Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Tinca tinca
(tench)

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Datasheet

Tinca tinca (tench)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tinca tinca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tench
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Actinopterygii
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Tinca tinca was introduced into the River Murray in 1876 and has spread rapidly throughout the Murray-Darling System. A small population has been reported in the Onkaparinga River. Numbers were reduced in the 197...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • tench

Other Scientific Names

  • Cyprinus tinca Linnaeus, 1758
  • Cyprinus tinca auratus Bloch, 1782
  • Cyprinus tincaauratus Bloch, 1782
  • Cyprinus tincauratus Lacepède, 1803
  • Cyprinus tincaurea Shaw, 1804
  • Cyprinus zeelt Lacepède, 1803
  • Tinca aurea Gmelin, 1788
  • Tinca chrysitis Fitzinger, 1832
  • Tinca communis Swainson, 1839
  • Tinca italica Bonaparte, 1836
  • Tinca limosa Koch, 1840
  • Tinca linnei Malm, 1877
  • Tinca vulgaris Fleming, 1828
  • Tinca vulgaris cestellae Segre, 1904
  • Tinca vulgaris maculata Costa, 1838

International Common Names

  • English: green tench
  • French: aiguillon; aiguillons; beurote

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: lien
  • Germany: alia
  • Greece: glini; glínia
  • Hungary: compó
  • Iceland: grunnungur
  • India: doctor-fish
  • Iran: laaymahi; lai ahi
  • Ireland: curaman
  • Turkey: kadife baligi

Summary of Invasiveness

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Tinca tinca was introduced into the River Murray in 1876 and has spread rapidly throughout the Murray-Darling System. A small population has been reported in the Onkaparinga River. Numbers were reduced in the 1970s when the common carp population increased. T. tinca do not represent a serious threat to native fish in Australia.

The US Fish Commission imported T. tinca into North America from Germany in 1877 for use as a food and sport fish, distributing it to some 36 states during the late nineteenth century. Although most T. tinca introductions were the result of intentional stockings, some introductions were the result of escape from holding facilities. Recent studies indicate that T. tinca is no longer present in areas it had been introduced to or in some case was temporarily established. Baughman (1947) presented evidence suggesting that the presence of centrarchids somehow prevented the more widespread establishment of T. tinca in the USA.

Their omnivorous diet and tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions has lead to some countries labelling tench an invasive species, due to concerns over competition with native fish (ISSG, 2011).

 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Actinopterygii
  •                     Order: Cypriniformes
  •                         Family: Cyprinidae
  •                             Genus: Tinca
  •                                 Species: Tinca tinca

Description

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Tinca tinca has 4 dorsal spines, 8-9 dorsal soft rays, 3-4 anal spines, 6-8 anal soft rays and a caudal fin with 19 rays. T. tinca has a thickset, heavy and laterally-compressed body, with a deep and short caudal peduncle. The skin is thick and slimy with small scales embedded. It is usually olive-green but at times dark green or almost black, with golden reflections on the ventral surface. The head is triangular, with orange-red eyes and a relatively long rounded snout. The mouth is terminal, small with thick lips and a pair of well-developed barbels, one at each corner of the mouth. Fully grown, T. tinca is 64 cm (25 inches) long and weighs some 7.5 kg (16 pounds). In the male, the first two rays of the pelvic fins are very thick and this fin is long enough to completely cover the anal opening. Most males reach maturity when they are 3 years old, averaging 9.5 cm; females mature at 4 years of age, measuring 12.5 cm.

Distribution

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Tinca tinca is distributed throughout the whole of Europe, with the exception of northern Scandinavia, the northern part of Scotland, the Crimea and the western part of the Balkan Peninsula; it is also found in many parts of western Asia. It can be found even in the mildly salty water of the eastern Baltic. It is found in many states in the USA (Nico and Fuller, 2011).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
AzerbaijanPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
ChinaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeFishBase, 2004
IndiaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
IranPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
IsraelPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2011
JapanPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
JordanNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
KazakhstanPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
KyrgyzstanPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
MongoliaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
TurkeyPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
UzbekistanPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004

