Tinca tinca (tench)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Natural Food Sources
- Air Temperature
- Pathway Causes
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Uses List
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758)
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Cyprinus tinca Linnaeus, 1758
- Cyprinus tinca auratus Bloch, 1782
- Cyprinus tincaauratus Bloch, 1782
- Cyprinus tincauratus Lacepède, 1803
- Cyprinus tincaurea Shaw, 1804
- Cyprinus zeelt Lacepède, 1803
- Tinca aurea Gmelin, 1788
- Tinca chrysitis Fitzinger, 1832
- Tinca communis Swainson, 1839
- Tinca italica Bonaparte, 1836
- Tinca limosa Koch, 1840
- Tinca linnei Malm, 1877
- Tinca vulgaris Fleming, 1828
- Tinca vulgaris cestellae Segre, 1904
- Tinca vulgaris maculata Costa, 1838
International Common Names
- English: green tench
- French: aiguillon; aiguillons; beurote
Local Common Names
- Czech Republic: lien
- Germany: alia
- Greece: glini; glínia
- Hungary: compó
- Iceland: grunnungur
- India: doctor-fish
- Iran: laaymahi; lai ahi
- Ireland: curaman
- Turkey: kadife baligi
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Tinca tinca was introduced into the River Murray in 1876 and has spread rapidly throughout the Murray-Darling System. A small population has been reported in the Onkaparinga River. Numbers were reduced in the 1970s when the common carp population increased. T. tinca do not represent a serious threat to native fish in Australia.
The US Fish Commission imported T. tinca into North America from Germany in 1877 for use as a food and sport fish, distributing it to some 36 states during the late nineteenth century. Although most T. tinca introductions were the result of intentional stockings, some introductions were the result of escape from holding facilities. Recent studies indicate that T. tinca is no longer present in areas it had been introduced to or in some case was temporarily established. Baughman (1947) presented evidence suggesting that the presence of centrarchids somehow prevented the more widespread establishment of T. tinca in the USA.
Their omnivorous diet and tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions has lead to some countries labelling tench an invasive species, due to concerns over competition with native fish (ISSG, 2011).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Chordata
- Subphylum: Vertebrata
- Class: Actinopterygii
- Order: Cypriniformes
- Family: Cyprinidae
- Genus: Tinca
- Species: Tinca tinca
DescriptionTop of page
Tinca tinca has 4 dorsal spines, 8-9 dorsal soft rays, 3-4 anal spines, 6-8 anal soft rays and a caudal fin with 19 rays. T. tinca has a thickset, heavy and laterally-compressed body, with a deep and short caudal peduncle. The skin is thick and slimy with small scales embedded. It is usually olive-green but at times dark green or almost black, with golden reflections on the ventral surface. The head is triangular, with orange-red eyes and a relatively long rounded snout. The mouth is terminal, small with thick lips and a pair of well-developed barbels, one at each corner of the mouth. Fully grown, T. tinca is 64 cm (25 inches) long and weighs some 7.5 kg (16 pounds). In the male, the first two rays of the pelvic fins are very thick and this fin is long enough to completely cover the anal opening. Most males reach maturity when they are 3 years old, averaging 9.5 cm; females mature at 4 years of age, measuring 12.5 cm.
DistributionTop of page
Tinca tinca is distributed throughout the whole of Europe, with the exception of northern Scandinavia, the northern part of Scotland, the Crimea and the western part of the Balkan Peninsula; it is also found in many parts of western Asia. It can be found even in the mildly salty water of the eastern Baltic. It is found in many states in the USA (Nico and Fuller, 2011).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
See Nico and Fuller (2011) for a history of introduction of this species in the USA.
IntroductionsTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Natural Food SourcesTop of page
|Food Source||Life Stage||Contribution to Total Food Intake (%)||Details|
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||24|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||4|
Pathway CausesTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||Positive|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impacts of the introduction of this species are largely unknown, for further discussion see Nico and Fuller (2011).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Live feed
Human food and beverage
- Canned meat
- Fresh meat
- Frozen meat
- Live product for human consumption
ReferencesTop of page
Arkhipchuk VV, 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk. Ukraine.
Baughman JL, 1947. The tench in America. Journal of Wildlife Management, 11(3):197-204.
