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Toxoplasma gondii

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Datasheet

Toxoplasma gondii

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Protista
  •     Phylum: Protozoa
  •       Subphylum: Apicomplexa
  •         Order: Eucoccidiorida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Diagrammatic representation of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle.
TitleLife cycle of Toxoplasma gondii
CaptionDiagrammatic representation of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle.
CopyrightUSDA
Diagrammatic representation of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle.
Life cycle of Toxoplasma gondiiDiagrammatic representation of the Toxoplasma gondii life cycle.USDA
(a) Unsporulated oocyst in fecal float of cat feces.  Unstained.  Note double layered oocyst wall (arrow) enclosing a central undivided mass.  (b) Sporulated oocyst with a thin oocyst wall (large arrow), 2 sporocysts (arrowheads).  Each sporocyst has 4 sporozoites (small arrow), which are not in complete focus.  Unstained.
TitleStages of Toxoplasma gondii
Caption(a) Unsporulated oocyst in fecal float of cat feces. Unstained. Note double layered oocyst wall (arrow) enclosing a central undivided mass. (b) Sporulated oocyst with a thin oocyst wall (large arrow), 2 sporocysts (arrowheads). Each sporocyst has 4 sporozoites (small arrow), which are not in complete focus. Unstained.
CopyrightUSDA
(a) Unsporulated oocyst in fecal float of cat feces.  Unstained.  Note double layered oocyst wall (arrow) enclosing a central undivided mass.  (b) Sporulated oocyst with a thin oocyst wall (large arrow), 2 sporocysts (arrowheads).  Each sporocyst has 4 sporozoites (small arrow), which are not in complete focus.  Unstained.
Stages of Toxoplasma gondii(a) Unsporulated oocyst in fecal float of cat feces. Unstained. Note double layered oocyst wall (arrow) enclosing a central undivided mass. (b) Sporulated oocyst with a thin oocyst wall (large arrow), 2 sporocysts (arrowheads). Each sporocyst has 4 sporozoites (small arrow), which are not in complete focus. Unstained.USDA
(a) Schizont (arrow) with several merozoites (arrowheads) separating from the main mass.  Impression smear of infected cat intestine.  Giemsa stain. (b) A male gamete with two flagella (arrows).  Impression smear of infected cat intestine.  Giemsa stain.
TitleStages of Toxoplasma gondii
Caption(a) Schizont (arrow) with several merozoites (arrowheads) separating from the main mass. Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain. (b) A male gamete with two flagella (arrows). Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain.
CopyrightUSDA
(a) Schizont (arrow) with several merozoites (arrowheads) separating from the main mass.  Impression smear of infected cat intestine.  Giemsa stain. (b) A male gamete with two flagella (arrows).  Impression smear of infected cat intestine.  Giemsa stain.
Stages of Toxoplasma gondii(a) Schizont (arrow) with several merozoites (arrowheads) separating from the main mass. Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain. (b) A male gamete with two flagella (arrows). Impression smear of infected cat intestine. Giemsa stain.USDA
(a) Tachyzoites in impression smear of lung.  Note crescent-shaped individual tachyzoites (arrows), dividing tachyzoites (arrowheads) compared with size of host red blood cells and leukocytes.  Giema stain.  (b) Tissue cysts in section of muscle.  The tissue cyst wall is very thin (arrow) and encloses many tiny bradyzoites (arrowheads).  Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
TitleStages of Toxoplasma gondii
Caption(a) Tachyzoites in impression smear of lung. Note crescent-shaped individual tachyzoites (arrows), dividing tachyzoites (arrowheads) compared with size of host red blood cells and leukocytes. Giema stain. (b) Tissue cysts in section of muscle. The tissue cyst wall is very thin (arrow) and encloses many tiny bradyzoites (arrowheads). Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
CopyrightUSDA
(a) Tachyzoites in impression smear of lung.  Note crescent-shaped individual tachyzoites (arrows), dividing tachyzoites (arrowheads) compared with size of host red blood cells and leukocytes.  Giema stain.  (b) Tissue cysts in section of muscle.  The tissue cyst wall is very thin (arrow) and encloses many tiny bradyzoites (arrowheads).  Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
Stages of Toxoplasma gondii(a) Tachyzoites in impression smear of lung. Note crescent-shaped individual tachyzoites (arrows), dividing tachyzoites (arrowheads) compared with size of host red blood cells and leukocytes. Giema stain. (b) Tissue cysts in section of muscle. The tissue cyst wall is very thin (arrow) and encloses many tiny bradyzoites (arrowheads). Hematoxylin and eosin stain. USDA
Tissue cyst separated from host tissue by homogenization of infected brain.  Note tissue cyst wall (arrow) and hundreds of bradyzoites (arrowheads).  Unstained.
TitleStages of Toxoplasma gondii
CaptionTissue cyst separated from host tissue by homogenization of infected brain. Note tissue cyst wall (arrow) and hundreds of bradyzoites (arrowheads). Unstained.
CopyrightUSDA
Tissue cyst separated from host tissue by homogenization of infected brain.  Note tissue cyst wall (arrow) and hundreds of bradyzoites (arrowheads).  Unstained.
Stages of Toxoplasma gondiiTissue cyst separated from host tissue by homogenization of infected brain. Note tissue cyst wall (arrow) and hundreds of bradyzoites (arrowheads). Unstained.USDA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Toxoplasma gondii

