

Darlington PJ, 1950. Paussid beetles. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 76: 47-142.

Davidson BS; Eisner T; Witz B; Meinwald J, 1989. Defensive secretion of the carabid beetle Pasimachus subsulcatus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 15(6):1689-1697

Davies MJ, 1953. The contents of the crops of some British carabid beetles. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 89: 18-23.

Day KR; Marshall S; Heaney C, 1993. Associations between forest type and invertebrates: ground beetle community patterns in a natural oakwood and juxtaposed conifer plantations. Forestry (Oxford), 66(1):37-50

De Carvalho L, 1987. Essai monographique des coleopteres protopaussines et paussines. Contenant des descriptions et iconographie des taxa actuelles et fossiles avec des clefs dichotomiques de toutes les especes. (Monograph on the protopaussine and paussine Coleoptera. Containing descriptions and illustrations of living and fossil species with dichotomous keys to all species). Lisbon, Portugal: Centro de Estudos de Fitossanidada do Armazenamento, Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical.

De Clercq R; Casteels H; Janssens J, 1991. Influence of pesticides on the epigeal arthropod fauna in laboratory tests. Bulletin SROP, 14: 110-114.

De Mire PB, 1990. Les Coleopteres carabiques du Tibesti. (The carabid Coleoptera of Tibesti). Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 26: 499-554.

Deguibe JP, 1991. Observations sur des carabiques predateurs de chenilles depredatrices du cotonnier au Nord Cameroun. (Observations on carabid predators of lepidopteran cotton pests in North Cameroon). Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 46: 249-255.

Den Boer PJ, 1977. Dispersal power and survival. Carabids in a cultivated countryside. Miscellaneous Papers, Landbouwhogeschool; Wageningen, 14: 1-190.

Den Boer PJ, 1987. On the turnover of carabid populations in changing environments. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 22: 71-83.

Dennis P; Fry GLA, 1992. Field margins: can they enhance natural enemy population densities and general arthropod diversity on farmland? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 40(1-4):95-115.

Dennison DF; Hodkinson ID, 1983. Structure of the predatory beetle community in a woodland soil ecosystem. I. Prey selection. Pedobiologia, 25(2):109-115.

Desender K, 1987. Distribution, the special case of sex-linked wing dimorphism and phenology of the life cycle in Trichotichnus lpvicollis and T. nitens. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, 34(1-3):77-84

Desender K; Baert L; Maelfait JP, 1990. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Galapagos (Ecuador) collected during the Belgian 1988-expedition. Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie, No. 60:49-54

Desender K; Bprt L; Mplfait JP, 1988. Contribution to the knowledge of the carabid beetles of Galapagos (Ecuador). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie, No. 58:55-65

Desender K; Dufrene M; Loreau M; Luff ML; Maelfait JP(Editors), 1994. Carabid beetles: ecology and evolution. Dordrecht, Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers, xii + 474 pp.

Desender K; Gossieaux P; Mplfait JP; Kerckvoorde M van; Pollet M, 1987. The position of the forest 'Zohiewoud' in the distribution of woodland carabid beetles in Belgium. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 22(1-4):329-339

Desender K; Pollet M, 1987. Life cycle strategies in the most abundant ground beetles from a heavily grazed pasture ecosystem. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 52(2a):191-199

Deuve T, 1989. Contribution a la connaissance du genre Carabus en Coree du Nord. (Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Carabus of North Korea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique de France, 94: 83-93.

Dicker GHL, 1951. Agonum dorsale Pont. (Coleoptera, Carabidae): an unusual egg-laying habit and some biological notes. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 87: 33-34.

Dixon PL; McKinlay RG, 1992. Pitfall trap catches of and aphid predation by Pterostichus melanarius and Pterostichus madidus in insecticide treated and untreated potatoes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 64(1):63-72

Dobson RM, 1961. Observations on natural mortality, parasites and predators of wheat bulb fly, Leptohylemyia coarctata (Fall.). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 52: 281-291.

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