Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Apple chat fruit disease
(apple chat fruit)



Apple chat fruit disease (apple chat fruit)


  • Last modified
  • 27 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apple chat fruit disease
  • Preferred Common Name
  • apple chat fruit
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Diseases of unknown aetiology
  •   Species: Apple chat fruit disease
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apple chat fruit disease

Preferred Common Name

  • apple chat fruit

Other Scientific Names

  • Apple chat fruit MLO

International Common Names

  • English: apple small fruit; chat fruit of apple
  • Spanish: fruto achatado del manzano
  • French: fruit atrophié; fruit atrophie du pommier

Local Common Names

  • Austria: Kleinfrüchtigkeit
  • Czechoslovakia (former): maloplodost jablone
  • Denmark: småfrugter
  • Germany: Kleinfrüchtigkeit
  • Italy: mela nana
  • Netherlands: kleinvruchtigheid
  • Norway: eple småfrukt
  • Poland: zdrobnienie owoców
  • Slovakia: malopodost' jablone
  • Sweden: kattäpple

EPPO code

  • APCF00 (Apple chat fruit agent)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Diseases of unknown aetiology
  •     Species: Apple chat fruit disease

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


South AfricaPresentNémeth, 1986

North America

USAPresentNémeth, 1986


BelgiumPresentNémeth, 1986
BulgariaPresentGerginova, 1974
DenmarkRestricted distributionNémeth, 1986; EPPO, 2014
FrancePresentNémeth, 1986
GermanyRestricted distributionNémeth, 1986; EPPO, 2014
GibraltarPresentNémeth, 1986
HungaryPresentNémeth, 1962
IrelandRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
ItalyPresentCropley, 1989
MoldovaPresentGuseinov, 1974
NetherlandsRestricted distributionvan der Meer, 1971; EPPO, 2014
NorwayPresentNémeth, 1986
SwedenRestricted distribution****Németh, 1986; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandAbsent, reported but not confirmedNémeth, 1986
UKRestricted distribution****Luckwill and Crowdy, 1949; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesPresentEPPO, 2014
-ScotlandPresentEPPO, 2014


New ZealandPresentNémeth, 1986

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / premature drop
Fruit / reduced size
Whole plant / elongation

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)


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===, 1978. Data sheets on quarantine organisms. Set 1. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 8(2).

Anon, 1999. Pathogen-tested material of Malus, Pyrus and Cydonia. Bulletin OEPP, 29(3):239-252; 7 ref.

Anon., 1956. Rapport d'activitT 1955. Stations Federales d'Essais Agricoles, Lausanne. Annal Agricole Suisse, 70:399-513.

Anon., 1978. EPPO data sheet on apple chat fruit (Mycoplasma) A2. Paris, France: EPPO.

Atkinson JD, 1971. Diseases in tree fruits in New Zealand. In: New Zealand DSIR Information Series, No. 81:130-133.

Beakbane BA; Mishra MD; Posnette AF, 1971. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with chat fruit and rubbery wood disease of apple, Malus domestica (Borkh.), compared with those in strawberry with green petal disease. Journal of General Microbiology, 66:55-62.

Campbell AI; Hughes L, 1974. Clonal improvements by elimination of virus. Report of Long Ashton Research Station for 1973, 37-38.

Campbell AI; Sparks TR, 1986. The effect of chat fruit on Cox's Orange Pipin apple. Acta Horticulturae, 193:319-322.

Canova A, 1963. La malattia della mela nana (chat fruit) in Italia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 2:71.

Clark MF; Davies DL, 1984. Mycoplasma detection and characterization. Report East Malling Research Station for 1983. Maidstone, Kent UK, 108-109

Cropley R, 1989. Apple chat fruit. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of pome fruits and simulating non-infectious disorders. Washington State Cooperative Extension and US Department of Agriculture, No. SP003:43-50.

Cropley R; Posnette AF, 1969. Chat fruit disease of Tydeman's Early Worcester apple. Report of East Malling Research Station for 1968, 137-141.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Flegg CL; Crosse JE; Gayner JA, 1977. Chemotherapy of apple chat fruit and other virus-like diseases of fruit trees. Annual Report, East Malling Research Station for 1976, 148-149.