Breton B; Horoszewicz L; Bieniarz K; Epler P, 1980. Temperature and reproduction in tench: effect of a rise in the annual temperature regime on gonadotropin level, gametogenesis and spawning. 2. The female. Reproduction, Nutrition, Developpement, 20(4A):1011-1024.
Breton B; Horoszewicz L; Billard R; Bieniarz K, 1980. Temperature and reproduction in tench: effect of a rise in the annual temperature regime on gonadotrophin level, gametogenesis and spawning. 1. The male. Reproduction, Nutrition, Developpement, 20(1A):105-118.
Buchtová H; Svobodová Z; Flajshans M; Vorlová L, 2003. Analysis of slaughtering value of diploid and triploid population of tench (Tinca tinca, Linnaeus 1758). Czech Journal of Animal Science, 48(7):285-294.
Bulinski R; Kutulas K, 1970. Choline content of freshwater and sea fish. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 26(4):229-231.
Carral JM; Rodriguez R; Celada JD; Sáez-Royuela M; Aguilera A; Melendre P, 2003. Successful gonadal development and maturation of tench (Tinca tinca L.) in small concrete ponds. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 19(3):130-131.
FishBase, 2004. Entry for Tinca tinca. Main ref. Kottelat M, 1997. European freshwater fishes. Biologia 52, Suppl. 5:84. Online at www.fishbase.org. Accessed 26 February 2004.
Flajshans M; Billard R, 1995. Preface. In: The International Workshop on the Biology and Culture of the Tench, Tinca tinca, Ohrada Hunting Lodge, Czech Republic, 28 August-1 September, 1994. Polish Archives of Hydrobiology, 42:5-6.
Klinkhardt M; Tesche M; Greven H, 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, 179 pp.
Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J, 1981. The use of arginine-vasotocin and LHRH for induction of ovulation and artificial spawning of tench (Tinca tinca). Reprodukce, genetika a hybridizace ryb. Vedecká konference, Milenovice 28.-30. ríjna 1980., 78-81.
Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Flegel M; Krchnák V; Pospísek J, 1986. Testing the effects of some analogues of LHRH on the induction of ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 22(3):3-12.
Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Flegel M; Prikryl I, 1986. Induced ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca) following an injection of hypophysis and LHRH analogues into different body regions. Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 22(2):30-39.
Kouril J; Barth T; Hamácková J; Slaninová J; Servítová L; Machácek J; Flegel M, 1983. The use of LHRH and its analogue for inducing ovulation in the tench, grass carp, common carp and wels. Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 19(2):3-16.
Kouril J; Mikodina EV; Glubokov AI; Hamácková J; Barth T; Flegel M; Charvátová J, 1989. The use of [D-Glu(NH-Ad), Trp, Leu] GnRH for ovulation induction in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin VU^acute~RH Vodnany, 25(1):8-13.
Kouril J; Mikodina EV; Navolotskii VI; Hamácková J; Vachta R; Velek J; Bláha I; Barth T, 1990. The effect of salmon GnRH on the induction of ovulation in female tench (Tinca tinca). Buletin - Vyzkumny U^acute~stav Rybársky a Hydrobiologicky Vodnany, 26(3):7-10.
Kvasnicka P; Flajshans M, 1992. The incidence of natural triploids in selected populations of tench (Tinca tinca). Sborník - Jihoceská Univerzita, Zemedelská Fakulta, Ceské, Budejovice, Zootechniká Rada, 9(special issue):221-222.
Nico L; Fuller P, 2011. Tinca tinca. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida, USA: USGS. http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=652
Pyka J, 1997. Daily feeding cycle tench, Tinca tinca (L.), in larval and fry stages in the conditions of pond culture. An attempt to determine daily food ration. Archiwum Rybactwa Polskiego, 5(2):279-290; 16 ref.
Rab P; Flajshans M; Linhart O, 2002. Tench - its domestication and colour mutations (in Czech). Ziva, 6:272-275.
USGS, 2004. Nonindigenous aquatic species database. Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758). Online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/SpFactSheet.asp?speciesID=652. Accessed 3 March 2004.
Wheeler A, 1969. The fishes of the British Isles and North-west Europe. Michigan, USA: Michigan State University Press.
ContributorsTop of page
Uma Sabapathy Allen
Human Sciences, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, OX10 8DE, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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