Invasive Species Compendium

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Tritrichomonas foetus

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Datasheet

Tritrichomonas foetus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tritrichomonas foetus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Protista
  •     Phylum: Protozoa
  •       Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora
  •         Order: Trichomonadida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
TitleTritrichomonas foetus
CaptionTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
CopyrightRobert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
Tritrichomonas foetusTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.Robert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
TitleTritrichomonas foetus
CaptionTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
CopyrightRobert H. BonDurant
Tritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.
Tritrichomonas foetusTritrichomonas foetus; note three anterior flagellae and recurrent flagellum attached along one side as the 'undulating membrane'. The large nucleus is visible in the anterior portion of the protozoan, and the axostyle can be seen extending from the posterior end. Diff-Quik and iodine staining procedure (Lun and Gajadhar, 1999); original image approx. 1000 X.Robert H. BonDurant

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tritrichomonas foetus

Other Scientific Names

  • Trichomonas foetus

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Protista
  •         Phylum: Protozoa
  •             Subphylum: Sarcomastigophora
  •                 Order: Trichomonadida
  •                     Family: Trichomonadidae
  •                         Genus: Tritrichomonas
  •                             Species: Tritrichomonas foetus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BahrainDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BhutanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Brunei DarussalamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
China
-Hong KongNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Georgia (Republic of)Last reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
IndonesiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
IranNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IraqNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
IsraelNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
JapanLast reported1963OIE Handistatus, 2005
JordanOIE Handistatus, 2005
KazakhstanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, DPRDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Korea, Republic ofLast reported1989OIE Handistatus, 2005
KuwaitLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
LebanonLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SabahDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
-SarawakNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MongoliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MyanmarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NepalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
OmanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PhilippinesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
QatarNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saudi ArabiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SingaporeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sri LankaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SyriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TaiwanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TajikistanNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ThailandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkeyNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TurkmenistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
United Arab EmiratesDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
UzbekistanDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VietnamNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
YemenNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Africa

AlgeriaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
AngolaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BeninNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BotswanaLast reported1995OIE Handistatus, 2005
Burkina FasoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BurundiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CameroonNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cape VerdeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Central African RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChadNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Congo Democratic RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Côte d'IvoireDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DjiboutiDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
EgyptNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
EritreaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
GhanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuineaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Guinea-BissauNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
KenyaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
LibyaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MadagascarDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MalawiNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaliNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MauritiusDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MoroccoNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MozambiqueNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
NamibiaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NigeriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RéunionNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
RwandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Sao Tome and PrincipeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SenegalNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SeychellesNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SomaliaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
South AfricaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SudanLast reported1993OIE Handistatus, 2005
SwazilandNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TanzaniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
TogoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
TunisiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
UgandaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZambiaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
ZimbabweLast reported1996OIE Handistatus, 2005

North America

BermudaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
CanadaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
MexicoOIE Handistatus, 2005
USAReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
-IdahoPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-North CarolinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelizeDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
British Virgin IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Cayman IslandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Costa RicaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CubaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
CuraçaoDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DominicaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Dominican RepublicNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
El SalvadorNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuadeloupeNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuatemalaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
HaitiDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
JamaicaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
MartiniqueReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
NicaraguaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
PanamaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Kitts and NevisDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Trinidad and TobagoDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

South America

ArgentinaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
BoliviaOIE Handistatus, 2005
BrazilReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
ChileOIE Handistatus, 2005
ColombiaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
EcuadorLast reported1994OIE Handistatus, 2005
Falkland IslandsDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
French GuianaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
GuyanaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ParaguayLast reported2002OIE Handistatus, 2005
PeruOIE Handistatus, 2005
UruguayOIE Handistatus, 2005
VenezuelaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005

