Invasive Species Compendium

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Tritrichomonas foetus

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Datasheet

Tritrichomonas foetus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tritrichomonas foetus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Protista
  •     Phylum: Protozoa
  •       Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora
  •         Order: Trichomonadida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
TitleTritrichomonas foetus
CaptionTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
CopyrightRobert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
Tritrichomonas foetusTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.Robert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
TitleTritrichomonas foetus
CaptionTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
CopyrightRobert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
Tritrichomonas foetusTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.Robert H. BonDurant

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tritrichomonas foetus

Other Scientific Names

  • Trichomonas foetus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Protista
  •         Phylum: Protozoa
  •             Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora
  •                 Order: Trichomonadida
  •                     Family: Trichomonadidae
  •                         Genus: Tritrichomonas
  •                             Species: Tritrichomonas foetus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BurundiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Cabo VerdeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Côte d'IvoireAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DjiboutiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EritreaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
GhanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuineaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
KenyaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
LibyaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MadagascarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MauritiusAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NamibiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
South AfricaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
TogoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Asia

BahrainAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IndonesiaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
KazakhstanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
-SabahAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MyanmarAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
North KoreaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
OmanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PhilippinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saudi ArabiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SingaporeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Sri LankaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SyriaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TaiwanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ThailandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
TurkmenistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United Arab EmiratesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UzbekistanAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

Europe

AndorraPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
Bosnia and HerzegovinaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CzechiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
EstoniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
FrancePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
GermanyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
IcelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
IrelandAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Isle of ManAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
ItalyPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
JerseyAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LatviaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LiechtensteinAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
LithuaniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NetherlandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
NorwayAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
PortugalAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SlovakiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SloveniaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
SwedenAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
UkraineAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

North America

BarbadosAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BelizeAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
BermudaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
British Virgin IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CanadaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Cayman IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
CubaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
CuraçaoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
DominicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
HaitiAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
JamaicaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
MartiniquePresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Kitts and NevisAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
United StatesPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
-IdahoPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI Data Mining (2001)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
French PolynesiaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)CAB Abstracts Data Mining
New ZealandPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
SamoaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VanuatuAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
BrazilPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)
Falkland IslandsAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
GuyanaAbsent, No presence record(s)OIE Handistatus (2005)
VenezuelaPresentOIE Handistatus (2005)

Pathogen Characteristics

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Morphology/motility


Tritrichomonas foetus is typically 9-18 µm long x 5-10 µm wide, and somewhat spindle-shaped, although it can be quite pleomorphic. For comparison, the head of a Bos taurus sperm is approximately 9 x 5 µm. Organisms tend to become spheroid after lengthy in vitro culture. Three flagellae, about equal in length to the body of the organism, project from a periflagellar canal at the so-called anterior end of the protozoan. A recurrent flagellum reflects backward and is attached along one side as the ‘undulating membrane’ before continuing separately as the posterior flagellum. This wavy membrane is attached for nearly the entire length of the body of the parasite. An axostyle runs antero-posteriorly through the core of the organism, and its rapidly tapering form can be seen projecting posteriorly from the midline for a distance of about a fifth of a body length (Honigberg, 1978). The live organism exhibits an unusual motility, characterized as ‘aimless rolling’ or ‘jerky’ by various authors (See website listing for video of motility, morphology.)

Essentially all of these descriptors apply to T. suis as well. Infectivity experiments in the 1950s showed that the swine organism could establish infection in the bovine uterus and reproduce lesions consistent with bovine trichomonosis following inoculation at either estrus or diestrus (Fitzgerald et al., 1958; Kerr, 1958). Reciprocal infections (reproductive tract infection of swine by instillation of T. foetus from cattle) were less able to establish infection. Moreover, in recent experiments, intravaginal deposition in cattle of T. suis isolates have generally not reproduced trichomonosis (Cobo et al., 2001). However, the failure to establish infection may have occurred because the experimental inocula were from culture-adapted organisms, and not field strains.


