Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apate monachus
(black borer)

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Datasheet

Apate monachus (black borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apate monachus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A. monachus adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionA. monachus adult.
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
A. monachus adult.
AdultA. monachus adult.©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775

Preferred Common Name

  • black borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Apate carmelita Fabricius, 1801
  • Apate francisca Fabricius, 1801
  • Apate gibba Fabricius, 1798
  • Apate mendica Olivier, 1790
  • Apate monacha Fabricius, 1801
  • Apate monachus var. rufiventris Lucas, 1843
  • Apate semicostata Thomson, 1857
  • Apate senii Stefani, 1911

International Common Names

  • English: borer, black; borer, twig; date palm bostrichid; twig borer
  • Spanish: bostríquido monje; taladrador del cafeto; taladrador del tallo del cafeto
  • French: borer noir du cacaoyer; borer noir du caféier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bohrer, Schwarzer Kaffee-

EPPO code

  • APATMO (Apate monachus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Bostrichidae
  •                             Genus: Apate
  •                                 Species: Apate monachus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 15 Dec 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, Localized
BeninPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent, Widespread
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent, Localized
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent, Widespread
MoroccoPresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

IndiaPresent2016via PestLens newsletter; Original citation: Duarai et al. (2017)
-Tamil NaduPresent
IsraelPresent, Localized
LebanonPresent, Localized
SyriaPresent, Localized
TurkeyPresent

Europe

FrancePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CorsicaPresent
GermanyAbsent, Intercepted only
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SardiniaPresentOriginal citation: Luciano, 1982
-SicilyPresent, Localized
MaltaPresent
SpainPresent, Localized

North America

CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent, Widespread
GuadeloupePresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
Puerto RicoPresent, Widespread
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
United States
-FloridaAbsent, Intercepted only

South America

BrazilPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Leucaspis dorsigera Predator/parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Teretriosoma flaviclava Predator Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Teretriosoma sanguineum Predator Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae

References

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Agboton, C., Onzo, A., Ouessou, F. I., Goergen, G., Vidal, S., Tamò, M., 2014. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Annapolis), 14(229), 1-11. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1093/jisesa/ieu091

Alene, D. C., Messi, J., Quilici, S., 2005. Contribution to knowledge of arthropod fauna associated with Ricinodendron heudelotii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Cameroon. (Contribution à la connaissance de la faune d'arthropodes associée à Ricinodendron heudelotii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) au Cameroun). Fruits (Paris), 60(2), 121-132. doi: 10.1051/fruits:2005016

Atuahene, S. K. N., 1976. Incidence of Apate spp. (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on young forest plantation species in Ghana. Ghana Forestry Journal, 2, 29-35 + 2 pl., 1 fig.

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey.

Bonsignore, C. P., 2012. Apate monachus (Fabricius, 1775), a bostrichid pest of pomegranate and carob trees in nurseries - short communication. Plant Protection Science, 48(2), 94-97. http://www.cazv.cz

Cabrera, I., Martínez, S., 2001. Susceptibility to insects in selections and varieties of Annona muricata and Persea americana M. in Puerto Rico. (Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de Annona muricata L. y Persea americana M. en Puerto Rico). Agronomía Mesoamericana, 12(1), 99-103.

Chararas C, Balachowsky AS, 1962. Fam. Bostrychidae. In: Entomologie Appliquée a L'Agriculture. Tome I. ColéoptFres (premier volume). Paris, France: Masson et Cie. Eds., 304-315.

Clavier H, 1994. + propos d'Apate monachus F. en Corse. L'Éntomologiste, 50(6):349.

Conti, F., Fisicaro, R., Raciti, E., Carta, D., Suma, P., Nucifora, S., Mazzeo, G., Siscaro, G., 2013. What are the "new" pests that infest citrus?. (Quali sono i "nuovi" parassiti che infestano gli agrumi). Informatore Agrario, 69(34), 56-59. http://www.informatoreagrario.it

Cymorec S, 1969. Fam. Bostrychidae. In: Freude H, Harde KW, Lohse GA, eds. Krefeld, Germany: Goecke & Evers, 13-25.

Durai, M. V., Balu, A., Raja Rishi R., Karthikeyan A., 2017. First report of Apate monachus (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) plantations in India, 5(6), 1900-1902.

Egwuatu, R. I., Taylor, T. A., 1977. Insect species associated with Cajanus cajan (L.) Druce (pigeon pea) in Nigeria and their monthly abundance. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 42(3), 271-275.

Entwistle PF, 1972. Pests of coffee. London, UK: Longman Group Limited.

Espa±ol F, 1955. Los bostrfquidos de Catalu±a y Baleares (Col. Cucujoidea). Madrid, Spain: Publicaciones del Instituto de Biologfa Aplicada, 107-135.

Fuente JM, 1932. Catálogo sistemático-geográfico de los Coleópteros de la Penfnsula Ibérica y Baleares. Boletfn de la Sociedad Entomológica Espa±ola, 15:19-24.