Europe

AndorraCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
AustriaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
BelarusLast reported1960OIE Handistatus, 2005
BelgiumNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
BulgariaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
CroatiaLast reported1992OIE Handistatus, 2005
CyprusLast reported1971OIE Handistatus, 2005
Czech RepublicDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
DenmarkLast reported1990OIE Handistatus, 2005
EstoniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
FinlandLast reported1952OIE Handistatus, 2005
FranceReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GermanyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
GreeceLast reported1999OIE Handistatus, 2005
HungaryOIE Handistatus, 2005
IcelandDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
IrelandDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Isle of Man (UK)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
ItalyReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
JerseyDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LatviaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LiechtensteinDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LithuaniaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
LuxembourgNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MacedoniaNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
MaltaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
MoldovaLast reported2001OIE Handistatus, 2005
NetherlandsDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
NorwayDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
PolandLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
PortugalDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
RomaniaOIE Handistatus, 2005
Russian FederationOIE Handistatus, 2005
SlovakiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SloveniaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SpainNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwedenDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
SwitzerlandLast reported1997OIE Handistatus, 2005
UKLast reported1991OIE Handistatus, 2005
-Northern IrelandLast reported1966OIE Handistatus, 2005
UkraineDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)No information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Disease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
French PolynesiaDisease not reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
New CaledoniaCAB Abstracts data miningOIE Handistatus, 2005
New ZealandReported present or known to be presentOIE Handistatus, 2005
SamoaDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
VanuatuDisease never reportedOIE Handistatus, 2005
Wallis and Futuna IslandsNo information availableOIE Handistatus, 2005

Pathogen Characteristics

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Morphology/motility


Tritrichomonas foetus is typically 9-18 µm long x 5-10 µm wide, and somewhat spindle-shaped, although it can be quite pleomorphic. For comparison, the head of a Bos taurus sperm is approximately 9 x 5 µm. Organisms tend to become spheroid after lengthy in vitro culture. Three flagellae, about equal in length to the body of the organism, project from a periflagellar canal at the so-called anterior end of the protozoan. A recurrent flagellum reflects backward and is attached along one side as the ‘undulating membrane’ before continuing separately as the posterior flagellum. This wavy membrane is attached for nearly the entire length of the body of the parasite. An axostyle runs antero-posteriorly through the core of the organism, and its rapidly tapering form can be seen projecting posteriorly from the midline for a distance of about a fifth of a body length (Honigberg, 1978). The live organism exhibits an unusual motility, characterized as ‘aimless rolling’ or ‘jerky’ by various authors (See website listing for video of motility, morphology.)

Essentially all of these descriptors apply to T. suis as well. Infectivity experiments in the 1950s showed that the swine organism could establish infection in the bovine uterus and reproduce lesions consistent with bovine trichomonosis following inoculation at either estrus or diestrus (Fitzgerald et al., 1958; Kerr, 1958). Reciprocal infections (reproductive tract infection of swine by instillation of T. foetus from cattle) were less able to establish infection. Moreover, in recent experiments, intravaginal deposition in cattle of T. suis isolates have generally not reproduced trichomonosis (Cobo et al., 2001). However, the failure to establish infection may have occurred because the experimental inocula were from culture-adapted organisms, and not field strains.


Tissue location and life cycle


The organism is not notably invasive, dwelling for the most part in the lumen of the female tract, from the oviducts to the vagina, or in the crypts on the surface epithelium of the penis and prepuce. Rarely, organisms are found in sub-surface areas of the fetal membranes, or beneath the basement membrane of the gut or lung of an aborted fetus (Rhyan et al., 1988; Rhyan et al., 1995). It is likely that these organisms arrived in such locations in the superficial mucosal of the gut or lung as a result of fetal swallowing or inhalation of amniotic fluid, rather than by direct invasion of multiple fetal tissue layers.

As far as is known, Tritrichomonas foetus has a single life cycle stage, reproducing by simple mitosis of the trophozoite. A ‘pseudo cyst’ has been described, but whether it represents a dormant organism capable of prolonged survival in a hostile environment is not known (Mariante et al., 2004). The epidemiological relevance of a cyst stage, if present, is not known, but it may represent the means by which the rare, chronic ‘carrier cow’ remains infected throughout pregnancy.