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Protista
  •         Phylum: Protozoa
  •             Subphylum: Apicomplexa
  •                 Order: Eucoccidiorida
  •                     Family: Sarcocystidae
  •                         Genus: Toxoplasma
  •                             Species: Toxoplasma gondii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-FujianPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GansuPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuangdongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuangxiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GuizhouPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HainanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HeilongjiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
-HubeiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Nei MengguPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ShandongPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-XinjiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ZhejiangPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Georgia (Republic of)Disease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IndiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-DelhiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MaharashtraPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-West BengalPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqReported present or known to be present
IsraelReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalaysiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeLast reported1985OIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information available
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EthiopiaLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
GabonPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
GhanaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaLast reported2000OIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
SudanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
West AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-AlbertaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-British ColumbiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OntarioPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-QuebecPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
MexicoReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
USASerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-AlaskaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-CaliforniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ColoradoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-FloridaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GeorgiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-HawaiiPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-IllinoisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-IowaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-LouisianaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MarylandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MassachusettsPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MinnesotaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-MissouriPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New JerseyPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-New YorkPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-North CarolinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-OhioPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-South CarolinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TennesseePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TexasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-WashingtonPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
-BahiaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-CearaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-GoiasPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Mato GrossoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ParaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-ParanaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-PernambucoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-Sao PauloPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
ChileReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguaySerological evidence and/or isolation of the agentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SurinamePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
UruguayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicLast reported1998OIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceOIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Reported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationNo information available
SlovakiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported2003OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-QueenslandPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-TasmaniaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-VictoriaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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The name Toxoplasma (toxon = arc, plasma = form) is derived from the crescent shape of the tachyzoite stage. There are 3 infectious stages of T. gondii: the tachyzoites (in groups), the bradyzoites (in tissue cysts), and the sporozoites (in oocysts).

The tachyzoite is often crescent-shaped and is approximately the size (2 x 6 µm) of a red blood cell. The anterior end of the tachyzoite is pointed, and the posterior end is rounded. It has a pellicle (outer covering), several organelles including subpellicular microtubules, mitochondria, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, a Golgi apparatus, apicoplast, ribosomes, a micropore, and a well-defined nucleus. The nucleus is usually situated toward the central area of the cell.

Tissue cysts vary in size from 5-70 µm and remain intracellular. The tissue cyst wall is elastic, thin <0.5 µm), and may enclose hundreds of the crescent-shaped, slender T. gondii stage known as bradyzoites (Dubey et al., 1998). The bradyzoites are approximately 7 x 1.5 µm. Bradyzoites differ structurally only slightly from tachyzoites. They have a nucleus situated toward the posterior end whereas the nucleus in tachyzoites is more central. Bradyzoites are more slender than are tachyzoites and they are less susceptible to destruction by proteolytic enzymes than are tachyzoites.

In freshly passed faeces, oocysts are unsporulated (non-infective). Unsporulated oocysts are totally or nearly spherical and are 10 x 12 µm in diameter. They sporulate (become infectious) outside the cat within 1 to 5 days depending upon aeration and temperature. Sporulated oocysts contain two ellipsoidal sporocysts. Each sporocyst contains 4 sporozoites. The sporozoites are 2 x 6 to 8 µm in size.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Enhydra lutris kenyoni (northern sea otter)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesAlaskaPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013
Enhydra lutris nereis (southern sea otter)USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaPathogenicUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003
Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian monk seal)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species; HawaiiPathogenicNational Marine Fisheries Service, 2007

Risk and Impact Factors

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  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Pathogenic

References

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Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Speer CA, 1998. Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 11(2):267-299; 183 ref

National Marine Fisheries Service, 2007. Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Second Revision. In: Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi). Second Revision : National Marine Fisheries Service.165 pp.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). In: Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.179 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/030403.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment of the Northern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) Recovery Plan. In: Southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment of the Northern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) Recovery Plan : US Fish and Wildlife Service.175 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/Recovery%20Plan%20SW%20AK%20DPS%20Sea%20Otter%20Aug13.pdf

Distribution Maps

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