Africa

MadagascarNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
MoroccoPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
South AfricaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
TunisiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
ZambiaNo information availableFroese and Pauly, 2011Not established
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
USAPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004; USGS, 2004
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-DelawarePresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-IdahoPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-IndianaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-IowaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-KansasPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-MarylandPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-MichiganPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-MississippiPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-MissouriPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-NevadaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-New YorkPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-OhioPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-OregonPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-TennesseePresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-TexasPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-UtahPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-VermontPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedNico and Fuller, 2011

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
AustriaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
BelarusPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
BelgiumPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
BulgariaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
CroatiaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
DenmarkPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
EstoniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
FinlandPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
FrancePresentNativeFishBase, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
GreecePresentNativeFishBase, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
HungaryPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
IrelandPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004; DAISIE, 2011
ItalyPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
LatviaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
LithuaniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
MacedoniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
MoldovaPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
NetherlandsPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
NorwayPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004; DAISIE, 2011; NOBANIS, 2011
PolandPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
RomaniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
Russian FederationPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
SlovakiaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
SloveniaPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
SpainPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
SwedenPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
UKPresentNativeFishBase, 2004
-ScotlandPresentNativeFroese and Pauly, 2011
UkrainePresentNativeFishBase, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeFishBase, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004
New ZealandPresentIntroducedFishBase, 2004

History of Introduction and Spread

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See Nico and Fuller (2011) for a history of introduction of this species in the USA.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia 1876 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Canada USA 1895 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Chile 1908 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Cyprus Hungary 1984 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)
Finland Poland 1936 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
India UK 1870 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Indonesia Netherlands 1927 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Ireland UK 1700-1799 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Italy pre-1700s Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Japan 1953 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Japan Netherlands 1961 Aquaculture (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Jordan Europe 1947 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)
Madagascar France 1936 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)
Morocco France 1945 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
New Zealand Tasmania 1867 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Norway Netherlands 1820 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Portugal Spain pre-1700s Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
South Africa UK 1896 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)
Tunisia Morocco 1965 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)
USA Germany 1877 Aquaculture (pathway cause) ,
Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)
Government Yes FishBase (2004); Nico and Fuller (2011)
Zambia USA 1946 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)UnknownFishBase (2004)
Zimbabwe South Africa 1920 Hunting, angling, sport or racing (pathway cause)Unknown Yes FishBase (2004)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Brackish

Natural Food Sources

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Food SourceLife StageContribution to Total Food Intake (%)Details
bottom sediment Adult 21.2
zooplankton Adult 43.8

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 4

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Fisheries / aquaculture Positive
Tourism Positive

Environmental Impact

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Impacts of the introduction of this species are largely unknown, for further discussion see Nico and Fuller (2011).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Live feed

Human food and beverage

  • Canned meat
  • Fresh meat
  • Frozen meat
  • Live product for human consumption
  • Whole

References

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Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.

Baughman JL, 1947. The tench in America. Journal of Wildlife Management, 11(3):197-204.

Breton B; Horoszewicz L; Bieniarz K; Epler P, 1980. Temperature and reproduction in tench: effect of a rise in the annual temperature regime on gonadotropin level, gametogenesis and spawning. 2. The female. Reproduction, Nutrition, Developpement, 20(4A):1011-1024.

Breton B; Horoszewicz L; Billard R; Bieniarz K, 1980. Temperature and reproduction in tench: effect of a rise in the annual temperature regime on gonadotrophin level, gametogenesis and spawning. 1. The male. Reproduction, Nutrition, Developpement, 20(1A):105-118.

Buchtová H; Svobodová Z; Flajshans M; Vorlová L, 2003. Analysis of slaughtering value of diploid and triploid population of tench (Tinca tinca, Linnaeus 1758). Czech Journal of Animal Science, 48(7):285-294.

Bulinski R; Kutulas K, 1970. Choline content of freshwater and sea fish. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 26(4):229-231.

Carral JM; Rodriguez R; Celada JD; Sáez-Royuela M; Aguilera A; Melendre P, 2003. Successful gonadal development and maturation of tench (Tinca tinca L.) in small concrete ponds. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 19(3):130-131.

DAISIE, 2011. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

FishBase, 2004. Entry for Tinca tinca. Main ref. Kottelat M, 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:84. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 26 February 2004.

Flajshans M; Billard R, 1995. Preface. In: The International Workshop on the Biology and Culture of the Tench, Tinca tinca, Ohrada Hunting Lodge, Czech Republic, 28 August-1 September, 1994. Polish Archives of Hydrobiology, 42:5-6.