Surface molecules and serotypes


The surface of T. foetus is widely coated with a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) moiety (Shaia et al., 1998). Part or all of the components of this surface molecule are shed into the environment as soluble antigen (SGA) (Singh et al., 2001). The purpose of this shedding is not known, but, using immunohistochemical methods, the antigen can be observed on the surface of and within host uterine cells or penile epithelial cells following infection (Corbeil et al., 2003). Other surface antigens are immunodominant, giving rise to at least three recognized serotypes, namely brisbane, belfast, and manley. The significance of differentiating these serotypes is unknown, as all of them have a spectrum of pathogenicity amongst their many strains (Rocha-Azevedo and Melo-Braga, 2005), and immunization against one serotype cross-protects against another (Florent, 1957). Furthermore, an isolate has been shown to change serotypes during the course of infection (Wosu, 1977).


Microbial metabolism


As a primitive eukaryote, T. foetus does not have mitochondria. Instead, its energy-generating system is contained in numerous membrane-bound, electron-dense packets known as hydrogenosomes, which are round to ovoid organelles that contain ferredoxin as a major iron-binding molecule. Hydrogenosomes function much like mitochondria, providing energy in the form of ATP from oxidation of carbohydrate substrates via a complex electron transport system (Müller, 1980; Müller, 1988; Dinbergs and Lindmark, 1989; Lindmark et al., 1989; Lindmark and Meuller, 1973; Lloyd et al., 1979). Whether hydrogenosomes, like mitochondria, contain their own circular DNA is a subject of some controversy (Cerkasovova et al., 1976; Turner and Muller, 1983).

T. foetus is probably dependent on host lipids, since it neither synthesizes cholesterol from a variety of potential precursors nor ß-oxidizes fatty acids (Beach et al., 1991).


T. foetus is a facultative anaerobe, able to fermentatively degrade a variety of carbohydrate sources, including endogenous glycogen, or exogenous glucose, pyruvate and malate. End products include acetate, succinate, glycerol, carbon dioxide and, under anaerobic conditions, molecular hydrogen. The parasite has rather limited biosynthetic capability, and must acquire many macromolecules from the host environment. For example, it must salvage purines and pyrimidines, because of an inability to synthesize them de novo (Jarroll et al., 1983). Novel, perhaps unique enzymatic pathways are critical elements of purine and pyrimidine salvage. T. foetus has robust endonucleases that presumably help it in this salvage function. Similarly, the parasite produces a battery of powerful proteases, including low molecular-weight cysteine proteinases. Some of these are released into the parasite’s immediate environment, presumably to hydrolyze large proteins into peptides for its use (Mallinson et al., 1995; North, 1994; Thomford et al., 1996). Some of the proteinases have a cosmopolitan substrate preference, including host immunoglobulin, which T. foetus can bind non-specifically and degrade (Granger and Warwood, 1996; Talbot et al., 1991). Likewise, the serum complement component, C3, can be degraded by T. foetus extracellular proteinases (Kania et al., 2001). In vitro studies have suggested that at least some of the cytotoxic properties of T. foetus are a result of the action of proteinases on target cells; thus, they can be considered virulence factors. Among important protein substrates in bovine female reproductive tract secretions, fibrinogen, fibronectin, and albumin are rapidly degraded by the extracellular proteinases of T. foetus, while lactoferrin, IgG1, and IgG2 were more slowly digested. Transferrin, IgM and IgA were most resistant. Additionally, the parasite releases significant amounts of hydrolases into the environment, including beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha-mannosidase, beta-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase (Lockwood et al., 1988).


In vitro culture


T. foetus is readily cultivated axenically in partially defined media, including cysteine-peptone-liver infusion-maltose (CPLM) medium, Clausen’s medium, Diamond’s TYM medium, and modified Plastridge medium (Diamond, 1983). Additionally, a commercial culture kit is available which contains growth/transport medium in a transparent pouch (InPouch TF, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, Oregon, USA). In addition, long-term maintenance of T. foetus and some non-pathogenic trichomonads can be achieved in Schneider’s egg shell medium (Schneider, 1942).