Tissue location and life cycle


The organism is not notably invasive, dwelling for the most part in the lumen of the female tract, from the oviducts to the vagina, or in the crypts on the surface epithelium of the penis and prepuce. Rarely, organisms are found in sub-surface areas of the fetal membranes, or beneath the basement membrane of the gut or lung of an aborted fetus (Rhyan et al., 1988; Rhyan et al., 1995). It is likely that these organisms arrived in such locations in the superficial mucosal of the gut or lung as a result of fetal swallowing or inhalation of amniotic fluid, rather than by direct invasion of multiple fetal tissue layers.

As far as is known, Tritrichomonas foetus has a single life cycle stage, reproducing by simple mitosis of the trophozoite. A ‘pseudo cyst’ has been described, but whether it represents a dormant organism capable of prolonged survival in a hostile environment is not known (Mariante et al., 2004). The epidemiological relevance of a cyst stage, if present, is not known, but it may represent the means by which the rare, chronic ‘carrier cow’ remains infected throughout pregnancy.


Surface molecules and serotypes


The surface of T. foetus is widely coated with a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) moiety (Shaia et al., 1998). Part or all of the components of this surface molecule are shed into the environment as soluble antigen (SGA) (Singh et al., 2001). The purpose of this shedding is not known, but, using immunohistochemical methods, the antigen can be observed on the surface of and within host uterine cells or penile epithelial cells following infection (Corbeil et al., 2003). Other surface antigens are immunodominant, giving rise to at least three recognized serotypes, namely brisbane, belfast, and manley. The significance of differentiating these serotypes is unknown, as all of them have a spectrum of pathogenicity amongst their many strains (Rocha-Azevedo and Melo-Braga, 2005), and immunization against one serotype cross-protects against another (Florent, 1957). Furthermore, an isolate has been shown to change serotypes during the course of infection (Wosu, 1977).


Microbial metabolism


As a primitive eukaryote, T. foetus does not have mitochondria. Instead, its energy-generating system is contained in numerous membrane-bound, electron-dense packets known as hydrogenosomes, which are round to ovoid organelles that contain ferredoxin as a major iron-binding molecule. Hydrogenosomes function much like mitochondria, providing energy in the form of ATP from oxidation of carbohydrate substrates via a complex electron transport system (Müller, 1980; Müller, 1988; Dinbergs and Lindmark, 1989; Lindmark et al., 1989; Lindmark and Meuller, 1973; Lloyd et al., 1979). Whether hydrogenosomes, like mitochondria, contain their own circular DNA is a subject of some controversy (Cerkasovova et al., 1976; Turner and Muller, 1983).

T. foetus is probably dependent on host lipids, since it neither synthesizes cholesterol from a variety of potential precursors nor ß-oxidizes fatty acids (Beach et al., 1991).


T. foetus is a facultative anaerobe, able to fermentatively degrade a variety of carbohydrate sources, including endogenous glycogen, or exogenous glucose, pyruvate and malate. End products include acetate, succinate, glycerol, carbon dioxide and, under anaerobic conditions, molecular hydrogen. The parasite has rather limited biosynthetic capability, and must acquire many macromolecules from the host environment. For example, it must salvage purines and pyrimidines, because of an inability to synthesize them de novo (Jarroll et al., 1983). Novel, perhaps unique enzymatic pathways are critical elements of purine and pyrimidine salvage. T. foetus has robust endonucleases that presumably help it in this salvage function. Similarly, the parasite produces a battery of powerful proteases, including low molecular-weight cysteine proteinases. Some of these are released into the parasite’s immediate environment, presumably to hydrolyze large proteins into peptides for its use (Mallinson et al., 1995; North, 1994; Thomford et al., 1996). Some of the proteinases have a cosmopolitan substrate preference, including host immunoglobulin, which T. foetus can bind non-specifically and degrade (Granger and Warwood, 1996; Talbot et al., 1991). Likewise, the serum complement component, C3, can be degraded by T. foetus extracellular proteinases (Kania et al., 2001). In vitro studies have suggested that at least some of the cytotoxic properties of T. foetus are a result of the action of proteinases on target cells; thus, they can be considered virulence factors. Among important protein substrates in bovine female reproductive tract secretions, fibrinogen, fibronectin, and albumin are rapidly degraded by the extracellular proteinases of T. foetus, while lactoferrin, IgG1, and IgG2 were more slowly digested. Transferrin, IgM and IgA were most resistant. Additionally, the parasite releases significant amounts of hydrolases into the environment, including beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase (Lockwood et al., 1988).