Flajshans M; Linhart O; Kvasnicka P, 1993. Genetic studies of tench (Tinca tinca L.): induced triploidy and tetraploidy and first performance data. Aquaculture, 113(4):301-312.

Froese R; Pauly D, 2011. FishBase. http://www.fishbase.org

Horoszewicz L, 1983. Reproductive rhythm in Tench, Tinca Tinca (L.), in fluctuating temperatures. Aquaculture, 32(1/2):79-92.

ISSG, 2011. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Klinkhardt M; Tesche M; Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, 179 pp.

Kouril J, 1987. Induced ovulation of the female tench (Tinca tinca L.): effect of the numbers and levels of pituitary injections on the results of stripping. Práce VU^acute~RH Vodnany, No. 16:53-61.

Kouril J; Barth J, 1981. Ovulation induction by LHRH to facilitate artificial stripping of tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin VURH Vodnany, 17(1):13-18.

Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J, 1981. The use of arginine-vasotocin and LHRH for induction of ovulation and artificial spawning of tench (Tinca tinca). Reprodukce, genetika a hybridizace ryb. Vedecká konference, Milenovice 28.-30. ríjna 1980., 78-81.

Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Flegel M; Krchnák V; Pospísek J, 1986. Testing the effects of some analogues of LHRH on the induction of ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 22(3):3-12.

Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Flegel M; Prikryl I, 1986. Induced ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca) following an injection of hypophysis and LHRH analogues into different body regions. Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 22(2):30-39.

Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Slaninová J; Servítová L; Machácek J; Flegel M, 1983. The use of LHRH and its analogue for inducing ovulation in the tench, grass carp, common carp and wels. Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 19(2):3-16.

Kouril J; Hamácková J; Linhart O, 1984. The artificial reproduction of tench. Chov lína a jeho perspektivy., 24-31.

Kouril J; Mikodina EV; Glubokov AI; Hamácková J; Barth T; Flegel M; Charvátová J, 1989. The use of [D-Glu(NH-Ad), Trp, Leu] GnRH for ovulation induction in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 25(1):8-13.

Kouril J; Mikodina EV; Navolotskii VI; Hamácková J; Vachta R; Velek J; Bláha I; Barth T, 1990. The effect of salmon GnRH on the induction of ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin - Vyzkumny U^acute~stav Rybársky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany, 26(3):7-10.

Kvasnicka P; Flajshans M, 1992. The incidence of natural triploids in selected populations of tench (Tinca tinca). Sborník - Jihoceská Univerzita, Zemedelská Fakulta, Ceské, Budejovice, Zootechniká Rada, 9(special issue):221-222.

Morawska B, 1984. The effect of water temperature elevation on incipient and cumulative fecundity of batch-spawning tench, Tinca tinca (L.). Aquaculture, 42(3-4):273-288.

Nabrzyski M, 1975. Mercury, copper and zinc in the flesh of some freshwater fish species. Bromatologia i Chemia Toksykologiczna, 8(3):313-319.

Nico L; Fuller P, 2011. Tinca tinca. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=652

NOBANIS, 2011. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Pyka J, 1997. Daily feeding cycle tench, Tinca tinca (L.), in larval and fry stages in the conditions of pond culture. An attempt to determine daily food ration. Archiwum Rybactwa Polskiego, 5(2):279-290; 16 ref.

Rab P; Flajshans M; Linhart O, 2002. Tench - its domestication and colour mutations (in Czech). Ziva, 6:272-275.

Svobodova Z; Kolarova J, 2004. A review of the diseases and contaminant related mortalities of tench (Tinca tinca L.). Veterinární Medicína, 49(1):19-34.

USGS, 2004. Nonindigenous aquatic species database. Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758). Online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpFactSheet.asp?speciesID=652. Accessed 3 March 2004.

Wedekind H; Rennert B; Kohlmann K, 2003. Product quality in different strains of tench (Tinca tinca) tested under controlled environmental conditions. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 19(3):174-176.

Wheeler A, 1969. The fishes of the British Isles and North-west Europe. Michigan, USA: Michigan State University Press.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
NAS - Species Factsheethttp://nas.er.usgs.gov
Sea-river Newsletters - The tenchhttp://sea-river.com/112_2_gb.php

Contributors

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Main Author
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK

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