Non-T. foetus trichomonads of faecal origin may occasionally appear in samples of preputial secretions (smegma) submitted for diagnostic culture. These include various tetratrichomonad species (4 anterior flagellae) and Pentatrichomonashominis (5 anterior flagellae). While differentiation of these genera may be relatively straightforward with sophisticated microscopy, it can be challenging for clinicians who examine live specimens at the bright-field microscope level, often without benefit of phase contrast optics.

Disease(s) associated with this pathogen is/are on the list of diseases notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The distribution section contains data from OIE's Handistatus database on disease occurrence. Please see the AHPC library for further information from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. Also see the website: www.oie.int.

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host
Camelus dromedarius (dromedary camel)Domesticated host
Homo sapiensWild host

References

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Beach DH; Holz GGJr; Singh BN; Lindmark DG, 1991. Phospholipid metabolism of cultured Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 44(1):97-108; 19 ref.

Cerkasovova A; Cerkasov J; Kulda J; Reischig J, 1976. Circular DNA and cardiolipin in hydrogenosomes, microbody-like organelles of trichomonads. Folia Parasitol (Praha), 23(1):33-37.

Cobo ER; Cano D; Campero CM, 2001. Experimental infection with Tritrichomonas suis in heifers. Veterinary Parasitology, 99(1):73-78; 16 ref.

Corbeil LB; Campero CM; Rhyan JC; BonDurant RH, 2003. Vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases. Reprod Biol Endocrinol, 1(1):118.

Dinbergs ID; Lindmark DG, 1989. Hydrogenosomal ATP:AMP phosphotransferase (adenylate kinase) of Tritrichomonas fetus. Biochemistry and molecular biology of 'anaerobic' protozoa., 172-185; [Proceedings of the Symposium on 'Anaerobic Protozoa' held at Cardiff, UK, July 23-24, 1988.]; 17 ref.

Fitzgerald PR; Johnson AE; Thorne JL; Hammond DM, 1958. Experimental infections of the bovine genital system with trichomonads from the digestive tracts of swine. Am J Vet Res, 19(73):775-779.

Florent A, 1957. Immunologic dans la trichomonase bovine. Les infestation a Trichomonas; Paris: Masson. Int. Symp. Europ, Reims, May, 1957; p. 313.

Granger BL; Warwood SJ, 1996. Rapid internalization and degradation of surface-bound antibodies by Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 82(4):539-549; 48 ref.

Honigberg BM, 1978. Trichomonads of veterinary importance. In: Kreier J, ed. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, Inc., 207-273.

Jarroll EL; Lindmark DG; Paolella P, 1983. Pyrimidine metabolism in Tritrichomonas foetus.. Journal of Parasitology, 69(5):846-849; 21 ref.

Kania SA; Reed SL; Thomford JW; BonDurant RH; Hirata K; Corbeil RR; North MJ; Corbeil LB, 2001. Degradation of bovine complement C3 by trichomonad extracellular proteinase. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 78(1):83-96; 53 ref.

Kerr WR, 1958. Experiments in cattle with Trichomonas suis. Vet Rec 70:613-5.

Lindmark DG; Eckenrode BL; Halberg LA; Dinbergs ID, 1989. Carbohydrate, energy and hydrogenosomal metabolism of Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas vaginalis.. Journal of Protozoology, 36(2):214-216; 27 ref.

Lindmark DG; Meuller M, 1973. Hydrogenosome, a cytoplasmic organelle of the anaerobic flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus, and its role in pyruvate metabolism. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248(22):7724-8.

Lloyd D; Lindmark DG; Meuller M, 1979. Adenosine triphosphatase activity of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of General Microbiology, 115(2):301-307.