Gerginova Ts, 1974. Apple chat fruit virus. I. Identification and investigation on the incidence on some cultivars and clonal rootstocks. Virusni bolezni po rasteniyata. Bulg. Acad. Sci. Sofia Bulgaria, 165-170

Guise CM; Webster AD; Adams AN, 1996. Detection of apple chat fruit disease. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1996. Volume 3. Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November, 1996., 913-917; 8 ref.

Guseinov IN, 1974. Apple chat fruit. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 2:41.

Heinze K, 1978. Guidelines of pest control. Vol. II. Pests and diseases in fruit- and vine-growing. Leitfaden der Schadlingsbekampfung. Band II. Schadlinge und Krankheiten im Obst- und Weinbau. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft MBH. Stuttgart German Federal Republic, Ed. 4:vi + 606 pp.

Kegler H; Schmidt HE; Schimanski HH, 1968. Der Nachweis weiterer Viruskrankheiten an Obstgeholzen in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Nachrichtenblaatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, Berlin, NF, 22:168-175.

Kristensen HR; Thomsen A, 1970. Virussygdomme hos aebletraeer, Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 74:1-23.

Luckwill LC, 1957. Virus diseases of fruit trees VI. Graft transmission of chat fruit. Report of Long Ashton Research Station for 1957, 56-59.

Luckwill LC, 1963. Apple chat fruit. Technical Communication No. 30. East Malling, UK: Commonwealth Bureau of Horticulture and Plantation Crops, 27-28.

Luckwill LC; Crowdy SH, 1949. Virus diseases of fruit trees II. Observations on rubbery wood, chat fruit, and mosaic in apples. Progress Report. Annual Report Long Ashton Research Station for 1949, 68-79.

Meer FA van der, 1971. Unfruitful trees of some apple varieties. Annals de Phytopathologie No. Hors Serie, 49-56.

Meer FA van der, 1980. Chat fruit of apples. Fruitteelt, 70(18):608-611

Morvan G, 1959. Les maladies a virus du pommier et des arbes fruitiers a pepins. Journees Fruit, Moraich, d'Avignon 1958, 45-54.

NTmeth M, 1962. Fruit virus diseases and their control in the Hungarian People's Republic. Archiv fnr Gartenbau (Berlin), 10(2):99-112.

NTmeth M, 1986. Mycoplasma diseases of fruit trees. In: Virus, Mycoplasma, and Rickettsia Diseases of Fruit Trees. Budapest, Hungary: Akademiai Kaido, 576-578.

Palmiter DH, 1970. Evidence of a relationship between green mottle, chat fruit and flat apple viruses of apple. Plant Disease Reporter, 54(2):105-108.

Posnette AF, 1969. Tolerance of virus infection in crop plants. Review of Applied Mycology, 48(3):113-118.

Posnette AF; Campbell AI; Cropley R, 1976. The re-indexing of EMLA scionwood trees and rootstocks on special stock nurseries. Acta Horticulturae, 67:275-277.

Posnette AF; Cropley R, 1965. Field experiments with chat-fruit virus disease of apple. Annals Applied Biology, 55:439-445.

Posnette AF; Millikan DF, 1958. Some virus-like disorders of pome fruit trees in Missouri. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:200-201.

Ryden K, 1977. Virus and mycoplasma diseases in Swedish apple trees. Vaxtskyddsrapporter Tradgard, Lantbrukshogskolan, 1:45 pp.

Seemüller E, 1990. Chat Fruit. In: Jones AL, Aldwinckle HS. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. St Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 69-70.

Sharples RO, 1968. The cell characteristics of apple chat fruit. Journal of Horticultural Science, 43:383-384.

Smith IM; Dunez J; Phillips DH; Lelliott RA; Archer SA, 1988. European Handbook of Plant Diseases. London, UK: Blackwell Scientific.

Sparks TR; Campbell; AI; Parkinson S, 1983. Improvement of fruit trees by virus elimination. Report of Long Ashton Research Station for 1982, 29-31.

Stickles JE, 1983. Virus and virus-like diseases. Annual Report, East Malling Research Station for 1982, 87.

Wallace T; Swarbrick T; Ogilvie L, 1944. Some new troubles in apples, with special reference to variety Lord Lambourne. Fruit Grower, 98:427.

Distribution Maps

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