Jamal, A., 1994. Major insect pests of gum arabic trees Acacia senegal Willd. and Acacia seyal L. in Western Sudan. Journal of Applied Entomology, 117(1), 10-20. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.1994.tb00702.x

Kocher L, 1956. Catalogue commenté des ColéoptFres du Maroc. Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique ChOrifien, 11(4):1-119.

Lesne P, 1901. Synopsis des Bostrychides paléarctiques. L'Abeille, 30:73-136.

Lesne P, 1904. Supplément au Synopsis des Bostrychides paléarctiques. L'Abeille, 30:153-168.

Lesne P, 1924. Les ColéoptFres Bostrychides de l'Afrique Tropicale Frantaise. Encyclopedie Entomologique, 3:1-301.

Lesne P, 1938. Bostrychidae. In: Junk W, Schenkling S, eds. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 161. Gravenhage, Germany: W. Junk.

López-Colón JI, 1997. Presencia de Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775 en Andalucfa (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N.S.), 13(4): 294.

Loyttyniemi K, Loyttyniemi R, 1988. Annual flight patterns of timber insects in miombo woodland in Zambia. Bostrichidae, Lyctidae and Anobiidae (Coleoptera). Annales Entomologici Fennici, 54(2):65-67.

Lucas H, 1853. Communications. Bulletin de la SocietF Entomologique de France, (troisiFme série), 1:57.

Luciano, P., 1982. New damage caused in Sardinia by Apate monachus Fabr. (Coleoptera Bostrychidae). (Nuovi danni causati in Sardegna da Apate monachus Fabr. (Coleoptera Bostrychidae)). Studi Sassaresi, 29, 67-71.

Mallamaire, A. , 1933. [English Title not available]. (Les Borers du Caféier en Basse Côte d'Ivoire. Le Monohammus siemcola, White et l'Apate monachus, F. dangereux parasites des caféiers dans le Sud-Est de la Basse Cote d'Ivoire (Cerele d'Assinie)). Bull. Com. Afr. occid. fr, 15(2-3), 425-455 pp.

Martinez de la Escalera M, 1914. Los coleópteros de Marruecos. Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain, No. 11.

Nardi, G. L., Mifsud, D., 2015. The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands (Coleoptera). ZooKeys, (No.481), 69-108. http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4663#articles.php?id=4663&_suid=142477249934803291367341862361

Németh, T., Kotán, A., Merkl, O., 2015. First record of Apate monachus in Hungary, with a checklist of and a key to the Hungarian powderpost beetles (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)., 7699-105. http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/folentom/FoliaEntHung_2015_Vol_76_99.pdf

Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd.

Roberts, H., 1969. Forest insects of Nigeria with notes on their biology and distribution. In: Inst. Pap. Commonw. For. Inst , (44) : Oxford.206 pp.

Distribution References

Agboton C, Onzo A, Ouessou F I, Goergen G, Vidal S, Tamò M, 2014. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Insect Science (Annapolis). 14 (229), 1-11. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1093/jisesa/ieu091

Alene D C, Messi J, Quilici S, 2005. Contribution to knowledge of arthropod fauna associated with Ricinodendron heudelotii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Cameroon. (Contribution à la connaissance de la faune d'arthropodes associée à Ricinodendron heudelotii Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) au Cameroun.). Fruits (Paris). 60 (2), 121-132. DOI:10.1051/fruits:2005016

Atuahene S K N, 1976. Incidence of Apate spp. (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on young forest plantation species in Ghana. Ghana Forestry Journal. 29-35 + 2 pl., 1 fig.

Becker G, 1980. Timber deterioration by Apate monachus F. and other bostrichid species in West Africa and its prevention. Materials and Organisms. 15 (3), 245-249. https://eurekamag.com/research/006/807/006807074.php

Bohlen E, 1973. Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. In: Crop pests in Tanzania and their control. Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey. 142pp.

Bonsignore C P, 2012. Apate monachus (Fabricius, 1775), a bostrichid pest of pomegranate and carob trees in nurseries - short communication. Plant Protection Science. 48 (2), 94-97. http://www.cazv.cz

Bucher P, 1954. Studies on Intracellular Symbionts VIII. The Symbiotic Institutions of the Bostrychids (Apatids). (Studien an Intrazellularen Symbionten VIII. Die Symbiontischen Einrichtungen der Bostrychiden (Apatiden)). Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere. 550-633. DOI:10.1007/BF00406635

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cabrera I, Martínez S, 2001. Susceptibility to insects in selections and varieties of Annona muricata and Persea americana M. in Puerto Rico. (Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de Annona muricata L. y Persea americana M. en Puerto Rico.). Agronomía Mesoamericana. 12 (1), 99-103.

Chararas C, Balachowsky AS, 1962. (Fam. Bostrychidae). In: Entomologie Appliquée a L'Agriculture. Tome I. ColéoptFres (premier volume), [ed. by Masson et Cie]. Paris, France: 304-315.