In vitro culture


T. foetus is readily cultivated axenically in partially defined media, including cysteine-peptone-liver infusion-maltose (CPLM) medium, Clausen’s medium, Diamond’s TYM medium, and modified Plastridge medium (Diamond, 1983). Additionally, a commercial culture kit is available which contains growth/transport medium in a transparent pouch (InPouch TF, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, Oregon, USA). In addition, long-term maintenance of T. foetus and some non-pathogenic trichomonads can be achieved in Schneider’s egg shell medium (Schneider, 1942).

Non-T. foetus trichomonads of faecal origin may occasionally appear in samples of preputial secretions (smegma) submitted for diagnostic culture. These include various tetratrichomonad species (4 anterior flagellae) and Pentatrichomonashominis (5 anterior flagellae). While differentiation of these genera may be relatively straightforward with sophisticated microscopy, it can be challenging for clinicians who examine live specimens at the bright-field microscope level, often without benefit of phase contrast optics.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host

References

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Beach DH; Holz GGJr; Singh BN; Lindmark DG, 1991. Phospholipid metabolism of cultured Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 44(1):97-108; 19 ref.

Cerkasovova A; Cerkasov J; Kulda J; Reischig J, 1976. Circular DNA and cardiolipin in hydrogenosomes, microbody-like organelles of trichomonads. Folia Parasitol (Praha), 23(1):33-37.

Cobo ER; Cano D; Campero CM, 2001. Experimental infection with Tritrichomonas suis in heifers. Veterinary Parasitology, 99(1):73-78; 16 ref.

Corbeil LB; Campero CM; Rhyan JC; BonDurant RH, 2003. Vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 1(1):118.

Dinbergs ID; Lindmark DG, 1989. Hydrogenosomal ATP:AMP phosphotransferase (adenylate kinase) of Tritrichomonas fetus. Biochemistry and molecular biology of 'anaerobic' protozoa., 172-185; [Proceedings of the Symposium on 'Anaerobic Protozoa' held at Cardiff, UK, July 23-24, 1988.]; 17 ref.

Fitzgerald PR; Johnson AE; Thorne JL; Hammond DM, 1958. Experimental infections of the bovine genital system with trichomonads from the digestive tracts of swine. Am J Vet Res, 19(73):775-779.

Florent A, 1957. Immunologic dans la trichomonase bovine. Les infestation a Trichomonas; Paris: Masson. Int. Symp. Europ, Reims, May, 1957; p. 313.

Granger BL; Warwood SJ, 1996. Rapid internalization and degradation of surface-bound antibodies by Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 82(4):539-549; 48 ref.

Honigberg BM, 1978. Trichomonads of veterinary importance. In: Kreier J, ed. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, Inc., 207-273.

Jarroll EL; Lindmark DG; Paolella P, 1983. Pyrimidine metabolism in Tritrichomonas foetus.. Journal of Parasitology, 69(5):846-849; 21 ref.

Kania SA; Reed SL; Thomford JW; BonDurant RH; Hirata K; Corbeil RR; North MJ; Corbeil LB, 2001. Degradation of bovine complement C3 by trichomonad extracellular proteinase. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 78(1):83-96; 53 ref.

Kerr WR, 1958. Experiments in cattle with Trichomonas suis. Vet Rec 70:613-5.

Lindmark DG; Eckenrode BL; Halberg LA; Dinbergs ID, 1989. Carbohydrate, energy and hydrogenosomal metabolism of Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis.. Journal of Protozoology, 36(2):214-216; 27 ref.