Lockwood BC; North MJ; Coombs GH, 1988. The release of hydrolases from Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 30(2):135-142; 27 ref.

Mallinson DJ; Livingstone J; Appleton KM; Lees SJ; Coombs GH; North MJ, 1995. Multiple cysteine proteinases of the pathogenic protozoon Tritrichomonas foetus: identification of 7 diverse and differentially expressed genes. Microbiology (Reading), 141(12):3077-3085; 39 ref.

Mariante RM; Lopes LC; Benchimol M, 2004. Tritrichomonas foetus pseudocysts adhere to vaginal epithelial cells in a contact-dependent manner. Parasitol Res, 92(4):303-312.

Müller M, 1980. The hydrogenosome. In: The Eukaryotic Microbial Cell. Cambridge: Cambridge View Press, 127-143.

Müller M, 1988. Energy metabolism of protozoa without mitochondria. Annual Review of Microbiology, 42:465-488; 149 ref.

North MJ, 1994. Cysteine endopeptidases of parasitic protozoa. Methods in Enzymology, 244:523-39.

OIE Handistatus, 2002. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2001). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2003. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (dataset for 2002). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2004. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2003). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

OIE Handistatus, 2005. World Animal Health Publication and Handistatus II (data set for 2004). Paris, France: Office International des Epizooties.

Rhyan JC; Blanchard PC; Kvasnicka WG; Hall MR; Hanks D, 1995. Tissue-invasive Tritrichomonas foetus in four aborted bovine fetuses. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 7(3):409-412; 15 ref.

Rhyan JC; Stackhouse LL; Quinn WJ, 1988. Fetal and placental lesions in bovine abortion due to Tritrichomonas foetus.. Veterinary Pathology, 25(5):350-355; 15 ref.

Rocha-Azevedo B; Melo-Braga MB; FC ES-F, 2005. Intra-strain clonal phenotypic variation of Tritrichomonas foetus is related to the cytotoxicity exerted by the parasite to cultured cells. Parasitol Res, 95(2):106-12.

Schneider MD, 1942. A new thermostable medium for the prolonged bacteria-free cultivation of Trichomonad foetus. J Parasitol, (28):428-9.

Shaia CS; Voyich J; Gillis SJ; Singh BN; Burgess DE, 1998. Purification and expression of the Tf190 adhesion in strains of Tritrichomonas foetus. Infect Immun, 66:1100-1105.

Singh A; Singh J; Grewal AS; Brar RS, 2001. Studies on some blood parameters of crossbred calves with experimental Theileria annulata infections. Veterinary Research Communications, 25(4):289-300; 44 ref.

Singh BN; BonDurant RH; Campero CM; Corbeil LB, 2001. Immunological and biochemical analysis of glycosylated surface antigens and lipophosphoglycan of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 87(4):770-777; 41 ref.

Talbot JA; Nielsen K; Corbeil LB, 1991. Cleavage of proteins of reproductive secretions by extracellular proteinases of Tritrichomonas foetus. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 37(5):384-390; 46 ref.

Thomford JW; Talbot JA; Ikeda JS; Corbeil LB, 1996. Characterization of extracellular proteinases of Tritrichomonas foetus. Journal of Parasitology, 82(1):112-117; 32 ref.

Turner G; Müller M, 1983. Failure to detect extranuclear DNA in Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. J Parasitol, 69(1):234-6.

Wosu LO, 1977. Trichomonas infection in a bull--an apparent change in serotype of the infecting organism. Australian Veterinary Journal, 53(7):340-1.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Tritrichomonas foetus - microscopy and diagnosis videoshttp://faculty.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/faculty/rhbondurant/T_Foetus_Videos.htmThree videos showing Tritichomonas foetus, similar non-T. foetus organisms and the testing and diagnosis of bulls for bovine trichomonosis. All videos are copyright of University of California, Davis, California, USA, and were kindly made available to users of the Animal Health and Production Compendium by Prof. Robert BonDurant.

Distribution Maps

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