Clavier H, 1994. (+ propos d'Apate monachus F. en Corse). In: L'Éntomologiste, 50 (6) 349.

Clavier H, 1994a. About Apate monachus F. in Corsica. (A propos d'Apate monachus F. en Corse). Entomologiste. 50 (6), 349. https://eurekamag.com/research/020/643/020643321.php

Conti F, Fisicaro R, Raciti E, Carta D, Suma P, Nucifora S, Mazzeo G, Siscaro G, 2013. What are the "new" pests that infest citrus? (Quali sono i "nuovi" parassiti che infestano gli agrumi.). Informatore Agrario. 69 (34), 56-59. http://www.informatoreagrario.it

Cymorec S, 1969. Fam. Bostrychidae., [ed. by Freude H, Harde KW, Lohse GA]. Krefeld, Germany: Goecke & Evers. 13-25.

Durai MV, Balu A, Raja Rishi R, Karthikeyan A, 2017. First Report of Apate monachus (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) Plantations in India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 5 (6), 1900-1902.

Egwuatu R I, Taylor T A, 1977. Insect species associated with Cajanus cajan (L.) Druce (pigeon pea) in Nigeria and their monthly abundance. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 42 (3), 271-275.

Fuente JM, 1932. (Catálogo sistemático-geográfico de los Coleópteros de la Península Ibérica y Baleares). In: Boletin de la Sociedad Entomológica Española, 15 19-24.

Halperin J, Damoiseau R, 1980. The bostrychid beetles (Coleoptera) of Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology. 47-53.

Jamal A, 1994. Major insect pests of gum arabic trees Acacia senegal Willd. and Acacia seyal L. in Western Sudan. Journal of Applied Entomology. 117 (1), 10-20. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1994.tb00702.x

Kocher L, 1956. (Catalogue commenté des ColéoptFres du Maroc). In: Travaux de l'Institut Scientifique ChOrifien, 11 (4) 1-119.

Lesne P, 1901. (Synopsis des Bostrychides paléarctiques). In: L'Abeille, 30 73-136.

Lesne P, 1904. (Supplément au Synopsis des Bostrychides paléarctiques). In: L'Abeille, 30 153-168.

Lesne P, 1938. Bostrychidae. (Bostrychidae.). In: Coleopterorum Catalogus, No. 161. [ed. by Junk W, Schenkling S]. Gravenhage, Netherlands: W. Junk.

López-Colón JI, 1997. (Presencia de Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775 en Andalucfa (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae)). In: Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N.S.), 13 (4) 294.

Löyttyniemi K, Löyttyniemi R, 1988. Annual flight patterns of timber insects in miombo woodland in Zambia. Bostrichidae, Lyctidae and Anobiidae (Coleoptera). Annales Entomologici Fennici. 54 (2), 65-67.

Lucas H, 1853. Communications. In: Bulletin de la SocietF Entomologique de France, 1 57.

Luciano P, 1982. New damage caused in Sardinia by Apate monachus Fabr. (Coleoptera Bostrychidae). (Nuovi danni causati in Sardegna da Apate monachus Fabr. (Coleoptera Bostrychidae).). Studi Sassaresi. 67-71.

MALLAMAIRE A, 1933. [English Title not available]. (Les Borers du Caféier en Basse Côte d'Ivoire. Le Monohammus siemcola, White et l'Apate monachus, F. dangereux parasites des caféiers dans le Sud-Est de la Basse Cote d'Ivoire (Cerele d'Assinie).). Bull. Com. Afr. occid. fr. 15 (2-3), 425-455 pp.

Martinez de la Escalera M, 1914. (Los coleópteros de Marruecos)., Madrid, Spain: Trabajos del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales.

Nardi G L, Mifsud D, 2015. The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands (Coleoptera). ZooKeys. 69-108. http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4663#articles.php?id=4663&_suid=142477249934803291367341862361

Németh T, Kotán A, Merkl O, 2015. First record of Apate monachus in Hungary, with a checklist of and a key to the Hungarian powderpost beetles (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Folia Entomologica Hungarica. 99-105. http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/folentom/FoliaEntHung_2015_Vol_76_99.pdf

NHM, 1912. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1919. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1935. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1936. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1944. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1950. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1992. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Özturk N, Ulusoy M R, 2009. Pests and natural enemies determined in pomegranate orchards in Turkey. Acta Horticulturae. 277-284. http://www.actahort.org

Roberts H, 1969. Forest insects of Nigeria with notes on their biology and distribution. In: Inst. Pap. Commonw. For. Inst. Oxford. 206 pp.

Vrydagh J-M, 1958. Contribution to the study of Bostrychidae 16. Collection of the G. Frey museum in Tutzing. (Contribution a l'etude des Bostrychidae 16. Collection du musee G. Frey A Tutzing). Entomologische Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey Tutzing bei Munchen. 1068-1077. https://www.zobodat.at/pdf/Entomologische-Arbeiten-Museum-Frey_9_1068-1077.pdf

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