Lindmark DG; Meuller M, 1973. Hydrogenosome, a cytoplasmic organelle of the anaerobic flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus, and its role in pyruvate metabolism. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248(22):7724-8.

Lloyd D; Lindmark DG; Meuller M, 1979. Adenosine triphosphatase activity of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of General Microbiology, 115(2):301-307.

Lockwood BC; North MJ; Coombs GH, 1988. The release of hydrolases from Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 30(2):135-142; 27 ref.

Mallinson DJ; Livingstone J; Appleton KM; Lees SJ; Coombs GH; North MJ, 1995. Multiple cysteine proteinases of the pathogenic protozoon Tritrichomonas foetus: identification of 7 diverse and differentially expressed genes. Microbiology (Reading), 141(12):3077-3085; 39 ref.

Mariante RM; Lopes LC; Benchimol M, 2004. Tritrichomonas foetus pseudocysts adhere to vaginal epithelial cells in a contact-dependent manner. Parasitol Res, 92(4):303-312.

Müller M, 1980. The hydrogenosome. In: The Eukaryotic Microbial Cell. Cambridge: Cambridge View Press, 127-143.

Müller M, 1988. Energy metabolism of protozoa without mitochondria. Annual Review of Microbiology, 42:465-488; 149 ref.

North MJ, 1994. Cysteine endopeptidases of parasitic protozoa. Methods in Enzymology, 244:523-39.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Rhyan JC; Blanchard PC; Kvasnicka WG; Hall MR; Hanks D, 1995. Tissue-invasive Tritrichomonas foetus in four aborted bovine fetuses. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 7(3):409-412; 15 ref.

Rhyan JC; Stackhouse LL; Quinn WJ, 1988. Fetal and placental lesions in bovine abortion due to Tritrichomonas foetus.. Veterinary Pathology, 25(5):350-355; 15 ref.

Rocha-Azevedo B; Melo-Braga MB; FC ES-F, 2005. Intra-strain clonal phenotypic variation of Tritrichomonas foetus is related to the cytotoxicity exerted by the parasite to cultured cells. Parasitol Res, 95(2):106-12.

Schneider MD, 1942. A new thermostable medium for the prolonged bacteria-free cultivation of Trichomonad foetus. J Parasitol, (28):428-9.

Shaia CS; Voyich J; Gillis SJ; Singh BN; Burgess DE, 1998. Purification and expression of the Tf190 adhesion in strains of Tritrichomonas foetus. Infect Immun, 66:1100-1105.

Singh A; Singh J; Grewal AS; Brar RS, 2001. Studies on some blood parameters of crossbred calves with experimental Theileria annulata infections. Veterinary Research Communications, 25(4):289-300; 44 ref.

Singh BN; BonDurant RH; Campero CM; Corbeil LB, 2001. Immunological and biochemical analysis of glycosylated surface antigens and lipophosphoglycan of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 87(4):770-777; 41 ref.

Talbot JA; Nielsen K; Corbeil LB, 1991. Cleavage of proteins of reproductive secretions by extracellular proteinases of Tritrichomonas foetus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 37(5):384-390; 46 ref.

Thomford JW; Talbot JA; Ikeda JS; Corbeil LB, 1996. Characterization of extracellular proteinases of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 82(1):112-117; 32 ref.

Turner G; Müller M, 1983. Failure to detect extranuclear DNA in Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. J Parasitol, 69(1):234-6.

Wosu LO, 1977. Trichomonas infection in a bull--an apparent change in serotype of the infecting organism. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53(7):340-1.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2004)., Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Tritrichomonas foetus - microscopy and diagnosis videoshttp://faculty.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/faculty/rhbondurant/T_Foetus_Videos.htmThree videos showing Tritichomonas foetus, similar non-T. foetus organisms and the testing and diagnosis of bulls for bovine trichomonosis. All videos are copyright of University of California, Davis, California, USA, and were kindly made available to users of the Animal Health and Production Compendium by Prof. Robert BonDurant.

Distribution Maps

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